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THE 



AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OP THE 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, 



EDITED BY 



JOHN M. MAISCH 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE FOR 1872. 
WILLIAM PROCTER, Jr., CHARLES BULLOCK, 

THOMAS S. WISGAND, JAMES T. SHINN, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VOLUME XLIV. 
FOURTH SERIES, VOL. II 



PHILADELPHIA: 
MERRIHEW & SON, PRINTERS, 
No. 135 North Third Street. 
1872. 



THE 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JANUARY, 187 2. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF SOME PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESSES 
AND APPARATUS, 

As Exhibited to the Class in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 
By Prof. E. Parrish. 

The illustration of a course of lectures in Pharmacy gives an op- 
portunity for noting carefully details and results which in common 
practice are overlooked or, if observed, are not made public. 

The processes detailed in this essay were conducted at the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, in presence of the large class of stu- 
dents, with such facilities only as a lecture-room, with its counter, 
sink, hydrant, and gas-supply afford. 

The energies of the lecturer being mainly directed to explanation 
and oral instruction, an assistant is employed in the management of 
the several processes simultaneously going on during the lecture; to 
his skilful assistant, Jos. P. Remington, the writer acknowledges 
himself indebted for useful suggestions, especially in the construction 
of the steam evaporating apparatus herein described. 

Immediately after a statement of the scientific facts and principles 
pertaining to the generation and application of heat in pharmacy, 
the process of evaporation and the apparatus suitable for the prepa- 
ration of extracts are brought into view, models and drawings are 
used for some, while evaporating dishes, sand-baths, steam-baths and 
water-baths are shown in actual use. 

The annexed drawing shows a steam-boiler, evaporating pan and 
still-head constructed for the purposes of this course of instruction. A 
is a boiler of J inch thick (No. 10 wire gauge), copper, 1 foot 9 inches 
long by 7 inches in diameter. It is held in position by a stout iron 




frame, at an elevation of 12 inches, so as to allow of a stand of 8 
Bunsen burners to be so placed as to spread a clean flame over the 
entire length of the bottom. Each of these burners has a tube f 
inch diameter and 5J inches long. The water supply pipe, which is 
seen on the extreme left, is \ inch in diameter, and has a valve at H 
which closes when not in use. The two small water-cocks are designed 
to ascertain the elevation of water in the boiler. A f inch steam 
pipe connects the boiler with the steam jacket. 

The evaporating pan B, set in an iron frame 20 inches high, consists 
of a concave dish of tinned copper, 1 foot in diameter, 6 inches deep, 
with a steam jacket and a brass flange 1J inch wide riveted on to it. 

The dome, C, is of copper, and has a similar flange, by which it is 
designed to be clamped on to the evaporating pan when the apparatus 
is used for distillation. This junction is made steam tight by a coil of 
lamp wick interposed between the flanges. The drip pipe from the 
steam jacket empties into the adjacent sink ; it is, for convenience, 
readily separable. The steam pipe being connected by a coupling 
the different parts of the apparatus may with facility be separated 
from each other. The gas burners are connected by elastic tubing 
with a T pipe in the counter. 

The first preparation made in this apparatus was Extraction Genti- 
ance, U. S. P. The percolation was previously started in a cylinder of 
tinned iron, with a stop-cock attached. 96 troyounces (6 lbs. 9 oz. av.) 
of ground gentian, somewhat coarser than that which would pass 
through a No. 40 sieve, was macerated in sufficient cold water thor- 
oughly to saturate it, then packed in the percolator and water added 
till about a gallon of dense percolate had passed. This was intro- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan. 1, 1872. $ 



Pharmaceutical Processes, etc. 



3 



duced near the beginning of the lecture into the evaporating pan, and 
steam turned on. In a few minutes the liquid was in active ebullition ; 
after boiling a short time it was removed and strained, but without 
yielding a precipitate of insoluble matter ; the strained liquid returned 
was rapidly inspissated till the close of the lecture. The percolation 
continued yielded about two gallons additional of percolate, which 
with the first portion was evaporated in the interim to a soft pilular 
consistence, and the finished extract exhibited at the following lecture. 
The product weighed 2 lbs. 11 oz. av., == 41 per cent., which might 
have been somewhat increased if the percolation had been longer 
continued, though without profit. The gentian, at 16 cents per lb., 
which included the cost of powdering, cost $1.08 ; the fuel may be 
estimated as costing 36 cents. The extract, therefore, cost in the 
aggregate $1.44, = 52 cents per lb. It was of superior quality, of 
rich brown color, and with a decided odor of the root. 

Extraction Jalap U. S. P. 

Two pounds, avoirdupois, of finely powdered jalap was moistened 
with six fluidounces of alcohol, sp. gr. -835, and packed in a strong 
ten-inch glass funnel, which was suspended over a suitable receiving 
vessel. Alcohol was added till about four pints of tincture had 
passed ; then water was gradually poured on, and its progress watched 
till it had nearly reached the perforated cork diaphragm fitted above 
the neck of the funnel. Another receiver was now substituted, and, 
the supply of water being kept up, 6 pints of aqueous percolate was 
received. The success of the last part of this process was more com- 
plete than was anticipated with so fine a powder of jalap, a perforated 
cork diaphragm of about 2 inches diameter being used, and the shape 
of the funnel favoring the swelling of the powder on the addition of 
water, without unduly compacting it, so that when the aqueous men- 
struum had begun to pass, the dropping continued moderately fast 
throughout. The quantity of menstruum, though less than that indi- * 
cated in the Pharmacopoeia, was limited to such amount as could be 
conveniently evaporated during the time 1 at our disposal, and, as the 
result proved, gave a fair yield of extract. 

At the second lecture on extracts the alcoholic percolate from the 
jalap was introduced into the evaporating pan, and the dome clamped 
on to it, as shown in the drawing ; and to this a large glass Liebig's 
condenser was attached, and connected with the hydrant and sink by 



4 Pharmaceuiical Processes, etc. {^iaSjwJ"' 

elastic hose. Steam being generated, which occupied about ten min- 
utes, the alcohol was rapidly recovered, and at the close of the lec- 
ture, the dome being removed from the pan, a dry mass of resinous 
extract was obtained, which weighed 6| oz. (av.) and 40 grs., nearly 
21-4 per cent, of the jalap used. The alcohol had scarcely lost in 
quantity, but was not free from the odor of the drug. The aqueous 
percolate was evaporated to a syrupy consistence, after the lecture,, 
removed from the pan, and divided into two equal parts. The resin- 
ous mass was dissolved in a pint of the recovered alcohol, and also- 
divided into two equal parts. A half part of the resinous and 
aqueous liquids were now mixed, as directed in the process of the- 
Pharmacopceia for the whole, and the mixture being evaporated gave 
oz. of an excellent dry hydro-alcoholic extract. 
Two pounds of jalap having been used, this quantity, being one-half 
the whole yield, represents the yield per pound = 39 per cent. The 
powdered jalap cost 65 cents per pound, the alcohol (half the quantity 
used) 55 cents, the heat, estimated, 20 cents, giving an aggregate cost of 
the 6J ounces, $1.40. Deducting alcohol recovered and useful for a 
similar process, 50 cents, we have a cost of 90 cents, or $2.14 the cost 
of a pound, less than half the market price of the best extractum 
jalapae. 

The object in setting aside half of the alcoholic solution of resinous 
extract was to ascertain the proportion it would yield of the officinal 
resina jalapae. Accordingly, at the next lecture it was diluted to half 
a pint and added to 4 pints of water. The precipitate, washed by 
several portions of water, collected and dried, yielded 2 ounces of the 
officinal resina jalapse, or 12J per cent, of the jalap used. The cost 
of this was about 70 cents per ounce. 

The question of economy in evaporation is of practical interest in 
connection with the preparation of these extracts by the use of a 
steam boiler, and is an element of inaccuracy in these estimates. The 
process being suspended and resumed involves a loss of fuel, and there 
is no doubt but that much waste occurs from there being too many burn- 
ers under the boiler. Six burners instead of eight would serve the 
purpose, though the rapidity of getting up steam would be lessened. 

Extractum Nucis Vomicae, U. S. P. 

Twelve troyounces of finely powdered nux vomica, moistened with 
four fluidounces of alcohol, were introduced into a cylindrical glass 



A j a iT;^72 RM '} Pharmaceutical Processes, etc. 5 

percolator, adapted to a receiving bottle, and percolated with alcohol 
till nearly 4 pints of tincture were obtained, care being taken to dis- 
place the last part of the alcohol by water. To obviate the inconve- 
nience of holding a percolator with one hand while filling and pack- 
ing it with the other, George M. Dougherty, a member of the present 
class, has devised the instrument here figured, which is an improve- 
ment upon one invented by T. C. Conard, of last year's graduating 
♦class. 




" The Manipulator" consists of two funnels of zinc, one fitting over 
the other at the smaller end, and a ring, with three springs attached, 
fitting securely over the outer one. A conical percolator is held in 
place while being packed, by the shape of the funnel ; but when a 
cylindrical percolator is used, the springs are slipped on, and hold 
the percolator in a vertical position while it is being packed, and 
afterwards if desired. 

The larger funnel has an opening by which a receiving vessel can 
be introduced under the percolator, held in position above ; or an 
axgand burner, may be placed in it, and an evaporating dish, con- 
taining a liquid to be evaporated, on the upper funnel. 

The recovery of the alcohol from the tincture of nux vomica was 
accomplished by the use of the pharmaceutical still, with water-bath 
attachment, here figured. 

This differs from Procter's, figured in 
Parrish's Pharmacy, 3d edition, p. 297, 
in having a water-bath, C, into which 
the condenser, B, fits by a water-joint. 
There should also be a water-joint on the 
outer vessel, A. The tincture being in- 




Combination Still. 



6 Simple Remedy for Dandruff. {^irtfitT 

troduced into the water-bath C, this was then placed in A, which 
was half filled with water, and surmounted by B. Being at the oppo- 
site end of the counter from the hydrant and sink, water was supplied 
to the refrigerating surface from a vessel of tinned iron with a small 
tubule near the bottom, so elevated as to discharge onto the top of 
the still, and a larger one was placed on the counter to receive the 
warmed water flowing from it. A gas stove supplied the heat to the 
water-bath, and before the expiration of the hour all but about three 
ounces of the alcohol had been recovered. The semifluid extract was 
poured into a tared capsule and further evaporated over a draft of 
warm air to a solid consistence. The yield was 10 drachms = 
10-4 per ct. The cost, deducting the cost of alcohol recovered, was 
about 28 cents per ounce. 



ON A SIMPLE REMEDY FOR DANDRUFF. 
By John L. Davis. 

There are doubtless few persons, especially among gentlemen, who 
do not suffer from the inconvenience of dandruff. Physicians seem 
to consider it not of sufficient importance to engage their attention, 
and the poor victims are left either to practice their virtue of en- 
durance, or, for a cure, to try some of the many nostrums advertised 
in the public prints. 

The intolerable itching which frequently accompanies the trouble- 
some complaint, is not the only unpleasant feature, as, to persons of 
any pretension's to neatness, the appearance of the white scales on 
the coat collar and shoulders is very objectionable. 

The writer, during a number of years, tried the different alcoholic 
solutions of castor oil, and many other preparations without perma- 
nent benefit, and as a last resort, was led to adopt the plan of cleans- 
ing the scalp with borax and carb. potassa. This proved effectual, 
but after a persistent treatment of some months the hair became sen- 
sibly thinner, and perhaps would have soon disappeared all together. 
The belief that dandruff arises from a disease of the skin, although 
physicians do not seem to agree on this point, and the knowledge 
that the use of sulphur is frequently attended with very happy re- 
sults in such diseases, induced me to try it in my own case. A prep- 
aration of one ounce flowers of sulphur and one quart of water was 
made. The clear liqufd was poured off, after the mixture had been 



^.Mnr} Loss of Plants in Drying, etc. 7 

repeatedly agitated during intervals of a few hours, and the head was 
saturated with this every morning. In a few weeks every trace of 
dandruff had disappeared, the hair became soft and glossy, and now, 
after a discontinuance of the treatment for eighteen months, there is 
no indication of the return of the disease. I do not pretend to ex- 
plain the modus operandi of the treatment, for it is well known that 
sublimed sulphur is almost or wholly insoluble, and the liquid used was 
destitute of taste, color or smell. The effect speaks for itself. Other 
persons to whom it has been recommended, have had the same results, 
and I communicate the result of my experiments in the belief that 
it may be valuable and acceptable to many who have suffered in the 
same manner as myself. 



ON THE LOSS OF THE HERBACEOUS PARTS OF PLANTS IN 

DRYING. 

By John M. Maisch. 

Few pharmacists have a correct idea about the amount of moisture 
contained in the drugs which they are daily handling, and many 
would smile incredulously if informed that some of these drugs, which 
are regarded as "dry," still lose from one-seventh to one-sixth of their 
weight if dried in a water bath, and that even many of the powders 
as met with in the shops contain from six to ten per cent, and some- 
times more moisture. Carefully performed experiments with a large 
number of drugs and dry preparations are very much needed ; for it 
is obvious that galenical preparations, and particularly tinctures, 
syrups, fluid extracts and the like, must vary in strength as pre- 
pared from anhydrous or merely air-dry material, though both may 
be of equal quality when anhydrous. 

The loss in weight of living plants or parts of plants, when brought 
to an air-dry condition, is likewise a subject about which little is 
known, since pharmacists usually depend on wholesale dealers for 
their supply of indigenous drugs, though the plants may grow abun- 
dantly within convenient reach. The superior quality, however, of 
drugs collected and cured by the pharmacist, as compared with their 
usual condition in the general market, is often so striking, that few 
who value good and reliable drugs, would be willing to discontinue 
such collection and curing, after they have once commenced it. 

In collecting the annual supply, it is necessary to take into consid- 



8 



Percolation. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Jan. 1, 1872. 



eration the loss of these medicinal herbs, sustained by drying. The 
following table is compiled from observations by me, with plants or 
their parts of my own collection, and I regret that other notes of 
the more important medicinal herbs, growing in this locality, are 
now not at hand. Sufficient care was invariably taken to collect and 
weigh the plants free from external moisture by dew or rain ; the 
drying was effected under an airy shed or in a room, protected from 
rain ; and the final weight was taken when the plants ceased to lose 
weight in an ordinarily dry atmosphere : 

Loss, yield, air-dry. 





per cent. 


per cent 


Chimaphila umbellata, leaves and stem, 


. 48-98 


51 02 


Mentha canadensis, the flowering herb, 


. 89-21 


10-79 


Scutellaria lateriflora, " " 


. 77-68 


22-32 


Lobelia inflata, " " 


. 76-56 


23-44 


Brunella vulgaris, " " 


. 76-39 


23-61 


Nepeta cataria, " u 


. 76-39 


23-61 


Eupatorium perfoliatum, the flowering tops, 


. 76-52 


23-48 


G-naphalium polycephalum, " u 


. 63-34 


36-66 


Hypericum perforatum, " " 


. 61-03 


38-97 


Datura stramonium, the leaves, 


88-70 


11-30 


Hepatica triloba, " " . 


. 71-65 


28-35 


Cassia marilandica " " . . 


. 70-92 


29-08 


Leontodon taraxacum, the root collected in Oct., 


. 72-40 


27-60 



The above data are too few in number to allow of any general 
deductions ; it seems, however, as if low plants from wet localities 
(mentha canad.) and juicy leaves (stramonium) may yield air dry 
residues, equal to about one-ninth, plants from dry sandy soil 
(gnaphalium and hypericum) about one-third, other plants about one- 
fourth or one-fifth of their original weight ; the large yield of chima- 
phila is doubtless in the main due to the woody stems, and in part 
also to the leathery leaves. 



NOTE ON PERCOLATION. 
By Louis S. Cohen. 
The most efficient instrument for all preparations which require to 
be made by percolation, is, in my opinion, the ordinary glass-funnel 
of an angle of about 59°, as the following results of an experiment 
will clearly show : 



AM j£™;S?2 RM *} Litmus Paper as a Reagent. 9 

Having mounted a Bohemian glass-funnel and a cylindrical glass- 
percolator, each with a sufficient amount of material to obtain four 
pints of tinct. gentianse co., my results were as follows : 

From the glass From cylindrical glass 
funnel. percolator. 

The first pint of diluted alcohol coming 

through, increased in weight ^i, ^iij, gr. iv. gi, Bi. 

The second pint, lj, Bj. 3vi. gr. xxiij. 

The third pint, 3v, gr. xiij. ^iij. 

The fourth pint, 3U, 9j- 3h g r - iv - 

In various other experiments I have always been able to obtain far 
better results, and to exhaust the material more thoroughly by em- 
ploying the glass-funnel. 



LITMUS PAPER AS A REAGENT. 
By Charles Bullock. 

In using litmus paper as a reagent to detect the presence of acids 
and alkalies, the suggestion sometimes occurs " what amount of acids 
or alkalies is necessary to give a distinct change of color to the test 
paper ?" 

The result of a few experiments to determine approximately the 
above question, may be of interest to the readers of the Journal. 

Blue litmus paper should be distinctly blue, but not a deep shade 
in color. The directions given by Fresenius in his Qualitative Analy- 
sis will afford a sensitive paper ; when carefully made it affords the 
reactions with one drop of acetic acid No. 8 (30 per cent, acid) in the 
following amounts of water : 

In four ounces of water it turns red immediately ; in six ounces, 
completely red in one-half minute ; in ten ounces, changes on the 
edges in one-fourth minute and is completely reddened in one min- 
ute : in 13 ounces it is completely red in a minute and a half, and re- 
mains red when dry. In 16 ounces of water the limit of distinct re- 
action is found. 

Reddened litmus paper. Reddened litmus solution should have a pur- 
ple red color, and the paper, when dry, a distinct red color free from 
blue. 

With one grain anhydrous carbonate of soda in 32 ounces of water, 
the paper turns blue in one minute ; in 56 ounces of water, in three 



10 formulas in Local Use. {^jfH;^ 

minutes ; in 64 ounces of water, in four minutes ; in 80 ounces of 
water, in seven minutes ; in 160 ounces of water is found the limit of 
distinct reaction — the blue shade can be seen before the color is dis- 
solved from the paper. 

In making the above experiments the paper was submerged in the 
liquid. 

Philadelphia, December, 1871. 



FORMULAS IN LOCAL USE. 
By Louis S. Cohen. 

Believing it to be the duty of every conscientious pharmacist to 
contribute, through the Pharmaceutical Journals, to the profession 
whatever improvements he may be able to make, be they ever so 
trifling, I cannot approve of the practice of some in our ranks who 
make certain preparations, bestowing on them, with quite an air of 
authority, officinal titles, and still regard them as proprietary special- 
ties in claiming superiority for their formulas, without giving the 
profession the benefit thereof. Some pharmacists have endeavored 
to publish all their observations that may be useful to others ; yet 
they are " few and far between." By following such examples, our 
science and art would more readily be raised to a far higher stand- 
ard than it now occupies, and would be far more respected by the 
public at large. 

In the following I offer a few contributions of local formulas, 
trusting they may be welcome to some readers of the American 
Journal of Pharmacy. 

Mixtura Rhei et Sodce. 
fy. Pulv. Rhei, 

Sodae Bicarbonat. aa 3ij, 
Aquae Menth. pip. giv. Mix. 
This, though often prescribed in this city, can only be prepared by 
the " initiated," because the formula has been kept secret. 

Potio Riveri. 
Ify. Potass. Carb. depur. 3j, 

Acid. Citrici grs. lij, 

Aquse §ij. Mix. 

This preparation corresponds rather closely to our " neutral mix- 
ture," and it is often prescribed under the above title by German 



AM jan. u i,'mi EM '} Gleanings from the European Journals \ 11 

physicians ; but few American pharmacists have been able to prepare 
it, not knowing the nature of the preparation. If the fraternity 
would follow this feeble effort in disseminating such knowledge, I 
am sure it would be productive of very good results, for " In union 
there is strength." 

New York, December, 1871. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Corrosive sublimate and chloride of sodium. Julius Miiller ob- 
served that all preparations of mercury, the insoluble sulphide alone 
excepted, are dissolved by a solution of chloride of sodium in a form 
in which they do not precipitate albumen. A concentrated aqueous 
solution of one part corrosive sublimate and ten parts chloride of 
sodium, which does not precipitate albumen, acquires this property 
again on being largely diluted with water. Instead of the double 
chloride of sodium and mercury, which has of late been recommended, 
Miiller recommends to dissolve one part corrosive sublimate and one 
hundred parts chloride of sodium in distilled water, and evaporate 
the solution to dryness. This saline mixture contains one per cent* 
corrosive sublimate, produces with caustic potassa a white, not a 
yellow, precipitate, is not effected by solution of albumen, and has 
been given with good results in tablespoonful doses every two hours, 
in a solution made of 6 grm. (90 grains) in 180 grm. (6 oz.) of water. 
— Archiv d. Pharm., 1871, Sept., 218—221. 

Purification of carbonic acid gas. Dr. Emil Pfeiffer recommends 
to pass the gas generated from limestone, through olive oil, in which 
a number of pieces of pumice stone has been introduced. The same 
agent has been found of good service in the Paris gas factory, where 
Mallet introduced it in the direct preparation of strong solution of 
ammonia, for the removal of carbohydrogens and empyreumatic oils. 
The volatile odorous principles may be removed by heat, and the oil 
used for a long time. — Ibid., 223. 

Ammonia salts prevent the complete precipitation of phosphoric acid 
by molybdate of ammonia. Dr. J. Konig found that the phosphates 
of iron, alumina and lime, are soluble in solutions of oxalate and 
citrate of ammonia, in consequence of the formation of soluble double 
salts. Large quantities of ammonia salts interfere with the complete 



12 Gleanings from the European Journals. { AM J fn U T,i P 872 BM " 

precipitation of phosphoric by molybdic acid ; oxalate and citrate of 
ammonia exert this injurious influence in such a degree that they 
will prevent the precipitation altogether, if present in sufficient quan- 
tity.— Zeitschr. f. anal. Chem., 1871, 3, 305—307. 

Colored sulphate of atropia has been observed by Dr. H. Hager, 
who attributes the coloration to the presence of a glucoside. The 
solution boiled with nitrate of silver became colored and separated 
black metallic silver ; boiled with an alkaline solution of copper, 
cuprous oxide was deposited. The author regards all sulphate of 
atropia as impure and unfit for medicinal use, which acts upon the 
two solutions mentioned. — Pharm. Cent. Halle, 1871, Oct., 26. 

Lead in phosphate of lime. — Mr. Duquesnel has often found com- 
mercial phosphate of lime to contain small quantities, about one-half 
per cent., of the insoluble oxychloride of lead. Its presence is ex- 
plained by the use, in chemical factories, of lead vessels for dissolv- 
ing the calcined bones in muriatic acid. The lead is readily detected 
by the black precipitate occurring with sulphuretted hydrogen in a 
solution of the phosphate in muriatic acid. — Journ. de Ph. et de Chim. 
Sept. 1871. 

A new method for preparing Bland's pills. — Mr. J. F. Michiels 
recommends the following process for obtaining a pill mass of good 
consistence and keeping well ; it has the advantage of not requiring 
any inert powder, although it is slightly hygrometric. 500 grm. pow- 
dered sulphate of iron and the same quantity of powdered carbonate 
of potassa are intimately mixed ; 60 grm. of powdered white sugar 
are added ; the mixture is heated in an iron mortar, with constant tri- 
turation, until a sufficient amount of water of crystallization has been 
expelled, and a convenient pill mass obtained.* — Bullet, de la Soc. 
roy. de Fh. Brux., Sept., 1871. 

Pills of creasote. The following formulas are published in Journ. 
de Pharm. etde Chim., 1871, Oct., p. 276 : 

Creasote gtt. j. Creasote gtt. iij, 

Powd. soap 0*25 (gr. iv). Bread crumb 0*60 (gr. ix). 

Bread crumb 0*20 (gr. iij). Lycopodium 0*06 (gr. j), 
Lycopodium 0-05 (gr. f). Mucil. tragacanth q. s. 

Each formula is for six pills, which contain respectively one-sixth 
and one-half a drop of creasote. 

Pills of carbolic acid. Carbolic acid gtt. iij, powd. soap 0*60 

* See also pages 307 and 373 of the last volume. 



A j'anXi872 RM '} Opium Production in Europe. 13 

(gr. ix), lycopodium 0*06 (gr. j), powd. tragacanth q. s., to make six 
pills. The two first ingredients form a semifluid mass, which the 
lycopodium does not absorb, but which thickens with the tragacanth.. 
— Ibid. 

Emulsion of tar by saponin. Lucien Lebeuf recommends this 
preparation as superior to the water and other liquid preparations of 
tar ; 100 parts of it contain two parts of tar and one-fifth of saponin,, 
the latter too insignificant in quantity to be of any medicinal im- 
portance, but sufficient to suspend in water all the constituents of the 
tar, without exerting any chemical action upon them. The emulsion 
is very staple, presents the tar in the most favorable condition for ab- 
sorption, and is miscible with water in all proportions. The author 
believes this emulsion to be by far the best form for the external ap- 
plication of tar, which may thus be employed in lotions, injections, 
gargles, &c, for which the preparations hitherto employed were not 
adapted.— Ibid., p. 279—281. 

Sulphate of eserina (physostigmia) is prepared by A. Petit, by dis- 
solving one part of the hydro-alcoholic extract of the calabar bean in 
four parts of water, filtering from the slight residue which contains na 
alkaloid, and adding one-twentieth part bicarbonate of potassa ; the 
liberated alkaloid is then removed by agitation with ether, from which 
solution it is converted into sulphate by agitation with dilute sul- 
phuric acid, which passes into aqueous solution and may be obtained 
by evaporation. The ether is used three or four times for removing 
the alkaloid. If the sulphuric acid is diluted 40 grms. to one litre, 
each drop = 0*05 grm. dilute acid, will correspond to and neutralize 
0*01 grm. eserina ; if the alkaloid is just neutralized, the amount of 
acid required will indicate the amount of alkaloid present, and by 
evaporation to a given weight, solutions of the sulphate of any de- 
sired strength may be obtained, without the necessity of previously 
preparing the dry salt. — Ibid., p. 277. 



OPIUM PRODUCTION IN EUROPE. 
By Dr. O. O. Harz. 
Some fifty years ago experiments to produce opium in Europe were 
made which were so successful as to strongly recommend to the farmer 
the cultivation of poppy. 

In Germany and Austria the idea did not find much favor, and was 



14 



Opium Production in Europe. 



'Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan. 1, 1872. 



soon forgotten, while in France it was taken up and carried out on a 
large scale. The cultivation of poppy increased year after year, and 
it now occupies about 50,000 acres, of the value of four and a half 
million francs, yielding two million francs of opium a year. More 
recently Mr. Karsten has revived the interest in the question in Ger- 
many, and in several parts of the country trials have been made with 
most favorable results. 

Experiments made at the acclimatization fields, near Berlin, proved 
that the giant, the blue and the white poppy were best suited for the 
production of seed on that soil ; these three varieties were therefore 
planted on a well-manured sandy soil, and the opium obtained there- 
from showed all the external qualities of a good Smyrna sample, 
analyzed. 





Soluble in Water. 


Organic Basis. 


Of which Mor- 
phium. 


Giant Poppy. 
Blue " 
White " 


66-3 per cent. 

70-r " 

69-6 " 


13-6 per cent. 
10-7 " 
8-0 " 


9 3 per cent. 
8-0 " 



The last sample was in too small a quantity to give exact results. 

In 1866, several experiments made near Berlin, viz., at Pankow, 
Charlottenburg and Hermsdorff, yielded opium containing 10 per 
cent, of morphium. 

Karsten sowed the seed in two lines about 6 inches apart, and sep- 
arated by about 2 feet distance from the next two lines, so as to al- 
low free passage in gathering in the opium ; the young plants were 
kept asunder about 3 to 4 inches. 

About eight days after florescence the poppies were cut, and the 
milk juice, a few minutes afterwards, collected with the finger in a 
vessel, and at once evaporated at a gentle heat ; the result was of su- 
perior quality, containing 66 per cent, soluble in water, and 10 per 
cent, of morphia. An instrument called the scarificator, for making 
the incisions, was not approved of, but the most suitable instrument 
was an ordinary garden-knife or penknife, provided with a guard to 
prevent its making the incisions so deep as to cut through the capsules. 
This is of great importance, because the cutting through of the poppy- 
heads is invariably followed by a shrivelling up of the young fruit, 
so that not only the juice but also the seed is lost. 

Mr. Schulze, a schoolmaster at Pankow, commenced in 1867, and 



AM jan U i,'i P 872 RM '} Opium Production in Europe. 15 

he also found it best to collect the fresh juice, instead of allowing it 
spontaneously to dry on the fruits, giving a much purer quality. Dr. 
Harz received samples of the opium produced, and found it to con- 
tain 10-9 per cent, of morphia; after having been kept for some time 
in a paper box, it showed the following properties : — It was tough and 
tolerably hard, greyish-brown, somewhat like German lactucarium, 
forming a mass of tears of the size of a pea, of waxy surface when 
cut, with difficulty reduced to a light grey powder. The smell was 
intense, stronger than that of Smyrna opium, and also resembling lac* 
tucarium ; the taste exactly like that of the best Smyrna. 

The tincture made according to the Prussian Pharmacopoeia was 
slightly brown, somewhat like Madeira wine, scarcely one-third so in- 
tense in color as the tincture made from Turkish opium, according to 
English prescription. Analysis of the sample dried at 100° C. gave, 
soluble in cold water, 49 per cent. ; the insoluble consisted chiefly of 
narcotine, of a resinous mass 7 per cent., and caoutchouc and fat 
soluble in chloroform 14 per cent. 

The aqueous extract, containing 49 per cent, of the opium, and 
containing besides morphia scarcely 1 per cent, of other bases, was 
brought nearly to dryness in a water-bath, and extracted with alcohol. 
There remained 9-4 per cent, of gummy substances and organic salts ; 
the filtrate mixed with water gave, on gradual addition of ammonia, 
after ten days, 10*9 per cent, crystals of morphia. 

The opium was therefore of very good quality, and the separation 
of morphia was facilitated by the lighter color of the juice. 

In 1868, opium cultivation was commenced at several places in 
Wiirttemberg. Mr. Julius Jobst, of Stuttgart, made experiments 
■which are very valuable, because as the first on a really large scale 
they established the profitable character of the speculation. Several 
acres of land were sown with poppy-seed : a fortnight after the fall 
of the petals the young heads were cut, and the juice collected ; this 
was repeated a second time, but a third incision did not yield enough 
to pay for the labor. The best time for the incision is the early 
morning, shortly after sunrise ; on hot days, and especially in the 
middle of the day, only very little juice was produced. The exuded 
juice, after slight desiccation, was collected in a tin box, the pasty 
mass was dried in the shade, and wrapped up in poppy-leaves in the 
shape of small loaves ; the manufactured opium formed dark brown 
cakes, and contained 13 per cent, of morphia. 



16 



Opium, Production in Europe. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan. 1, 1872. 



Mr. Vulpius, pharmacist at Bocksberg, near Heidelberg, produced 
some opium in 1870, samples of which are now in Dr. Harz's posses- 
sion for analysis. Dr. P. Sorauer made, at the same time, successful 
experiments at the Agricultural Experimental Establishment at 
Dahme, near Berlin ; he made the important observation, that the 
incised capsules yielded more seed than the sound ones, which would 
increase the profit in a new direction. 

The manufacture of olive oil is, in Austria, in a very primitive 
state, and large sums of money go out of the country to be invested 
in good salad oil, which, if kept at home and laid out in opium culti- 
vation, would assist in manufacturing a pure poppy oil, exceeding in 
agreeable taste the olive oil. The incisions must be made in fourteen 
to eighteen days after the petals have dropped, and, according to 
Jobst's experience, in early morning. Gastinel, of Cairo, in the 
Journal de Pharm. et de Chim. 1865, draws attention to the fact, 
that opium obtained from nearly ripe poppies yielded 10 to 12 per 
cent, of morphia, while another sample, collected directly after flores- 
cence, gave a pretty large yield, but contained only 3 to 4 per cent, 
of the alkaloid. The condition of the soil is of course of importance, 
although opinions differ on this point ; Gastinel finds a well-manured 
soil to yield opium rich in morphia, while Figari-Bey comes to the re- 
verse conclusion, and the last view is strengthened by Dr. O'Shaugh- 
nessy, who observed in East India that opium grown on manured soil 
contained less morphia than that from an unmanured soil. Certain 
it is, that newly manured soil acts unfavorably upon the poppy-seed. 

In order fully to develop the opium cultivation at home, it will be 
necessary to settle the following questions, viz. : — 

1. Which variety of poppy produces most seed and the best opium, 
richest in morphia ? 

2. What influences does the quality of the soil (presence of chalk, 
manure, etc.) exercise upon the formation of the two products ? 

3. Which is the most unfavorable time for cutting the poppy-heads t 

4. Does the yield of seed increase with the incision? — Pharm- 
Journ. and Trans., from Zeitsch. oestr. Apotheker- Vereines, July y « 
1871. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. } 
Jan. 1. 1872. J 



A New Excipient for Pills. 



17 



A NEW EXCIPIENT FOR PILLS* 
By J. B. Barnes. 

Soluble cream of tartar is a solution of bitartrate of potash in bi- 
borate of soda, boracic acid, or biborate of soda and tartaric acid ; 
either of these compounds, when evaporated to the consistence of mu- 
cilage, is heavy and adhesive. 

Having had my attention directed in an especial manner to the me- 
dicinal properties of sulphur, I was naturally led to reflect upon the 
inelegant mode of its administration. It is true the sulphur electuary 
of the Pharmacopoeia is an improvement upon the horrible mixture of 
sulphur and treacle in common use, but still there is the grittiness 
and the mess. Sulphur is generally taken in combination with bitar- 
trate of potash ; and the soluble modification of this salt possessing 
the above-mentioned properties, it suggested to my mind the employ- 
ment of so appropriate an excipient for the conversion of this sub- 
stance into pills ; and I venture to suggest that pills so prepared 
might be employed when this substance is required to be taken in 
doses of between four and twenty grains. 

The samples of sulphur pills on the table, prepared respectively 
with the sublimed and precipitated varieties, contain in each four or 
five grains, together with one grain in twelve pills of gum tragacanth, 
and a sufficient quantity of soluble cream of tartar. The pills con- 
taining four grains of precipitated sulphur are smaller than it is pos- 
sible to prepare them with any of the ordinary excipients, being not 
quite so large as a five-grain compound rhubarb pill, and as hard as a 
lozenge. When placed in tepid water, the soluble cream of tartar 
speedily dissolves, and the sulphur is set free. 

I propose to call them "sulphur and cream of tartar pills." 

I have also prepared five-grain pills of hydrate of chloral, Dover's 
powder, nitrate of potash, chlorate of potash, citrate of potash, and 
gallic acid. The formula used for the chloral pills is as follows : 
Hydrate of Chloral, . . . . .1 drm., 

Soluble Cream of Tartar (of the consistence of mucilage,) 2 drops. 
Gum Tragacanth, . . . . .2 grs. 

Mix and divide into twelve pills. These require to be kept in con- 
tact with lycopodium. They keep their form perfectly and gradually 

* Read at the Evening Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Brit- 
ain, Nov. I, 1871. 

2 



18 The Color of Fluorescent Solutions. 

harden ; minute glistening particles of the drug have, however, made 
their appearance on the surface of these pills, and also on the bottle, 
indicating that they should not be made too long before they are re- 
quired to be used. 

In the conversion of .Dover's powder into pills, soluble cream of 
tartar only was used ; for those of nitrate of potash and chlorate of 
potash one grain to the drachm of gum tragacanth was employed, in 
addition to the soluble cream of tartar ; for those of citrate of potash 
and gallic acid took tw T o grains of the gum to each dozen. The ni- 
trate of potash, chlorate of potash, gallic acid and citrate of potash 
pills were dried at a gentle heat ; the three former keep well in boxes • 
those of citrate of potash should be kept in bottles in contact with 
lycopodium. With the exception of the gallic acid, all these pills are 
smaller than an ordinary five-grain pill. 

I have also prepared four-grain pills of chloride of ammonium, 
using the soluble cream of tartar, and one-sixth of a grain gum trag- 
acanth in each ; these should also be kept in well-closed bottles. 

The one-grain camphor and three-grain quinine pills on the table 
contain, in addition to the soluble cream of tartar, one-twelfth of a 
grain gum tragacanth in each. The gallic acid pill, as might have 
been expected, is large but hard, keeps well, and makes a more satis- 
factory pill than when glycerin is used ; all these pills are firm, dis- 
solve quickly in tepid water, and, what is of considerable importance, 
present a good appearance. 

I thought it probable that by boiling trisnitrate of bismuth in a so- 
lution of soluble cream of tartar a soluble bismuth pill might be pre- 
pared, but I find it takes seven grains of the dried salt to dissolve one 
grain of the trisnitrate. I have, however, prepared four-grain pills of 
this body, which contain hatf a grain of the trisnitrate in each. — 
Pharm, Journ. y Lond., Nov. 4, 1871. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE COLOR OF FLUORESCENT SOLU- 
TIONS.— NO. II. 
By Henry Morton, Ph. D., 
President of the Stevens Institute of Technology. 
Since the publication of my article on the above subject,* I have 
discovered a curious action which, while it in no respect affects my 



* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1871, Oct., 463. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
Jan. 1, 1872. > 



The Goler of f luorescent Solutions. 



19 



general conclusions, nor the main observations on which they were 
founded, throws out one of the corroborative experiments by which I 
thought that they might be established when a spectroscope was not 
at hand. 

Obtaining some very anomalous results of late, I was led to mis- 
trust the action of the Geissler tubes in which the solutions had been 
examined. 

They were of the ordinary kind of jacketed spirals, selected as be- 
ing nearly identical in size and other particulars. 

It had been observed from the first that the internal spiral gave a 
faint blue fluorescence which could only be seen on close inspection ; 
and in all cases, the tube being but partly filled, it was considered 
that a light appearing in the part covered by the fluid, many times 
more bright than that from the uncovered part of the spiral, was suf- 
ficient evidence of fluorescence in the liquid. 

Late experiments have, however, proved that this was not so. Any 
liquid, however devoid of fluorescent properties, gives all the appear- 
ance of fluorescing in these tubes, and on a little thought the cause of 
this became clear. 

The only fluorescent light that can be seen from the glass of the 
spiral is that which comes off tangentically from the outer surface, 
that emitted radially being marked by the bright electric discharge 
behind. 

In passing from the glass to air, most of the light will suffer total 
reflection at the outer surface of the glass, but if water or any other 
liquid is substituted for the air, its greater refracting power (approach- 
ing that of glass) will diminish the above-named action, so that much 
more of the light will reach the eye. The truth of this explanation 
was supported by the observation that the nearer the index of refrac- 
tion in the liquid came to that of glass, the brighter was the light 
seen through it, while a liquid of higher refraction, like carbon bisul- 
phide, seemed a little to weaken the effect by diffusion. 

This fact renders of no account the observations before made on fil- 
tered and diluted solutions of turmeric, but a fresh observation with 
the spectroscope on tubes free from fluorescence has fully confirmed 
my former conclusions as to the true color of fluorescence in this 
liquid. 

No correction need be applied to the description already published 
in the case of the asphalt solution, but I may add to what was there 
stated another striking example. 



20 The Color of Fluorescent Solutions. { k ™^°Xnn™' 

If one of the little Geissler tubes containing nitrogen, called u spec- 
trum tubes," be jacketed by means of a perforated cork and a large 
glass tube, and the jacket filled with pure or non-fluorescent benzine, 
then illuminating the tube, and with a pipette dropping in that petro- 
leum product, called " cosmoline" (a lubricating oil made by E. H. 
Houghton, of Philadelphia), each drop will appear of a rich blue as it 
dissolves in the benzine, which soon acquires a magnificent blue fluo- 
rescence. Increasing, however, the quantity of cosmoline oil until 
its color begins to take effect, the tint of the fluorescence gradually 
changes to a rich green. 

By a little care a blue solution may be superposed on a green one 
in the same tube. 

Another semi-solid preparation of cosmoline, which has a very light 
color, gives a solution with benzine fluorescing of a magnificent blue. 

I have this substance now under investigation, and hope soon to be 
able to make some further observations upon it.* 

Returning to the solutions of turmeric I have found that the fluo- 
rescent body in that substance is not its essential oil nor its brown 
coloring matter, but either the yellow coloring matter itself, or some- 
thing so closely allied to it in solubility that I have thus far been un- 
able to effect any separation. 

In connection with this let me say that I am much indebted to Mr. 
Robt. F. Fairthorne, of Philadelphia, who has aided me greatly in the 
preparation of the various constituents of turmeric in a state of purity. 

In my former paper I mentioned that uranium nitrate in solution 
gave a very faint fluorescence. 

This appearance I now find was due entirely to the above-explained 
action of the tube, and a number of carefully conducted observations 
now convince me that this substance, while it fluoresces so vividly in 
the solid state, loses that property entirely when in solution. 

I have also found that a saturated solution of acid quinine sulphate 
has its fluorescence much increased by dilution. 

Lastly, let me remark that I by no means assert that all solutions 
fluoresce blue, but simply those which I have examined. There are 
many which I have as yet been unable to procure or study, whose re- 
lations in this respect I hope soon to investigate. — Amer. Journ. Set 
and Arts, Nov., 1871. 

* Mr. Houghton tells me that " cosmoline" is prepared from crude petroleum 
by evaporation in vacuo and nitration through animal charcoal only, without 
any chemical treatment. 



Ax. Jour. Phabm. ? 
Jan. 1, 1872. I 



Nitrite of Amyl. 



21 



NITRITE OF AMYL*. 
By Alfred B. Tanner. 

The author first gives an account of the introduction of this new 
remedy into medicine, and particularly of its use in angina pectoris 
as advocated by Dr. L. Brunton, and as an antidote to the effects of 
an overdose of chloral, ergot, &c, suggested by Dr. Talfourd Jones, 
who also believes it to prove a reliable remedy for the collapse and 
cramps of choleraf. 

Nitrite of amyl was discovered by M. Balard in 1844. An account 
of the physical and chemical properties of this interesting ether is 
then given, and the various processes are reviewed which have been 
suggested for its preparation, after which the author continues : 

The process by which I have been in the habit of preparing nitrite 
of amyl, and of which I now intend giving you a description, is one 
which I think will be found convenient for its preparation on a small 
scale, and of sufficient purity for medicinal use. I do not claim any 
originality for it, as it is probable that many may have thought of it 
although not put it into practice. So long ago as July last year, 
while making spirit of nitrous ether by the Pharmacopoeia process, 
the idea occurred to me that, with some modification, this might be 
made a convenient one for the preparation of nitrite of amyl. A 
demand for the latter arising just then, I put it into practice. In 
Mr. Maisch's paper in the April number of the Journal,! he states 
that the same idea occurred to him, but that he found it not to answer, 
and this I think may be easily accounted for. The process for spirit 
of nitrous ether, as you are all aware, consists in distilling, at a cer- 
tain temperature, a mixture of rectified spirit, sulphuric and nitric 
acids in certain proportion, and copper wire ; the distillate consists 
mainly of a mixture of nitrite of ethyl and ethylic alcohol. Now, by 
substituting amyl alcohol for the rectified spirit in this process, you 
get nitrite of amyl among other products ; but Mr. Maisch appears 
to have overlooked one fact, viz., that rectified spirit contains 16 per 
cent, of water, and that the amylic alcohol he used was nearly anhy- 
drous. He states that the amylic alcohol, i. e. the purified substance, 
was mixed with sulphuric acid, the mixture introduced into a retort, 

* Abstract of a paper read at a meeting of the Liverpool Chemists' Associa 
tion, Nov. 9th, 1871. 

t British Medical Journal, Sept. 30th, 1871. 
X Amer. Journ. Pharra., 1871. p. 146. 



22 Nitrite of Amijl. { AM j a J n ^; jp» 

together with some copper wire, and, after [cooling, H N 3 was 
added. In a very few moments the evolution of gas was observed, 
the liquid became hot without the external application of heat ; and 
the reaction very rapidly increased to such a violence that the entire 
charge was lost, it being impossible to condense any of the vapors in 
a Liebig's condenser/or to retain much of the liquid forced over into 
the receiver. I may add, that I have repeated this experiment with 
exactly the same results ; nearly the whole charge was forced over 
into the receiver, and, while there, the action again commenced, and 
increased to such violence that I have no doubt it would have forced 
itself back into the retort again if their mutual positions had been 
favorable. As it was, I was obliged to introduce it to the open air, 
for the whole house became filled with the vapor, and every one who 
respired it became suddenly red in the face. Upon one of my assis- 
tants it had a very remarkable effect ; it seemed to affect the muscles 
at the back part of the neck, and drew the head backwards, but this 
soon passed off. I should quite expect that the reaction would be 
just as violent in making spirit of nitrous ether, if we used anhydrous 
alcohol instead of 84 per cent, as ordered. In preparing the nitrite 
of amyl by the process I employ, it is of the utmost importance that 
the amylic alcohol be as pure as possible. Amylic alcohol, as you all 
know, is formed during the fermentation of potatoes, rye, barley and 
the marc of grapes ; and when these are distilled it communicates a 
very pungent, and to many repulsive, odor and taste to the spirits. 
It is considerably less volatile than either ordinary alcohol or water, 
having a boiling point, when pure, of 132° C. ; in consequence of 
this property, it accumulates in the last portions of the liquids that 
are distilled. Its name is derived from amylum, starch, — this being 
the most abundant constituent of potatoes. Liebig states that amylic 
alcohol is formed principally in the fermentation of alkaline or neu- 
tral liquids, and its production in the potato mash may be prevented 
in great measure by adding crude tartar to the fermenting liquid. 
Its formation never occurs in acidulous fermenting liquors which 
contain tartaric, racemic, or citric acids. The addition of hops to 
the liquid has a similar effect in checking the development of amylic 
alcohol, or fusel oil, as it is generally termed. It is, when pure, a 
colorless limpid liquid, of a penetrating and disagreeable odor, ex- 
citing headache and coughing when its vapor is inhaled. It is spar- 
ingly soluble in water, though it mixes in all proportions with alcohol, 



Am. Jotro. Phaem. ) 
Jan. 1,1872. j 



Nitrite of Amyl. 



23 



ether and essential oils. It is not easily inflammable, but burns with 
difficulty, giving a bluish flame. Its specific gravity, when pure, is 
•818, and boiling point 132° C. Amyl alcohol is not acted upon by 
the atmosphere, except it be in a very thin layer, or under the influ- 
ence of spongy platinum, when it is oxidized into valeric acid, C 5 H 10 O 2 , 
which acid bears the same relation to amylic alcohol that acetic acid, 
C 2 H 4 2 , does to ordinary alcohol. Fusel oil, as met with in commerce, 
is usually a clear yellowish liquid, with a peculiar penetrating odor, 
varying, of course, with the substance from which it has been pro- 
duced. It has a specific gravity of from -840 to *850, and is largely 
contaminated with, the lower alcohols of this series ; so far as my ex- 
perience goes, it is only about half pure amyl alcohol. As I have 
before stated, it is of the utmost importance, in the preparation of 
nitrite of amyl, that the amylic alcohol be as pure as possible, for it 
is much easier to purify this than to purify the nitrite produced from 
it in its impure state. For this purpose, the best process is first to 
agitate the fusil oil with about an equal bulk of a strong solution of 
chloride of sodium ; this usually reduces its bulk about 16 or 20 per 
cent., and also considerably lowers the specific gravity. This washed 
product is separated and introduced into a retort furnished with a 
thermometer ; that portion of the distillate which passes over before 
the temperature reaches 125° C. consists mainly of the lower alco- 
hols of this series, and whose boilings points are below that of amylic 
alcohol, for the boiling point rises in proportion as the compound is 
richer in carbon. The distillate collected between 125° C. and 140° 
C. is collected apart, and redistilled until it has a boiling point near 
132° C. ; this may then be considered pure enough for our purpose. 
This is then introduced into a glass retort containing some copper 
wire, and furnished with a safety tube, and one-tenth its bulk of 
H 2 S 4 added. The same quantity of H N 3 , diluted with an equal 
volume of water, is next put in, and a very gentle heat applied until 
the temperature reaches about 65° C, when the reaction will com- 
mence and proceed in a perfectly manageable manner, until a bulk 
about equal to double the quantity of H N 3 added collects in the 
receiver, the temperature in the meantime rises to about 98° C. The 
reaction ceases very quickly, as in the case of spirit of nitrous ether. 
The temperature having fallen somewhat, another portion of H N 3 , 
equal in bulk to the first, is added, and this process of successive ad- 
ditions of the acid continued uutil nearly the whole of the amylic alco- 



24 Brom ide of Calcium . { AM j a J n 0D f • ***** ■ 

hoi is exhausted, which may be known by the dense red fumes evolved 
from the retort. The distilled product exceeds in bulk the amylic 
alcohol used, and is the impure nitrite of amyl. This is washed with 
solution of Na H to remove the HON and other free acids present , 
and rectified over fused K 2 C 3 to get rid of moisture. The portion 
which distils between 95° and 100° C. is collected as nitrite of amyl, 
sufficiently pure for medicinal use. 

It has several times been stated that nitrite of amyl produces vio- 
lent headache, and also coughing and irritation of the larynx ; this, I 
think, must be due to its insufficient purification. The presence of 
HON and undecomposed amylic alcohol would, I think, account for 
this ; no such effect was produced on myself with the purified nitrite. 
Mr. Umney has shown, in an. article in the Pharmaceutical Journal 
of November, 1870, that the samples then met with were very impure. 
— Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Nov. 25, 1871. 



NOTE RELATIVE TO THE BROMIDE OF CALCIUM. 
By William A. Hammond, M. D. 

Bromide of calcium is a white crystalline substance, very soluble 
in water, and readily decomposing on exposure to the atmosphere 
for a few minutes. The aqueous solution is at first colorless, but it 
soon becomes tawny from a portion of the bromide being set free. 
Its taste is similar to that of the bromide of potassium, though some- 
what more pungent and disagreeable. 

The formula of bromide of calcium is BrCa, and its combining 
equivalent is 98 (Br. 78, Ca. 20 r= 98) ; 100 grains, therefore, con- 
tain about 79.5 grains of bromine. 

Desiring to test the therapeutical value of this compound, I de- 
sired Dr. Neergaard to procure it. During the last few months I 
have used it in a number of cases in which the bromides were indi- 
cated, and have become satisfied of its great efficiency as a medicinal 
agent. 

The dose is from fifteen to thirty grains or more for an adult. It 
is especially useful in those cases in which speedy action is desirable, 
as, owing to its instability, the bromine is readily set free, and its 
peculiar action on the organism obtained more promptly than when 
either of the other bromides is administered. Chief among these 
effects is its hypnotic influence, and hence the bromide of calcium is 



^j a J n°Ti87 H 2 EM } Cinchona Trees Grown in India. 25 

particularly beneficial in cases of delirium tremens, or in the insomnia 
resulting from intense cental labor or excitement. 

Thus, I gave a gentleman, who, owing to business anxieties, had 
not slept for several nights, and who was in a state of great excite- 
ment, a single dose of thirty grains. He soon fell into a sound 
sleep, which lasted for seven hours. The next night, as he was 
wakeful, I gave him a like dose of bromide of potassium, but it was 
without effect, and he remained awake the whole night. The subse- 
quent night he was as indisposed to sleep as he ever had been, but a 
dose of thirty grains of bromide of calcium gave him eight hours 
sound sleep, and he awoke refreshed and with all unpleasant cerebral 
symptoms — pain, vertigo, and confusion of ideas — entirely gone. 

In a number of other instances a single dose has sufficed to induce 
sleep, a result which very rarely follows the administration of one 
dose of any of the other bromides. 

In those exhausted conditions of the nervous system attended with 
great irritability, such as are frequently met with in hysterical 
women, and which are indicated by headache, vertigo, insomnia, and 
a mental condition of extreme excitement, bromide of calcium has 
proved in my hands of decided service. Combined with the syrup 
of the lacto-phosphate of lime, it scarcely leaves anything to be de- 
sired. An eligible formula is — 1^. Calcii bromidi si, syrup, lact. 
phos. calc. giv. M. ft. sol. Dose, a teaspoonful three times a day 
in a little water. 

In epilepsy I have thus far seen no reason for preferring it to the 
bromide of potassium or sodium, except in those cases in which the 
paroxysms are very frequent, or in cases occurring in very young in- 
fants ; of these latter, several, which had previously resisted the 
bromide of potassium, have yielded to the bromide of calcium. It 
does not appear to cause acne to anything like the extent of the 
bromide of potassium or of sodium. 

My object in writing this note is simply to call attention to a 
remedy which promises well. — New York Medical Journal, December, 
1871. 

CINCHONA TREES GROWN IN INDIA. 

At the meeting of the London Pharmaceutical Society, held Novem- 
ber 1st, 1871, Mr. John Elliot Howard read a paper, in which he re- 
corded his latest experiments on the Indian Cinchonas. 



26 



Cinchona Trees Grown in India. 



J Am. Jour. P^a*w.. 
t Jan. 1,1872. 



Last summer he was furnished with two trees complete, roots, trunk, 
branches and leaves, not living, but packed in cases, from the Gov- 
ernment Gardens, Ootacamund. They were nearly five years old 
when cut down. One was Cinchona succirubra and the other Cin- 
chona officinalis. The gross weight of the first was 28 pounds 12 
ounces, of the second 10 pounds 1 ounce; showing that the C. suc- 
cirubra will develop almost three times as fast as the C. officinalis, 
a circumstance accounted for by the abundance of its leafy branches, 
whilst the general aspect of the Loja-tree, a stem bearing a tuft of 
vegetation on the summit, has caused it to be compared to the aloe. 

But this rapid development of the succirubra by no means neces- 
sarily implies a corresponding success in the cultivation of this spe- 
cies. If the quinine found in the bark of the C. officinalis prove to 
be three times the amount in the same time, and of purer quality than 
in the C. succirubra, and supposing the relative weight of the bark to 
be the same, the preferential price would be given for the one-third 
weight of C. officinalis. The average of a parcel of C. succirubra re- 
cently cut, and now coming home is, he was informed, under 1 per 
cent., but the average of the C. officinalis coming in the same parcel 
is over 3 per cent, of sulphate of quinine. Mr. Howard had not ascer- 
tained the relative weight of the barks of these specimens, but he 
stated that that on C. officinalis was the thickest. The trees very 
closely resembled in external aspect those of the same sorts grown in 
their native climates. This was especially the case with the C. 
officinalis, which seems in all respects to be the exact reproduction 
of the plant named by Pavon C. Uritusinga, but which has now been 
restored by Dr. Hooker to the old Linnean designation. Another 
general observation which presented itself on closer inspection, was 
the occurrence on the lower part of the trunk of each tree of a pe- 
culiar white fungus occupying the crevices of the bark, penetrating; 
into the very wood itself, and occupying cracks and fissures in the 
same. This Mr. Howard considered a very bad indication ; and, 
judging from the analogy of beech-trees similarly affected in planta-- 
tions here, would regard it as an almost fatal sign. It may not gen- 
erally occur in the Indian plantations, but its accidental existence in 
these trees may, in part, have led to their selection for the purpose 
of eradication. A portion of bark of the under part of the stem of a 
Calisaya tree grown in Java, and " infected by mycelium," was- 
shown. This arose from the decaying portions of old roots and 



A *'Jn v l'mt*'} Cinchona Trees Grown in India. 27 

trunks of the uprooted forest, in place of which cinchona-trees were 
expected to flourish. The same or a differerent cause may have led 
to the existence of this fungus on the trees at Ootacamund. Mr* 
M'lvor explained the evil as arising from the earth being heaped up 
for some inches around the base of the trunk, in which case it may 
have had a simply local origin. All the cinchonse are impatient of 
water at the roots, and if the water lodges in the least in the subsoil, 
although it may be a place where there is an excellent fall and sur- 
face drainage, there is a bald patch in the plantation. Mr. Howard's 
chemical examination of the bark proved in the first place that an 
anticipation of Mr. Broughton's was not verified. The Government 
quinologist expressed a doubt whether the quality of the bark would 
not be damaged by allowing it to dry on the tree, since he had found 
that if a tree dies from any cause its bark loses its alkaloids in a few 
weeks. Possibly in this case the sudden death of the tree prevented 
any abnormal circulation. The bark (of Q. succirubra) yielded 3*54 
per cent, of alkaloids, of which only 0.82 proved to be quinine, the 
rest cinchonidine and cinchonine — the former pure and good ; the 
latter, on the contrary, losing much weight in refining. The bark, 
in fact, resembled that taken from similar trees in the ordinary 
method. The bark of the roots is so thin, and adheres with so much 
pertinacity to the wood, that it would seem lost labor to attempt its 
separation in any quantity in the dry state, whatever may be the 
case when the roots are freshly removed from the earth. The ex- 
amination of the heart-wood yielded to the author results analogous 
to that from South American trees, with this exception, that he found 
less cinchotannic acid than in the wood from South America, and also 
a small portion of chlorophyll. In the course of some further re- 
marks Mr. Howard said he hoped the examination of the leaves of 
these plants might afford some topics of interest. He showed a 
botanical specimen of the valuable variety of 0. officinalis, known as 
the lanceolate. Mr. Broughton and Mr. Howard had both found an 
unusually large percentage of alkaloids from this bark, not less 
than 11-40 per cent., and 9*75 of quinine. The Pitayo species 
, and the variety of C. officinalis known as Amarilla del rey, were 
also very valuable, and should be cultivated, but the last-named it 
was now impossible to procure. By devoting attention to such points, 
by encouraging the best species, and by high cultivation, the under- 
taking of Indian acclimatization will become one of pecuniary profit. 



28 Cinchona Trees Grown in India. {^Him™ 

All things seem to promise an abundant return to the careful culti- 
vator, and the pecuniary result is beginning to be realized, from ship- 
ments sent home to Europe. There can be no doubt that, on the 
whole, this great experiment is a success. 

Mr. Haselden asked why the Government should have encouraged 
the growth of the succirubra barks in preference to the Calisaya 
barks, seeing that the latter produced a larger amount of quinine — so 
much used in this country — than the other. 

Professor Bentley asked whether the results obtained were founded 
upon examination of one or two plants, or were arrived at by the ex- 
amination of a number of plants ; because everyone who knew any- 
thing about the development of plants would agree that two plants 
selected promiscuously would not yield any special result which could 
in any way be depended upon. There was another question in which 
he felt interested. Some years ago Mr. Howard had shown that the 
root-bark of C. calisaya was very much inferior in every respect to 
the stem-bark. But certain other investigators came to a diiferent 
conclusion. If he rightly understood Mr. Howard's paper that even- 
ing, no special examination was made of the root-bark, because it was 
too thin. If, however, he had made any such examination, it would 
be very interesting to know the comparative value of the root- bark 
and the stem-bark, not only as bearing upon the particular views 
which Mr. Howard had always held, but as bearing on those diiferent 
parts of the bark which were of great importance to all who took an 
interest in physiological botany. 

Mr. Howard remarked that, in reference to the different species of 
cinchona, he had always urged upon the Government the securing, 
in the first place, of all the species they could get from South Amer- 
ica, and giving them all a fair trial under diiferent circumstances. 
One species would develop much more rapidly in bog earth perhaps, 
while another would develop in loam. Succirubra would develop 
well in loam. Of course the climate had great influence on these 
trees, which were peculiarly susceptible of influence from light and 
climate in various ways. His object had, therefore, been that the 
Government should not confine their attention to succirubra, but that 
they should devote it to other species in proportion as they were found 
to be valuable. The object of his paper was, partly, to enforce that 
view of the subject ; and he showed that the succirubra, though so 
rapid in its development, was not so good as the other. He had not 



Am. Jovr. Pharm. ) 
Jan. 1,1872. J 



Earth Closets. 



29 



had an opportunity of examining the calisaya upon so large a scale, 
but it was a better tree, although very delicate in its predilections ; 
and he scarcely knew what to say about the success of that species. 
He had seen specimens from Darjeeling, which looked exceedingly 
good, although they did not bear out the full idea he had formed from 
the appearance. He did not know why. With reference to Profes- 
sor Bentley's question, he remarked that he had not had any very 
great experience in the barking of the roots ; and therefore what he 
had said about root barks must be taken as founded on a limited ex- 
perience. When the roots run under moss, he had no doubt the bark 
on them would be very rich ; but it was very different otherwise, for 
when the roots penetrated deeply into the ground it was thin and 
worthless. Mr. M'lvor succeeded in getting the greatest products 
from roots covered with moss, and he (Mr. Howard) had no doubt Dr. 
De Vrij was right in that respect, and to him he readily yielded the 
palm. — Chemist and Druggist, November 15, 1871. 



EARTH CLOSETS. 

The earth-closet system of disposal of household excreta has been 
found to be practically impossible, in consequemce of the bulk of the 
powdered mould which is necessary, the trouble and expense neces- 
sary for procuring it in towns, the difficulty of removing the resultant 
manure, and the impossibility of finding servants cleanly and regular 
enough to keep the apparatus clean and full of earth. Mr. Edward 
Stanford, F. C. S., has made to the mechanical section of the British 
Medical Association a proposal to substitute carbon in some form for 
the earth. 

By the use of charcoal the amount of deodorizer required is reduced 
to less than a fourth as compared with earth, and by carbonising the 
manure removed, a constant supply is secured. 

The quantity per head to be removed per annum may be fairly 
estimated at eight cwt., of which about seven cwt. represents urine 
alone. The amount of carbon required to perfectly absorb the whole 
of this quantity is less than eight cwt., so that in an ordinary house- 
hold of ten persons, the total annual quantity required cannot exceed 
four tons, and the whole removal will probably, owing to the drying 
action of the charcoal, be about five to six tons. 

The carbon closets are also arranged to be quite automatic, and 



30 New Use for Sulphurous Acid. { k ^lm^ 

require no attendance from within. The charcoal is introduced 
through an aperture in the roof into a reservoir at the top of the house ; 
a closet on each floor draws on this source of supply, and the whole 
of the product is discharged in a dry deodorized state into a cemented 
vault in the basement story of the house. 

The reservoir need only be replenished, and the vault emptied, once 
a year. The manure removed can scarcely be distinguished from 
cinders by an ordinary observer, and it is equally inoffensive. 

The value of the material removed is about one shilling per cwt., 
or eight shillings per head per annum. The household has the char- 
coal and the material removed without cost. A company called 
" The Nitro-Carbon Manure Company (Limited)," has been formed 
in Glasgow, to collect and treat the manure, and supply the char- 
coal. — Med. Press and Circ, Nov. 15, 1871. 



NEW USE FOR SULPHUROUS ACID. 

The action of sulphurous acid upon phosphates has been recently 
studied by B. W. Gerland, and he suggests certain practical results 
that appear to us to be worthy of attention. Aqueous sulphurous 
acid does not decompose the phosphates in a way to liberate the phos- 
phoric acid, but it transforms them into soluble modifications by the 
production of double salts. The triple phosphate of lime, known as 
bone phosphate or the mineral apatite, is at once attacked by aqueous 
sulphurous acid, and the concentrated solution at 60° Fahr. is decom- 
posed into three different salts — the mono and bi-basic phosphate of 
lime and sulphite of lime — and if these salts be evaporated in rari- 
fied air with alcohol, a series of interesting salts are produced. If 
these solutions be rapidly heated to boiling under the ordinary pres- 
sure of the atmosphere, a new crystaline salt, a double phosphate and 
sulphite of lime is produced, which is said to be quite permanent, and 
capable of an extensive application as a disinfectant and fertilizer. 
The chief interest attaching to Gerlands's research is the discovery of 
a new way of treating the insoluble phosphates. We say new, because 
although the proposition was made some years ago to use sulphurous 
acid in the manufacture of phosphorus, no one has thought of apply- 
ing the method to the decomposition of the mineral phosphates. We 
are by no means certain that apatite or bones can be economically de- 
composed in this way, but it would be well worth trying, as the sul- 



Am. Jour. Pharm, ) 
Jan. 1, 1872. } 



Nickel Plating. 



31 



phuric acid method is costly, and yields a product which does not keep 
well, and is difficult of transportation. The new salt of phosphate 
.and sulphite of lime may have uses in hospitals as a disinfectant, and 
its medicinal properties ought to be studied. Phosphate of magnesia 
is also readily decomposed by sulphurous acid ; in the case of silver, 
lead and barium phosphate, the sulphurous acid dissolves the salts and 
yields free phosphoric acid. Sulphurous acid has no action on phos- 
phates of bismuth and tin ; the arsenites and arsenates of lime and 
vanadate of copper behave toward sulphurous acid very much as the 
phosphates. Oxalate of lime is only slightly attacked by sulphurous 
&cid. in conclusion, we advise manufacturers of artificial manures to 
try the decomposing action of sulphurous acid upon phosphates, to see 
if it can replace sulphuric acid, and also whether an economic prepara- 
tion of the double salt of phosphate and sulphite of lime is feasible.—- 
Jour. Applied Chemistry, Bee., 1871. 



NICKEL PLATING. 

A small square bar of steel coated with nickel has been repeatedly 
immersed in water for hours together without showing any signs of 
rusting; and John Spiller, F. C. $., states, in the Photographic News, 
that he finds it possible to bury it in flowers of sulphur for several 
days without tarnishing the lustre of the nickel surface. Neither has 
this latter severe test any effect upon the copper and brass bars upon 
which the nickel coating has been applied, and these metals may even 
be immersed in an aqueous solution of nitrate of silver without effect- 
ing the reduction of that metal. In one of the angles only, where the 
coating seemed to be imperfect, was there any indication of silver- 
reduction in the case of the brass tube, the steel bar being perfectly 
protected over the whole surface against the action of silver and copper 
solutions. Here, then, is a most valuable property in electro-deposited 
nickel. A metal of the zinc and iron group is proof against the action 
of nitrate of silver ; the experiment proves it to be so, and we must 
regard pure nickel as belonging (from this point of view) to the class 
of noble metals, resisting, like gold and platinum, the attack of sul- 
phur and of highly corrosive metallic solutions. 

The nickel facing, when burnished, has a whiter color than polished 
steel, although not equal to silver itself, its aspect being rather that 
of rolled platinum. It withstands the action of heat also remarkably 



32 New Micrometric Govt wmeter Eye- Piece. { 



Am. Jock. Pharm.. 



1872. 



well ; for the fusion-point is very high, and oxidation occurs only at 
elevated temperatures. For fine balance-beams and weights, lens- 
mountings, reflectors, laboratory microscopes, Sykes' hydrometers^ 
still-worms, egg-beaters, camera fittings, and a variety of apparatus 
used by the chemist and photographer, the nickel coating will proba- 
bly find extensive application. Oval picture-frames of very pretty 
effect are made of stamped brass coated with nickel. Burnished and 
matt surfaces of this metal may be used in combination for ornamental 
purposes. — Technologist, Dec, 1871, from the Scientific American. 



ON A NEW MICRO METRIC GONIOMETER EYE PIECE FOR 

THE MICROSCOPE. 
By J. P. Southwortu. 

After a few experiments by Dr. II. T. Porter and myself, we have 
succeeded in making an eye-piece micrometer and goniometer which 
equal in accuracy and surpass in simplicity and cheapness any we 
have seen, and we have used those of some of the best makers in this 
country. The objection to the eye-piece micrometers in use is the 
want of boldness in the division-lines, which makes them fatiguing 
and hurtful to the eyes. To overcome this objection we were led to 
experiments in making micrometers by the aid of photography, which 
have resulted in success. The steps of the process are these : — 

1st. A scale of 100 heavy India ink linesf about I of an inch apart, 
are drawn on a dead white surface of Bristol board. The lines marking, 
every ten divisions are six inches long and extend one inch each side 
of the scale ; those marking every five divisions are five inches long 
and extend one half inch beyond the scale ; the remaining lines are 
four inches long. 

2. By photographic process for copying engravings, a negative m 
taken, on which the scale equals about two inches in length, and is, 
intensified by mercuric chloride and potassium cyanide. 

3d. With a copying camera and lens for taking transparent positives, 
for the magic lantern, a transparent positive of this negative is taken 
on micrometer glass, reducing the scale to the length of one-half inch. 
In this the lines are -^-Ju of an i RCn apart. After intensifying, wash- 
ing and drying, a cover of thin glass is cemented on with Canada 
balsam, and the slide cut to fit the slit in the micrometer eye-piece 



Am- Jour. Pharm. \ 
Jan. 1, 1872. j 



Essential Oil of Mustard Seed. 



33 



It can also be mounted with a spring and micrometer screw, like 
Jackson's micrometer. In our micrometer the lines appear to stand 
out in relief, and are jet black, while the spaces between them are 
translucent enough to admit of the accurate measurement of the de- 
tails of minute algae and fungi to the 2 §iuv °^ an i ncn - 
Regarding the goniometer : — 

1st. A circle about eighteen inches in diameter is drawn with 
India ink, divided into degrees. The centre is indicated by a dot, 
and one diameter is drawn. Every five and ten degrees are indicated 
by longer lines than those indicating single degrees. Every ten de- 
grees of each quadrant are numbered from to 90. 

2d. A negative two inches in diameter is taken by the process 
referred to above, and from this a transparent positive is taken on a 
circle of micrometer glass cut to fit the tube of the microscope. It 
is covered with a circle of thin glass cemented with balsam, and 
mounted to fit the tube at the focal point of a positive eye-piece. A 
cobweb is drawn across the diameter of the lower lens. When a crys- 
tal is to be measured, the stage is moved till the apex of the angle 
coincides with the centre of the goniometer and the diameter with one 
side. The eye-piece is now turned till the cobweb crossing the diam- 
eter at the centre coincides with the other side of the angle. Now 
the number of degrees of the angle can be read at the circumference 
The advantage of this over the ordinary microscope goniometers is 
that in ours the angles of the crystal and the degrees of the gonio- 
meter are on the same line of sight within the tube of the microscope, 
while in the ordinary goniometer the degrees are marked outside the 
tube. The photographic processes by which the above are made can 
be learned by consulting any of the standard works on photography, 
under the sections that treat of copying engravings and taking trans- 
parent positives. — Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, Dec, 1871. 



PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON ESSENTIAL OIL OF MUSTARD 

SEED. 
By Dr. F. A. FlUckiger. 
The contents of this essay may be resumed as follows : — When to 
^he essential oil of mustard seed 3 parts of concentrated sulphuric 
acid are slowly and gradually added, care being taken to cool the 
mixture, sulphurous acid and sulphocarbonic oxide are evolved after 

3 



34 Physiological Action of Chloral Hydrate. {^jS^Sl^ 

twelve hours' standing. The mixture should either be clear yet very- 
thick, or entirely converted into a crystalline mass; the mixture 
should then exhibit no longer the peculiar odor of oil of mustard seed, 
but, in addition to a slight smell of sulphurous acid, that of leek. 
The color of the mixture should not be turned dark ; when 2 parts 
of the essential oil are mixed with 1 of absolute alcohol and from 6 
to 8 of strong liquid ammonia, and heated to 50° for some time, the 
result should be that, on cooling in open shallow vessels, the mass 
becomes crystalline (formation of thiosinammin) ; the mother-liquor 
from these crystals should leave, by spontaneous evaporation, crystals, 
but hardly any fluid, which should scarcely, moreover, exhibit the 
smell of leek. These reactions, along with the specific gravity, char- 
acterize mustard seed oil very distinctly. — Chcm. News, Nov. 24th, 
1871, from N. Jqhrb. f. Pharm. 



THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF CHLORAL HYDRATE. 
By M. A. Byasson. 

In a note presented to the Academie des Sciences,' 1 ' in anticipation 
of a more detailed memoir, the author gives some of the results of an 
investigation having reference specially to the physiological action of 
chloral hydrate. The conclusions, which differ from those of Dr. 
Oscar Liebreich, and have been founded upon the comparative action 
of chloroform, formate of soda, hydrate of chloral, trichloracetic acid 
and trichloracetate of soda upon frogs, rats and dogs, — and incident- 
ally of hydrate of chloral upon men, — are formulated as follows: — 

1. The action of hydrate of chloral upon similar organisms is dif- 
ferent from that of chloroform. 

2. The action is peculiar to that body, and may be considered as 
the result of two products into which it is decomposed, principally 
upon contact with the blood, viz. chloroform and formic acid. 

3. Trichloracetic acid and trichloracetate of soda differ from 
hydrate of chloral in their action upon the animal organism, since 
they both break up into chloroform and acetic acid. 

A part of the chloroform formed by the action of the alkaline car- 
bonates of the blood upon the hydrate of chloral is eliminated by the 
lungs ; and a part of the formic acid is found in the urine in the 
shape of formate of soda. As a practical result of the experiments, 



* Comptes Rendus, lxxii, 742, 



AM janT;m2 RM *} Varieties. 35 

the author found that he could distinguish three degrees, produced 
gradually and successively by increasing doses, but varying in indi- 
viduals. 

(1.) A feebly soporific action and slight sedative effect upon the 
sensitive nervous system, which may be accompanied by intervals of 
a peculiar agitation, similar to that produced by some dreams. 
|i (2.) An energetic and powerful soporific action, with diminution 
of sensibility. Then follows a period of calm slumber of variable 
duration, but without apparent disturbance to the principal functions 
of life. By means of successive doses administered when the effects 
of the previous ones have nearly disappeared, this slumber may be 
extended during a comparatively long time. 

(3.) Anaesthetic action, with complete loss of sensibility and mus- 
cular power. Death has generally been found to follow when this 
stage has been reached, in consequence of the inability of the organ- 
ism to sustain the increasing action of so large a quantity of the drug 
until its complete transformation and elimination. — Pharm, Journ. 
and Trans.. Dec. 16, 1871. 



The World's Fair in Vienna in 1873. — The preparations for the proposed 
international exhibition of Vienna, to take place in 1873, are so far established 
as to ensure the execution of the project. The site of the building has been 
selected, and the English engineer, Mr. Scott Russell, is in consultation with 
the Austrian architects in reference to the plans. The park set apart for the 
exhibition is larger than has been occupied on any previous occasion, as the 



following table will show : 

London, Hyde Park, 1851, sqr. meters .... 81,591 

Paris, Champs Elysees, 1855 ...... 103,156 

London, Brompton, 1862 . . . . . 186,125 

Paris, Champ de Mars, 1867 ...... 441,750 

Vienna, Prater, 1873 ....... 2,330,631 



The principal building will be 950 meters long, but numerous separate buil- 
dings will find location on the park. 

The commission in whose hands the programme has been placed will endeavor 
to introduce some new features in the forthcoming exhibition. Among other 
novelties they wish to have a full display of the raw material and manufactured 
article of each nation, with statistical information in reference to the amount 
produced, and the trade therein. Special efforts will be made to have the art 
collections as complete as possible, and it is proposed to have a loan collection 



36 



Varieties. 



/Am. Jour. Phahm. 
| Jan. 1, 1872. 



from all the German museums, similar to the celebrated one at Kensington. 
Another specialty will be a collection of articles used by different nations in 
their domestic affairs, kitchen utensils, furniture, dress, ornamental objects, in 
fact, everything used about a house. 

Great efforts will be made to have the oriental nations better represented 
than they have been at any previous exhibitions. 

As the Austrian nation has never had an exhibition of this character, it is 
probable that they will put forth great exertions to have it worthy of the em- 
pire. The opportunity ought not to be neglected by the manufacturers in this 
country. We produce many things that other nations would wish to have if 
they were aware of their existence, and this is an occasion for displaying them. 
Our government could with great propriety send all articles free of charge to 
Trieste, whence they would no doubt be transported by the Austrian govern- 
ment to Vienna also free. We ought to have committees organized for the 
selection of proper articles to be forwarded, and to take pains that we are well 
represented. In the matter of household conveniences, we claim that many of 
our mechanics are better off than some of the noblemen on the continent. It 
would be a great thing to see the common every-day domestic utensils set up 
in a model house to illustrate how we live. Our machine made pails, clothes- 
pins, sewing machines, cooking stoves, with fixtures, would astonish the common 
people of Austria, who have the rudest kind of articles. 

We cannot now enumerate all that we ought to send. It will be remembered 
that at the Paris exhibition of 1867, nearly everything sent from this country 
took a prize. If we exercise some judgment in the selection of articles, we 
may anticipate a similar triumph at Vienna in 1873. — Journal of Applied 
Chemistry, December, 1871. 

Sugar Factories in Europe.— Seventy-five new sugar factories have been estab- 
lished in Europe in 1870, at the end of which year their total number was 1507. 
In France there were 483, in the Zollverein 310 (384 according to another 
statement), in Russia 283, in Austria-Hungary 228, in Belgium 134, in Poland 
42, in Holland 20, in Sweden 4, in Italy and Great Britain each 1. — Chem. 
Gentr. Bl. 1871, Oct. 11. 

Production of Bismuth. — The market is almost totally supplied with bismuth 
from Saxony, which produces annually 32,000 pounds of this metal; one estab- 
lishment, the blue color works, alone 24,000 pounds. — Ibid, Oct. 18. 

Liquid for Removing Spots. — This compound sold under the name of Liqueur 
Bemhard, is mentioned by way of warning, as it is not a new article, as it pre- 
tends to be, contains no benzine or substance of that kind, and is moreover 
ruinous to delicate colors, on account of the potash which it contains ; its com- 
position is : 

Ox galls, 100 Grammes. 

Potash, 50 

Water, 1 Kilogramme. 

The potash is first dissolved, and the gall then added. Soda may be substi- 
tuted for the potash. — Amer. Chemist, Nov., from Monit. de la Temt., 1871, 
No. 17. 



A \ J n°T;mf M '} Varieties. 37 

On Bromide of Potassium. — Dr. Falieres. — A great portion of this memoir 
relates strictly to the therapeutics, but, as regards the testing of the purity 
of bromide of potassium and its preparation more especially for medicinal pur- 
poses, the following suggestions are made : — 1 grm. of bromide of potassium, 
previously pulverized, and put into a glass-stoppered bottle, is dissolved in from 
30 to 40 grms. of distilled water. To this solution is added a solution of nitrate 
of silver, containing 1'427 grms. of that salt. When the precipitate has settled, 
there is added to the liquid, by means of a burette, a drop of a decinormal so- 
lution of nitrate of silver, which, if the bromide is pure, will not produce any 
further precipitate — the fact being that 1 grm. of the bromide requires precisely 
1*427 grms. of nitrate of silver for precipitation, while 1 grm. of chloride of 
potassium requires 2*279 grms. of the argentic nitrate. It is clear, however, 
that the bromide will have to be tested for the absence of iodide, carbonate, 
and sulphate of potassium, and of nitrate of soda. As regards the preparation 
of bromide of potassium, the author proposes the following process : — 100 grms. 
of bicarbonate of potassa are dissolved in 500 grms. of water ; to this solution, 
80 grms. of pure bromine are added, and, as soon as the effervescence ceases, 
there is also added a mixture of 90 parts of pure distilled water and 30 parts of 
liquid ammonia (sp. gr. = 0.875). The liquid is next evaporated to dryness, 
care being taken to apply a gentle heat as long as any vapors of carbonate of 
ammonia are given off. The residual saline mass is next ignited, so as to con- 
vert the bromate of potassa into bromide of potassium ; the salt thus obtained 
is, after cooling, re-dissolved in pure distilled water, an aqueous solution of bro- 
mine added to this solution, which is next evaporated for crystallization. By 
the addition of the ammonia, bromide of ammonium is first formed, and this 
salt, acting upon the undecomposed carbonate of potassa, converts it into bro- 
mide, while carbonate of ammonia is volatilized. — Chemical News, Dec. 8,/rom 
Journal de Pharmacie et dt Chimie, October, 1871. 



Cure for Corns. — Bathe the feet we'll in warm water, then with a sharp in- 
strument pare off as much of the corn as can be done without pain or causing 
it to bleed, and dress once a day with the following salve : 

R. Black Oxide of Copper, .... gr. 15, 

Lard, . . . . . . 5 s. M. 

— Chem. and Drug., Lond., Nov. 15, 1871. 



Extract of Horse Chestnut Wood. — For dyeiug heavy black upon silk, an ex- 
tract of horse-chestnut wood has recently acquired great importance, it is 
preferred to nut galls or divi divi for this purpose. To what particular princi- 
ple in the wood is to be ascribed the important property of which use is now 
made has not been determined with certainty. — Ibid. 



Chloroform and Glycerin. — Dr. W. Murdock, of New York, recommends the 
following formula as a convenient mode of administering chloroform : Glycerin, 
six ounces ; chloroform, two ounces. This solution is clear, and not unpleasant 
in taste or odor. One drachm contains fifteen minims of chloroform. — Atlanta 
Med. and Surg. Journ., Nov., 1871. 



38 



Varieties. 



( Am. Joor. Phaem. 
t Jan. i, 1872. 



Vienna 1 east. — Dr. Vigla. — This yeast is prepared in the following manner : 
— Previously-malted barley, mais and rye are ground up and mixed, next put 
into water at a temperature of from 65° to 75°; after a few hours, the saccharine 
liquid is decanted from the dregs, and the clear liquid brought into a state of 
fermentation, by the aid of some yeast. The fermentation becomes very strong, 
and, by the force of the carbonic acid which is evolved, the yeast globules (the 
size of which averages from 10 to 12 millims.), are carried to the surface of the 
liquid, and, forming a thick scum, that substance is removed by a skimmer, 
placed on cloth filters, drained, washed with a little distilled water, and next 
pressed into any desired shape by means of hydraulic pressure, and covered 
with a strong and stout tightly- woven canvas. This kind of yeast keeps from 
eight to fourteen days, according to the season, and is, both for bakers and 
brewers, very superior to that ordinarily used ; the extra good qualities of Vien- 
na beer and bread are partly due to the use made of this yeast in preparing these 
articles. — Chemical News, Dec. 8, from Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie 
October, 1871. 

New Process of Panification. — Dr. Sezille. — The wheat is first deprived of its 
epispermum (outer cover or husk) by means of properly constructed machinery ; 
the decorticated grain is next several times acted upon by tepid water (about 
80° for the first bath and 40° for the subsequent ones), whereby the gummo- 
resinous cover of the grain is dissolved and removed. This removal is neces- 
sary on account of the fact that this substance becomes very deep brown, 
almost blackish, colored by fermentation of the dough ; the grain at the same 
time absorbs from 65 to 70 per cent, of water, and is then reduced to a paste 
by means of machinery very similar to that used in chocolate mills. This per- 
fectly white pas»te is next leavened, and after fermentation ready for baking. By 
this process, from the same quantity of grain which by the usual process only 
yields 108 to 110 kilos, of bread, the yield is increased to 145 kilos, of very 
superior quality and far greater nutritive power ; moreover, a very considerable 
saving of labor and expenses connected therewith is effected by the application 
of this new process, which has been thoroughly tested by competent and inde- 
pendent scientific as well as practical men. — Chem. News, Lond., Dec. 1, 1871. 
from Les Mondes, Nov. 23, 1871. 

Chromatized Gelatine — It has been recently discovered that gelatine, in the 
presence of a salt of chromium, is rendered insoluble by the chemical action 
of light. The most important application of this " chromatized gelatine," thus 
far, is in what is called the "heliotype process." This is virtually a new art of 
lithography, which promises wholly to supersede the old method. If paper 
coated with a solution of bichromate of potash and gelatine is exposed to the 
light, the gelatinous film becomes to all intents and purposes a lithographic 
stone, from which an indefinite number of copies of a photographic negative 
may be printed. 

This chromatized gelatine is also employed in a new process for rendering 
woven fabrics waterproof. Cotton and linen that have been soaked in a weak 
solution of gelatine or glue and bichromate of potash become waterproof on ex- 
posure to daylight, without becoming impervious to air.- Technologist, Dec, 1871. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ( 
Jan. 1, 1872. S 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



39 



f jjarmamttol Colleges anft Jactations, 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — At a meeting of the Board of Trus- 
tees, held December 5th, Prof. Procter offered the following resolution, which 
was unanimously adopted : 

In view of the destruction of the Library of the Chicago College of Phar- 
macy, be it resolved that a set of the " American Journal of Pharmacy," as 
complete as can be furnished by this College, be hereby donated to the Chicago 
College of Pharmacy. 

On motion, a Committee was appointed to complete as far as practicable the 
set of the il Journal," to have the volumes bound, and to add thereto such other 
books as they may be able to collect for the Chicago College. The Committee 
consists of Professor Wui. Procter, Thos. S. Wiegand, Joseph P. Remington, 
James T. Shinn and Alfred B. Taylor. 

The Board has also somewhat modified one of the regulations about gradua- 
tion. Two examinations are held annually ; one in March, at the close of the 
lectures, and one in June. The latter was mainly established to accommodate 
those students who at the Spring examination have not accomplished their term 
of apprenticeship, or who are prevented to come forward on account of sick- 
ness, &c. This provision is not affected by the adoption of the following addi- 
tional sentence to Art. X, Chap. V of the By-Laws of the Board of Trustees : 
"but no student rejected at the Spring examination shall be eligible at the one 
held in the succeeding J une." 

At an early date last year the Board of Trustees appointed a Committee, 
consisting of Charles Bullock, James T. Shinn, and John M. Maisch, to draft 
a law regulating the practice of pharmacy and preventing the adulteration of 
drugs and medicines in the city of Philadelphia, to be presented to the Legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania meeting in the beginuing of January.- This draft was 
submitted to the Board of Trustees, in November last, somewhat modified, and 
afterwards put into legal phraseology by A. E. Letchworth, Esq. 

On the 19th of December last a meeting of the pharmacists and druggists 
of Philadelphia was held at the lower lecture room of the College of Pharmacy, 
when Dr. Francis Zerinan was called to the chair and Mr. George C. Bower 
appointed Secretary. The draft of the law was then read, considered by sec- 
tions, and after several amendments adopted. The Committee of the College, 
together with the Chairman of the meeting, were appointed a Committee to 
lay the matter before the Legislature, and were empowered to add to their 
number if deemed necessary. 

At the quarterly meeting of the College, held Dec. 26th, the draft as amended 
by the meeting held on the 19th was approved. 

We deem the law. though stringent in its provisions, calculated to protect 
the public as well as the conscientious pharmacist, and hope that it may be 
passed. Not having the space to print this draft or enter into its details, we 
are compelled to defer comments until we shall hear of its fate before the 
Legislature. 



40 



Minutes of the College. 



( Am. Joue. Pharm. 
\ Jan. 1,1872. 



New York College of Pharmacy. — We stated in our last number that a 
Committee of Conference had been appointed to confer with the Board for 
licensing druggists, &c. Two members of this committee, Messrs. Hegeman 
and Balluff, had an interview with Prof. Doremus, the President of the Licens- 
ing Board, which, however, did not lead to any practical results. At the spe- 
cial meeting of the College held Nov. 25th, a committee was appointed, con- 
sisting of Messrs. Wright, Peixotto, Weissmann, Jr., Cassebeer, and Rice, 
to confer with a similar committee appointed by the Apothecaries' Union, and 
consisting of Messrs. Robbins, Ramsperger, BallufF, Amend, and Dr. Fr. Hoff- 
mann. This Conference Committee was joined by delegates from the two Ger- 
man pharmaceutical societies of New York and adjoining cities, to revise the 
draft of a law proposed by the Apothecaries' Union, to which we alluded on 
page 479 of our last volume. This draft was remodelled by the joint commit- 
tee, and considered at a special meeting of the New York College of Phar- 
macy held Dec. 19th, at which the draft was amended so as to empower this 
College to elect the Pharmaceutical Board oat of the most competent phar- 
macists of the city of New York, for which city alone this law is applicable. 

The College appointed Messrs. Hegeman, Balluff and Peixotto a committee 
to present this draft to the State Legislature, at its approaching session, through 
Senator Weissmann, who is a member of the New York College of Pharmacy. 



Louisville College of Pharmacy. — We learn from the " Richmond and 
Louisville Medical Journal," of December, that this College has opened its 
course of lectures, with a class of 2L students. 



Itimttes of t\}t f bilaklgjria (Mlcge of ffearmacjr, 

A stated meeting of the College was held, at the College building, December 
26th, 1871, Dillwyn Parrish, President, in the chair ; 14 members present. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. The minutes of 
the Board of Trustees were also read and approved. 

Wm. Procter, Jr., for the Committee on the early closing movement, 
reported that two meetings had been held by those engaged in the dispensing 
business, the result being the general adoption of the hour of 10 P. M. for 
closing stores. 

The proposed act intended to regulate the sale of medicines and poisons, 
and to prevent adulteration in drugs and medicines, as adopted by the druggists 
of Philadelphia at a meeting held on the 19th instant, was read and approved. 
The proposed act had previously been acted on and approved by the Board of 
Trustees of the College. 

On motion, then adjourned. 

Charles Bullock, Secretary. 



AM ja J n U l'i P 872 RM } Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. 41 



A pharmaceutical meeting was held on the afternoon of December 19th, 1871, 
Owing to the general meeting of Druggists, on the proposed Pharmacy Law, 
this meeting did not assemble till near 5 o'clock, and some of the business pre- 
pared was postponed till next month. 

Dr. Wilson H. Pile presided. The reading of the minutes of the preceding 
meeting was dispensed with, these having been published in the Journal. 

Hance, Brother and White presented the College with one of their superior 
Drug Mills, supported on an iron stand ; on motion a unanimous vote of thanks 
was tendered. 

Five bound volumes, from 1852 to 1856 inclusive, of the American Journal of 
Pharmacy, was presented by J. A. Heintzelman. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a large gourd, presented by Bullock & Crenshaw, 
which had been filled with Barbadoes aloes, and from which the entire contents 
hud been removed by tapping after sawing it in two ; no adhering portions of 
aloes remained upon it. A vote of thanks was tendered to both donors. Prof. 
Maisch also exhibited Jujube Fruit used in Southern Europe as an addition to 
expectorant remedies ; Myrobalans used for the preparation of tannin ; several 
varities of Cardamoms, including the Ceylon and Malabar from the Lon- 
•don market, the latter whitened by magnesia. Fennel seed from Fcenic- 
^ilurn officinale. 

Some fine specimens in powder and in pseudomorphic masses, of bi-carbon- 
ate of soda, as taken from the carbonating chamber of the Pennsylvania Salt 
Works, at Natrona, Pa., were presented to the College. Prof. Procter read a 
letter from Henry Pemberton, a graduate of this College, now in charge of 
these extensive works. The meeting was informed that a single charge of this 
chamber weighs 525,000 lbs. The quality of the salt appeared to be supe- 
rior ; in the absence of Prof. Bridges, the subject was postponed till the next 
meeting. 

Prof. Parrish called attention to the new excipient for making pills, intro- 
duced by J. B. Barnes at a recent meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain — soluble cream of tartar; bitartrate of potash in a solution of 
borax, inspissated to the consistence of mucilage.* He also showed pills of 
Dover's powder, of sulphur, and of chloral hydrate, made with it and minute 
quantities of tragacanth. Those of chloral hydrate, though round and firm, are 
-covered with crystals, they are necessarily kept in a vial. 

In allusion to the difficulty of making salts of iron, especially sulphate, into 
pill, owing to the crumbling of the mass, he mentioned that if a paste of dex- 
trine is used as the excipient, there is no difficulty in making a perfectly plastic 
mass ; he exhibited pills of dried sulphate of iron, each containing three grains, 
very nearly equal to five grains of the crystals made with dextrine ; they 
were of convenient size. He remarked that when this mass crumbles it 
is from a deficiency of water, and when water is again added it becomes 
quite plastic, though it is more bulky on each addition of water. The 



Pee page 17 of the present number, 



42 



Editorial, 



< Am. Joub. Pharm_ 
\ Jan. 1, 1872. 



soluble tartar excipient does not appear well suited to this salt. Robert 
England expressed a preference for manna as an excipient in making difficult 
masses. Dr. Pile and others use a mixture of tragacanth and glycerin with 
satisfactory results. After further conversation the meeting adjourned. 

Olemmons Parrisb, Registrar. 



(ifciiorial Sep ailment 



Scientific Journals Pecuniarily Considered. — Some two or three months 
ago, we received from a valued friend the following communication, which we 
have been compelled to lay aside for want of room, but which we now insert: 

Dear Sir : — A common expression with us out West is " business is busi- 
ness." As an inducement to patronize scientific journals, especially pharmaceu- 
tical, I may be permitted to offer the following : A few days since, one of our 
customers, who had been in ill health for some time past and had just returned 
from New York, where he had been to consult some of the eminent doctors of 
medicine, brought us several prescriptions, which he wished to know if we could 
prepare, as he would want them filled before long. I read them over ; all plain 
enough except the last, which read : 44 Syr. Calcis Lacto-phosphatis," &c. The 
person being an intelligent gentleman, I told him the prescription contained a 
new remedy — an article with which I was not acquainted — but that if he could 
wait a few days, I thought I might come across it in some of the pharmaceuti- 
cal journals which I had ; that owing to press of business, &c, I had got behind 
in reading them. He agreed. The next night, after reading the May number 
of the Journal of Pharmacy, I took up the June number, and began cutting the 
leaves; and I must acknowledge, somewhat to my surprise, found the second 
article was on the same new preparation which it was necessary forme to know 
about, by the very person on whose blank the prescription was written. I will 
just add, that in this short communication I found what was equal in dollars 
and cents to at least one year's subscription, to say nothing of the satisfaction it 
afforded. H. 

While endorsing the foregoing sentiments, we desire to add, that we wish sin- 
cerely all the members of our profession might be as liberal as the author of the 
formula mentioned, and like a number of others of our fraternity, had no secret 
formulas of their own, but were disposed to let others profit from their experi- 
ence. The American Journal of Pharmacy is open to all who desire to dis- 
seminate the results of their practical or scientific experience. 



Credit to whom Credit is Due. — Our predecessor in the editorial chair of 
this Journal has repeatedly been under the necessity of complaining of the dis- 
regard of journalistic right by several contemporaries, and we are constrained 
to reiterate the statements made by him at the beginning of the last volume, 
as applicable also for the past year, namely: that a number of original articles, 
translations and abridgements, furnished to this Journal, have been going the 
rounds under false colors. We respectfully suggest to editors the propriety of 
giving proper credit to the Journal to which it may be due, even though but a 
paragraph or two may be clipped from our " Gleanings," "Varieties " or orig- 
inal matter. It has been our aim in no case to omit such reference. 



AM j£!?;m2? M '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 4& 

Aid for the Chicago College of Pharmacy. — On another page we publish 
the action of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in aid of its young and un- 
fortunate sister institution, and we take great pleasure in announcing that in 
England a similar movement bas been inaugurated, as we learn from the Phar- 
maceutical Journal and Transactions of December 2d. Professor Attfield, in 
conjunction with Mr. Haselden, the President of the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Mr. Hills, the Treasurer, Mr. Brady, the President of the Pharmaceutical Con- 
ference, and Sir Thomas Dakin, the late Lord Mayor of London, have formed 
the nucleus. of a committee for collecting books, specimens, apparatus, etc., 
and funds with which to purchase others. The Pharm. Journal of December 
16th, informs us that Professor Attfield has received a letter from Dr. J. L. 
Soubeiran, stating that he and his colleagues of the school of pharmacy in 
Paris desire to contribute to the fund, and that a case of books will shortly be 
forwarded to London for that purpose. Such friendly acts make us feel in 
reality that pharmacy unites her followers into a large brotherhood, wherein 
the weal and the woe that may befall one of its members, is felt by all. There 
is now, we judge, no uncertainty about the early resumption of its educational 
functions by the Chicago College, and we invite all who are willing to contribute 
to its. library or cabinets, to communicate with Professor William Procter, or 
with the Editor, who will gladly place all contributions into the hands of the 
committee. 



Elixir Quinine Ferri et Strychnine Phosphatis. — On page 531 of our last 
volume we published a formula for this elixir, in regard to which we have re- 
ceived several letters, which show that the formula has not been correctly in- 
terpreted by all our readers. The quantity made by the formula is f^vijss or 
60 fluidrachms containing 30 grains of the alkaloid quinia (not the sulphate.) 
The crystallized sulphate of quinia equals about 75 per cent, of its weight of 
hydrate of quinia, or 30 grains of the latter are equal to about 40 grains of the 
sulphate, so that each fluidrachm of the preparation would contain enough 
quinia to represent two-thirds of a grain of the sulphate ; if intended to represent 
fully one grain of this salt, the hydrate of quinia in the formula should be in. 
creased to 45 grains. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Gmelin- Kraut's Handbuch der Ghemie. Anorganische Ghemie in drei Bdnden. 
Sechste umgearbeitete Auflage. Mit Abbildungen in Holzschnitt. Heraus- 
gegeben von Dr. Karl Kraut, Professor der Ghemie an der polytechnischen 
Schule in Hannover. Heidelberg : Garl Winter's Universitdtsbuchhandlung , 
1871. 8vo. 

Gmelin-Kraut's Handbook of Chemistry. Inorganic Chemistry in three 
volumes. Sixth edition, thoroughly revised. With illustrations in wood cuts. 

Gmelin's handbook of chemistry has a world-wide reputation ; it is an ever- 
lasting monument of patient research, and of the critical sifting of a countless 
number of facts and of theories, the results of the labors of hundreds of investi- 
gators. There is no chemical work in existence in which the entire scientific 



44 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
) Jan. 1, 1872. 



literature has been so thoroughly explored, so faithfully reported and so conve- 
niently and methodically arranged. Translated by Henry Watts and published 
by the Cavendish Society, it has also become part of the English scientific 
literature. In the German language, the entire work— including the organic 
chemistry — has met with four revisions and editions, and the inorganic portion 
alone even with five. 

"While the value of the work is everywhere unquestioned, we have now before 
us a sixth edition, in which Gmelin took no part, and the question arises, there- 
fore, whether this new edition sustains the reputation acquired by the older 
ones? The present editor and reviser, Dr. Kraut, took charge of the unfinished 
portion of the organic chemistry after the death of Gmelin in 1853, and the 
retirement of Dr. List from the editorial labors, and, aided by several learned 
chemists, he finished the work and two supplementary volumes . a couple of 
years ago, to the entire satisfaction of every critical examiner. 

The sixth revision of the inorganic part will be accomplished by a division of 
the labor, so that the first volume, containing the general, theoretical and phy- 
sical part, will be revised by Prof. Dr. A. Naumann, of Giessen, a portion of 
the non-metallic elements by Prof. H. Ritter, formerly of Hanover, now of 
Kanisawa, Japan, a portion of the metals by Dr. S. M. Jorgensen, of Copen- 
hagen, and the remainder of the non-metallic and metallic elements by the 
general editor, Prof. Kraut. This arrangement will render possible the early 
completion and uninterrupted simultaneous publication of the different volumes. 

We have upon our table, numbers one to four of the second part of Vol. I, 
containing Prof. Ritter's and a portion of Prof. Kraut's revision, and the two 
first numbers of Vol. Ill, revised by Dr. Jorgensen. The former embraces 
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, boron, phosphorus, sulphur, selenium, iodine and 
bromine; the latter contains zinc, cadmium, indium, tin and thallium. 

The subjects are sufficiently numerous to give a correct idea of the manner 
in which the revision has been accomplished, and to judge of the character the 
work is likely to possess, when finished. In all cases we find a complete and 
pretty exhaustive index of the literature bearing on each subject, up to the 
time of publication, and in the text this literature is judiciously used. Anti- 
quated views, which have been superseded by later investigations, have been 
dropped or are mentioned merely to give a correct historical sketch of the 
science, while on the contrary, all established facts are carefully enumerated, 
and contradictory statements critically examined. 

The diction is terse, clear and comprehensive, of the same character which 
has met with universal approbation in the original work ; the judicious and 
reliable selection and convenient arrangement of the multitude of facts 
deserves especial approving comment. The same commendation is due to the 
publishers for the general getting up of the work as far as it has appeared : the 
types are new, distinct and clear, the paper strong, and the size of the pages 
larger than heretofore. 

The different volumes will be published simultaneously in numbers of 80 to 
88 pages at g- thaler each. Chemists and those interested in chemistry, who 
are conversant with the German language, will doubtless hail with satisfaction 
the appearance of this new edition. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan. 1, 1872. J 



Obituary. 



45 



Vick's Illustrated Catalogue and Floral Guide for 1872. Rochester, N. Y., 
James Yick, 8 vo. 120 pages. 

We never refer in these columns to trade catalogues, which we receive 
frequently. If we make an exception with the one before us, it is done for two 
features of it, which we consider particularly appropriate, not merely to the 
lover of flowers, but to the student of botany; we refer to the very numerous 
well executed illustrations of flowers and ornamental plants and to the addition 
of the natural order after the common names. The botanical names of the 
species are given, as also of the varieties produced by cultivation. These 
features we consider a valuable aid to the beginner, and even to the more ad- 
vanced botanist, whose time does not permit him to pay much attention to the 
botanical origin of the numerous ornamental plants usually cultivated. 



OBITUARY. 

Robert James Taylor died December 21st, 1871, at Newport, R. I. The 
deceased had succeeded his father, and continued the business, for nearly 40 
years, until the time of his death. He was highly esteemed for his sterling qua- 
lities as a man and citizen in the community in which he spent nearly his entire 
life, and this respect was evinced by the numerous offices of honor and trust to 
which he had been elected. After the passage of the law regulating the prac- 
tice of pharmacy in the State of Rhode Island, Governor Padelford appointed 
Mr. Taylor a member of the State Pharmaceutical Board, which office he held 
at the time of his death. He had been a member of the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association for 12 years, and, though never taking any active part in its 
proceedings, always evinced considerable interest in its welfare. He leaves a 
wife, a daughter and four sons. 



John Balmer died recently at St. Leonard's, in his seventy-second year. 
He was fond of experimental pharmacy, and the occupation of what might be, 
perhaps, called his leisure was devoted to the investigation of new and supposed 
better methods of exhibiting pharmaceutical preparations. He was connected 
with the introduction of pancreatic emulsion, of the sulpho-carbolates, &c. 



George Whipple died, at an advanced age, on Oct. 31st. He had been a 
very active member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain during the 
first twenty years of its existence, and contributed many valuable papers to the 
44 Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions." Since 1858 he had been living in 
retirement, in consequence of advancing years and declining health. 



Dr. Adolph Strecker. — The University of Wiirzburg has sustained a heavy 
loss in the unlooked-for death of this excellent chemist, who departed this life 
in the prime of manhood, on the 7th of November last, as we learn from the 
November number of Buchner's N. Repertorium. One of the most capable of 
Liebig's pupils, he became, while rather young, Professor of Chemistry at the 
University of Christiania. Subsequently, he followed a call to Tubingen, and 
about two years ago accepted the chair at Wiirzburg, made vacant by the death 
of Prof. Scherer. Many of Strecker's investigations are of great importance 
to pharmacy, and have been noticed more or less extensively in this journal 
during the last 16 or 18 years. 



Correction. — The paper entitled Solvents for Indigo, published on page 562 
of our last volume, was taken from the "American Chemist," Nov., 1871. 

In the third line, second column of the table on page 9 of this number, Ifiij 
should be corrected so as to read ^iij. 



46 



Catalogue of the Glass. 



( Am. Jocb. Pharm 
{ Jan. 1. 1872. 



CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

Class of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 

FOR THE FIFTIETH SESSION, 1871—72. 
With a List of their Preceptors and Looalities. 



MATRICULANTS. 

Addington, W. B. 
Addis, T. D. 
Allen, C. Sumner, 
Alvarez, Miguel, 
Amsden, W. S. 
Antill, Joseph, Jr. 
Apple. A. A. 
Armor, Alpheus, 
Arnold, Joseph, 
Ash, J. Frank, 
Bailey, M. D., Oliver A 
Barriek, Wm. M. 
Beck, J. Howard, 
Beecher, Benjamin 0. 
Bell, William, 
Berridge, John L. 
Brille, George, 
Bicker, Wm. B. 
Bishop, A. B. 
Bitler. Henry H. 
Brakeley, Philip F. 
Bley, Alphons. 
Bolton, A. H. 
Bond, Munroe, 
Borell, Henry A. 
Boyer, Edward L. 
Bridger, Paul, 
Bringhurst, John H. 
Brown, C. S. 
Brown, Thomas D. 
Brumby, R. T., Jr. 
Buchanan, Harry T. 
Buckman, T. L. 
Budd, Frank M. 
Buntin, Wm. C. 
Buss, Milton M. 
Capp, Harry M. 
Cave Joseph, 
Cherry, James B. 
Chedister, Robert Y., Jr. 
Chiles, Richard T. 
Clarke, Eldie L. 
Clark, Charles H. 
Clemson, F. C. 
Conlyn, Thomas A. 
Conrath, Adam, 
Cooper, E. F. 
Coutin, H. G. 
Crawford, Jos. H. 
Curtis, Albert C. 
Cutter. Wilson. 
Cook, J. E. 
Danforth. Nathan B. 
Daniels, Johnson B. 
Davison, George S. 
Dawson, John fl. 
Delker. William, 
Desh, Edward E. 
Dilmore, William, 
Dobson, C. L. 
Dubois, L. Stanley, 
Dugan, W. F. 
Dougherty, Geo. W. 
Earley. Marshal J. 
Eberle, Herman T. 
Elston, J. B. 
Elwell, Albert, 
Emerson, Worthington, 
Evans, Charles B. 
Fairchild, B. T. 



TOWN OR COUNTY. 

Norfolk. 

Easton, 

Cleveland, 

Cienfuegos, 

Dubuque, 

Philadelphia, 

Alleghany, 
Philadelphia, 

Ipswich, 
Huntingdon, 
Yardville, 
Philadelphia, 



Dover, 

Philadelphia, 
Phillipsburg, 
Philadelphia, 

Manchester, 

Philadelphia, 

Lyons, 

Sr. Johns, 

Philadelphia. 

Jackson, 

Philadelphia. 

Atlanta, 

Philadelphia. 



Terre Haute, 

Bethlehem, 

Lebanon, 

Philadelphia, 

Pittsburg, 

Newark, 

Frankfort. 

Dover, 

Philadelphia, 

Carlisle, 
Milwaukie, 

Barancoa, 

Philadelphia. 

Ashland, 

Burlington, 

Philadelphia, 

Ashland, 

Chambersburg, 

Brooklyn, 

Ashland, 

Bethlehem, 

Salem, 

Philadelphia, 

Highfalis, 

Philadelphia, 



Watertown, 
Columbia, 
Bridgeton, 
Philadelphia, 



Stratford, 



STATE. 

Virginia. 

Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Cuba. 

Iowa. 

Pennsylvania. 



Massachusetts. 
Pennsylvan ia. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



Delaware. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 

New Hampshire. 
Pennsylvania. 

Antigua, W. I. 

Pennsylvania. 

Mississippi. 

Pennsylvania. 

Georgia. 

Pennsylvania, 

New Jersey. 

Indiana. 

Pennsylvania, 



New Jersey. 
Kent. 
Delaware. 
Pennsylvania. 



Wisconsin. 
Cuba. 

Pennsylvania, 
Ohio. * 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



New York. 
Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 



Wisconsin. 
Missouri. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 

Connecticut. 



PRECEPTOR. 

W. W. Scott, M. D. 
J. S. Hunt, M. D. 
Arthur Mosely. 

T. B. Tuttle. 

S. Levin Dilks. 

J. Vanbuskirk, M. D. 

Charles E. Haenchen. 

S. Mason McCollin. 

U. S. Army Dispensaries. 

D. H. Barriek & Co. 
C. W. Hancock. 

A. Hansell & Bro. 
J. McKey. 

W. D. Harrison, M. D. 

C. A. Werckshagen. 

E. Parrish. 

R J. RogeTs. 
Bean & Stevenson. 
W. Opdycke. 
John Bley. 
J. S. Everton. 
J. Oddy, M. D. 
0. S. Hubbell. 
H. C. Blair & Sons. 

L. A, Matos. 
Buck & Baley. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
R. T. Brumby & Sons. 
Wetherill & Bro. 

D. L. tirackhouse. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 
Wm. C. Buntin & Co. 
M. M. Selfridge & Co. 
J. A. Armstrong, M. D. 
French, Richards & Co. 
Joseph B. Cherry. 
Benjamin E. Smith. 
p]dward Chiles. 

H. C. Blair & Sons. 

Geo. H. Davis. 

John Bley. 

H. C. Blair & Sons. 

O. Pe riser. 

S. C. Allaband. 

J. R. Angney, M. D. 
V/. K. Foltz, M. D. 
J. D. White. 
J. F. Hillary & Bro. 
R. Shoemaker & Co. 
Marshall & Edwards. 
Northern Dispensary. 

E. Parrish. 
J. J. Dilker. 
J. M. Maisch. 
S. S. Bunting. 

D. W. Blake, M. D. 
J. G. Baker. 

J. J. Dugan. 

G. W. Dougherty 

C. R. Earley. 

E. B. Garrigues. 
Warren Price. 

C. L. Cummings. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 

F. Brown. 
A. B. Taylor. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. "| 
Jan. 1, 1872. ]" 



Catalogue of the Glass 



Fielding, John, 
Flinn, Henry A. 
Flint, J. H. 
Ford, Samuel S. 
Fraser, Horatio N. 
Frazer, John S. 
French, A. S. 
Fritsche, G. 
Geiger, Max, 
Gilbert, Benjamin S. 
Gill, Wm. C. 
Gleim, H. E. 
Glenn, Wm., Jr. 
Griscom, Joseph W. 
Gross, Edward Z. 
Guth, Morris, S. 
Hall, Byron H. 
Hall, Horace, 
Halleburton, Orlando, 
Hallowell, Horatio, 
Harley, John P. 
Harrison, Lee S. 
Harvey, John M. 
Haupt, Herman, Jr. 
Hawks, J. B. 
Hawkins, W. Barton. 
Hazard, Herbert. 
Haz;-ltine, L. D. 
Hess, Milton J. 
Helgeson, Alfred. 
Henry, George S. 
Henry, Wm. A. 
Hensel, Samuel T. 
Hildeburn, Charles R. 

Hill, F P. 

Hill, Lafayette, Jr. 

Hillegass, Eugene Z. 

Hilliard, Frank S. 

Hindmeyer, Jos. M. 

Hollock, Edward J. 

Hommann, James W. 

Housekeeper, A. K. 

Hufnal. Andrew M. 

Hurty, John, 

Janvier, Wm. N. 

Jefferson, Edward. 

Jobson, VValter, 

John, H. P. 

Johnson, George H. 

Johnston, Robt. 'H. 

Jones, George D. 

Jones, J. Morris, 

Keasbey, Harry G. 

Kem merer. N. H. 

Kille, Harry G. 

King, Bruce, 

Kneeshaw, John H. 

Knight, George W. 

Lange, C. Richard. 

Lantz, Joseph T. 

Lee, William E. 

Lemly, Samuel, Jr. 

Lercli, Wm. I. 

Light, W. H. 

Lilliendahl, C. 

Liuthicum, T. C. 

Long, Samuel S. 

McCrea, J. H. 

McClay, Preston, 

McElhenie, T. D. 

McGonigal, John, 

McKeone, A. 

Magee, Clacott, 

Magill, B. M. 

Marcy Samuel S. 

Martindell, W. N. 

Mateer, C. C. 

Mateer, John D. 

Mattison, Richard V. 

Matos, Louis A. 

Meyer, C. Carroll, 

Miles, J. J. 

Miller, J. C. 



Philadelphia, 

Marysville, 
Philadelphia, 
Providence, 
Alton, 

Sag Harbor, 

Caracas, 

Philadelphia, 

Jonestown, 

Philadelphia, 

Lebanon, 

Newark, 

Woodbury, 

Harrisburg. 

Bethlehem. 

Philadelphia, 

Little Rock, 

Conshohocken. 

Ashland, 

Covington, 

Wilmington, 

Philadelphia, 



New York. 

Warren, 

Bethlehem, 

La Crosse. 

Lebanon, 

Philadelphia, 

Lancaster, 

Philadelphia, 

Elyria, 

Covington, 

Pennsburg, 

Vineentown, 

Philadelphia, 



Paris, 
Troy, 
Smyrna, 
Philadelphia, 

Westchester, 
Philadelphia, 

Freemansburg, 

Newark, 

Philadelphia, 

Moorestown, 

Memphis, 

Philadelphia, 



Woodbury, 

Jackson, 

Easton, 

Covington, 

Philadelphia, 

Helena, 

York, 

Norristown, 
Piqua, 
Wooster, 
Dover, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 
Cape May, 
Philadelphia, 
Martin sburg, 
Mechanicsburg, 
Solebury, 

Philadelphia, 

Vicksburg, 

Burlington, 



Pennsylvania. 

California. 
Pennsylvania. 
Rhode Island, 
[llinois, 
Long Island. 
South America. 
Pennsylvania. 



Delaware. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



Arkansas. 

Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Delaware. 
Pennsylvania 
North Carolina. 
Michigan. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 

Wisconsin. 
Pennsylvania. 



Ohio. 

Tennessee. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



Illinois. 
Ohio. 
Delaware. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Tennessee. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 

Mississippi. 

Pennsylvania, 

Kentucky. 

Pennsylvania. 

Arkansas. 

Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Delaware. 
Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



Cuba. 

Pennsylvania. 
Mississippi. 
New Jersey. 



H. Blithe. 

W. W. Glentworth, M. D. 
Joseph Flint, M. D. 
Powers & Weightman. 
Wm. B. Blanding. 
A. M. Wilson. 
S. Mason McCollin. 
H. B. Taylor. 
Herman Fritsch. 
Wm. B. Webb. 
W. R. Warner. 
Jos. L. Lemberger. 
Charles M. Crowel!. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 

D. W. Gross & Son. 
C. Ellis, Son & Co. 
Edward D. Chipman. 
Wright & Siddall. 

C. J. Lincoln. 
James T. Shinn. 
Nelson & Gates. 
Harrison & Latch ford. 

E. Bringhurst & Co. 
French, Richards & Co. 
A. S. Sider. 

W. B. Hawkins. 
Caswell, Hazard & Co. 
S. F. Simes. 
Hess & Snyder. 
Jos. L. Bispham. 
Chris-Man Henry. 
C. Ellis, Son & Co. 
H. C. Blair & Sons. 
C. Ellis, Son & Co. 
J. Manville. 
J. C. Delacour. 
V. H. Smith. 

F. S. Billiard. 
J. T. Hafnal. 
E.J. Hollock. 
C. C. Hughes. 
Benj Housekeeper. 

C. H. Needles. 
Binford & Lilly. 
E. Janvier, M. D. 
Wm. L. Turner. 
T. R. Coombe. 

D. Jayne, M. D. 
John Stradley. 

D. S. Jones. 

W. H. Pile <fc Sons. 
J. S. Hunt, M. D. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 
A. M. Burden. 
S. S. Buntinj. 
W. J. McClean. 
Kneeshaw. Morris & Co. 

A. Robbins. 

French, Richards & Co. 
Powers & Weightman. 

B. F. Carter. 
Matthew F. Ash. 

E. B. Garrigues. 

W. E. Hamilton & Co. 
Beates & Miller. 

Cage, M. D. 
Dale & Hart. 
W. Stahler. 
W. R. Brandriff. 
T. A, Lancaster. 
Cowgill & Son. 



Wm. Notson, M. D. 
A. M. Mecray, M..D. 
A. M. Wilson. 
Risk & Musson. 
A. P. Blomer. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 

Thomas J. Husband, Jr. 
Hardaway & Co. 
W. G. Allinson. 



48 



Catalogue of the Class. 



f Am. Jotte. Pharn.. 
t Jan. 1,1872. 



Miller, W. H. 

Mitchell, Charles L. 

Moffit, Wm. G. 

Muringer, Jules, 

Mutchler, H. M. 

Neppach, Steven, 

Nevin, J. V. C. 

Newhard. Robert M. 

Nice, Harry J, 

Nicholas, W. C. 

Oliphant, Louis, 

Ouram, Charles, 

Owen, William, 

Oxley, Jefferson, 

Parker, James A. 

Parker, Joseph, 

Pawling, George, 

Pearce, H. T. 

Petzelt, Christopher. 

Phillips, C. S. 

Pierpoint, Ernest, 

Porter, Henry W. 

Potts, David G. 

Procter, Wallace, 

Radefeld, Frederick, 

Raser, A. P. 

Richardson, M. D. 

Richardson, T. S. 

Rid path, John, 

Riley, Christopher, 

Ritter, Eugene D. 

Roeder, J. E. 

Rohn, A. B. ' 
Roth, Milton W. 

Rowand, A. H. C. 

Rowe, J. M. 

Rowley, Isaac H. 

Russel, George M. 
Savage, Frank S. 
Schmidt, Henry, 
Scott, James, 
Shaw, G. J. 
Shrum, John H. 
Sloan. John B. 
Smith, A. E. 
Smith, Herbert D. 
Smith, Rush B. 
Snider, Edward B. 
Snyder, P. W. 
Spencer, E. W. 
Sprigg", J. S. 
Stem, W. Nelson, 
Stephens, Jacob R. 
Stevens, Thos, A. 
Stifel, Albert F. 
Still well, C. W. 
Stout, Robert, 
Straw, J. I. 
Tatem, Charles H. 
Taylor, Joseph Y. 
Thiebaud, Charles O. 
Thomson, Daniel, Jr. 
Thorpe, Benjamin, 
Trembley. E* C. 
Truckenmuller, G. L. 
'full, Isaac, 
Van Cise, Isaac P. 
Walker, Samuel E. 
Wallace, W. H. 
Weber, Peter G. 
Wenerd, J. E. 
Wetheri'l, H. M. 
White, William G. 
Wiley, Joseph, 
Williams. R. J. C. 
Wilson, Lewis H. 
Wirgman, John M. 
Wissman, Paul F. 
Wood, James P. 
Yeakle, Atwood, 
Yergin, Frank P. 
Younglove, John M. 
Ziegler, J. Walter, 
Zimmerman, Gus. A. 



New Philadelphia, Ohio. 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 



Easton, 

Fond du Lac, 

Philadelphia, 

Lebanon, 

Jersey Shore, 

Easton, 

Philadelphia, 



Paris, 

Philadelphia, 

Montgomery Co. 
Philadelphia, 



Wisconsin. 
Pennsylvania. 



Kentucky. 
Pennsylvania. 



Mahonoy, " 
Young America, Illinois. 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 



Reading, 

Lexington, 

Philadelphia, 

Philadelphia, 

Easton, 

Hosensack, 

Easton, 

Marietta, 

Philadelphia, 

Tarboro, 

Philadelphia, 



Cincinnati, 

Chester, 

Columbus, 

Lancaster, 

Vincentown, 

Williamsburg, 

Philadelphia, 

Norristown, 

Media, 

Hollidaysburg, 

Cold Water, 

Monmouth, 

Easton, 

Norristown, 

Niles, 

Wheeling, 

Philadelphia, 

Free port, 

Philadelphia, 



Vevay, 

Philadelphia, 

Woodbury, 

Philadelphia, 

Petersburg, 

Philadelphia, 

Mount Pleasant, 

Philadelphia, 



Philadelphia, 

Lexington, 
Philadelphia, 
Bridgeton, 
Philadelphia, 



Harrington, 
Philadelphia, 
Wooster, 
Bowling Green, 
Sun bury, 
Johnstown, 



Kentucky. 
Pennsylvania. 



Pennsylvania. 
North Carolina. 
Pennsylvania. 



Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 
Texas. 

Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Virginia. 
Pennsylvania. 



Michigan. 
Illinois. 
Pennsyl vania. 

Michigan. 

Virginia. 

Pennsylvania. 

Illinois. 

Pennsylvania. 



Indiana. 

Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 

Illinois. 

Pennsylvania. 

Iowa. 

Pennsylvania. 



Kentucky. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



Delaware. 
Pennsylvania, 
Ohio. 
Kent. 

Pennsylvania, 



T. A. Lancaster. 
Hance. Bro. & White. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 
C. Ellis, Son & Co. 

B. L. Smedley. 
A. Kussmann. 

S. Campbell & Co.. 
E. L. Reeves. 
J. L. Curry. 
Joseph P. Bolton. 
Wm. Lippincott. 

G. W. Ouram. 

Jos. L. Shoemaker. 

H. A. Vogelbaeh. 

C. Ellis, Son & Co. 

H. W. Pawling, M. EL 
P. F. Hyatt, M. D. 
Robert Platzer. 
C. C. Hagenbuck. 
N. Pierpoint, 
Peck & Co. 
R. Keys, M. D. 
Wm. Procter, Jr. 
Gustavus Radefeld. 
E. Parrish. 
J. W. Whitney & Co. 
R. Keys, M. D. 
E. Parrish. 
E. Beale. M. D. 
Bernheimer & Kerlin. 
Richard Opperman. 
H. F. Bucher. 
S. T. Jones. 
Robert Simpson. 
Charles Shivers. 
Hance Bro. & White. 
W. R, Warder. 
J. R, Angney, M. D. 
Spannagel & Radefeld. 
J. M. Stoever. 
R. D. Moore & Co. 
C. R. Keeney. 
Samuel F. Simes. 
L. Henley, M. D. 

G. Krause. 

C. Ellis, Son & Co. 

E. B. Snyder. 
J. Snyder. 

W. C. Bakes. ■ 
Sprig gs & Bro. 
T. A. Walker. 

F. B. Poley. 

Geo. W. Dougherty. 
S. Mason MeCollin. 
J. P. Boulton. 
C. N. Leary. 

H. D. Straw. 
A. Tatem. 

A. B. Taylor. 

J. L. Thiebaud. 

W. Hanly, M. D. 

C. Ellis, Son & Co. 

J. B. Moore. 

J. G. Fischer. 

J. Graham Tull & Son.. 

Van Cise & Lyon. 

John T. Walker. 

Mitchell & Bro. 
Bean & Stevenson. 
Wetherill & Bro. 
J. B. Morton & Co. 
W. R. Warner. 

I. Wilmer Simpers. 
A. Wilthergrer. 
Bullock & Crenshaw.. 
Russel & Landis. 

W. B. Thompson. 

C. E. Davis. 

David Horn, Jr. 

J. T. Younglove & Bro. 

F. Zerman, M. D. 

Joseph Abel. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



FEBRUARY, 187 2. 



PEPSIN. A NEW, PRACTICAL AND RELIABLE METHOD TO 
PREPARE IT; ITS PROPERTIES AND DIGESTIVE STRENGTH. 

By E. Sciieffer. 

When publishing my paper upon Saccharated Pepsin (Amer. Journ, 
of Pharm. Jan., 1871) my intention was to continue the experiments, 
then only hinted at, and to publish the results. I have since made a 
large number of experiments, some of which I deem of sufficient im- 
portance to be made known, although my researches are not finished. 

The various methods for the preparation of Pepsin, as given by 
different authors, seem to be intended mainly for the purpose of ex- 
periments, and are so complicated that the difference in the proper- 
ties characterizing the products is readily accounted for. The stu- 
dent of physiology may not shun the trouble attending these pro- 
cesses, but the manufacturer could not possibly resort to them, even 
if he was so inclined and no doubt wished for a more simple and prac- 
tical method. 

The author of Leop. Gmelin's Hand-book of Chemistry, in the last 
volume of the work (issued in 1870) says, under the heading of Pep- 
sin : " The Pepsin of commerce is either mucus of the stomach, 
scraped off and dried, or a mixture of Pepsin, Peptons and Starchy 
containing a little lactic acid." In what way these commercial pep- 
sins were prepared it is difficult to say, as most manufacturers have 
their own way and keep it a secret ; but in Europe, as well as in this 
country, most of these preparations died almost as soon as they were 
brought into existence, as they did not come up to what they were 
represented to be. 

In the summer of 1870, while working on and experimenting with 
Liquid Pepsin (Amer. Journal of Pharm. March, 1870,) and at the same 

4 



50 New Method for Preparing Pepsin. {^feJftSBT* 

time trying to improve it, I discovered some tests which I considered 
useful in the preparation of dry pepsin. Before this I had wished 
to prepare pepsin in the dry state, but was not inclined to follow the 
tedious and in some way uncertain processes usually given. 

Following up the hint received by certain tests with a number of 
experiments, I succeeded at last to obtain a very satisfactory product. 

The action of saturated solutions of some of the neutral salts of 
the alkalies on different protein substances induced me to try their ef- 
fect on pepsin. For this purpose I prepared an extraction of the mu- 
cous membrane of fresh hogs stomachs with water, acidulated with 
muriatic acid, which after repeated filtrations formed an opalescent 
yellowish liquid. Equal volumes of this liquid and of a saturated 
solution of sulphate of soda, when well mixed together, formed a 
precipitate, which was collected on a filter, pressed and dried ; a very 
small quantity of it, dissolved in water with the aid of a few drops 
of hydrochloric acid, dissolved coagulated albumen. Other satura- 
ted saline solutions were now experimented with, viz : of sulphate of 
magnesia and chloride of sodium, and also a solution of chloride of 
calcium of 1.27 spec. grav. 

By these solutions precipitates were likewise found to form, posses- 
sing properties identical with that obtained by sulphate of soda, but 
I finally decided to employ chloride of sodium as the precipitant, as 
by a comparative test, which of the four different salts would produce 
the most precipitate, the proportion was : chloride of sodium 4, sul- 
phate of magnesia 3 J, sulphate of soda 2, chloride of calcium 1, 
so that chloride of sodium gave twice as much precipitate as sul- 
phate af soda, and four times as much as chloride of calcium. But 
besides the larger yield, the sodium chloride has the preference for its 
antiseptic^properties. A part of the precipitate, formed by sulphate 
of magnesia and allowed to remain in the liquid, had a putrid odor after 
the third day, while a moist precipitate, formed by chloride of sodium 
and set aside purposely for experiments, proved to be good after six 
months. 

Preparation of Pepsin. On this basis I now began to prepare 
pepsin. Of the well cleaned fresh hog stomach the mucous membrane 
is dissected off, chopped finely and macerated in water, acidulated 
with muriatic acid, for several days, daring which time the mass is 
frequently well stirred. The resulting liquid, after being strained, 
is, if not clear, set aside for at least twenty-four hours in order to 



AK $ktm£ M '} New Method for Preparing Pepsin. 51 

allow the mucus to settle. To the clarified liquid the same bulk of a 
saturated solution of sodium chloride is added, and the whole thor- 
oughly mixed. After several hours the pepsin, which by the addi- 
tion of chloride of sodium has separated from its solution, is found 
floating on the surface, from whence it is removed with a spoon and 
put upon cotton cloth to drain ; finally it is submitted to strong pres- 
sure, to free it as much as possible from the salt solution. 

The pepsin, when taken from the press and allowed to become air 
dry, is a very tough substance, and presents, according to thickness, a 
different appearance, resembling in thin sheets parchment paper, and 
in thick layers sole leather ; its color varies from a dim straw yellow 
to a brownish yellow. Besides a little mucus it contains a small quan- 
tity of phosphate of lime and chloride of sodium, which, however, do 
not interfere with its digestive properties, as they are found also in 
normal gastric juice. 

Saccharated Pepsin. To work it into Saccharated Pepsin (Am. 
Journ. of Pharm. January 1871) the damp pepsin, as it is taken from 
the press, is triturated with a weighed quantity of sugar of milk to a 
fine powder, which, when having become air dry, is weighed again, 
the quantity of milk-sugar subtracted and so the amount of pepsin 
found. The strength of this dry Pepsin is now ascertained by find- 
ing how much coagulated albumen it will dissolve at a temperature of 
100° F. in five or six hours, and after this sufficient milk sugar is ad- 
ded to result in a preparation of which ten grains will dissolve one 
hundred and twenty grains of coagulated albumen, and this prepara- 
tion I have called Saccharated Pepsin. 

Purification of Pepsin. Anxious to get the pepsin in its purest 
state, if possible, chemically pure, I tried different methods, but have 
not succeeded as yet. In order to get a purer article I re-dissolve 
the pepsin, as obtained after expression, in acidulated water, filter the 
solution through paper, and precipitate again with a solution of sodium I 
chloride ; the precipitate, after draining and pressing, is now free of 
phosphate of lime and mucus, but contains yet salt. In the freshly 
precipitated state the pepsin is very readily soluble in water and can- 
not therefore be freed from adhering salt by washing. 

By allowing the pressed sheet of Pepsin to get perfectly air dry — 
whereby it becomes coated with a white film and small crystals of 
chloride of sodium — and by immersing it then in pure water for a 
short time, the greater part of sodium chloride can be extracted, but 



52 New Method for Preparing Pepsin, 

it has to be done very rapidly, as the pepsin swells up considerably 
and looses its tenacity. By operating in this manner I obtained a 
pepsin which dissolves in acidulated water to quite a clear colorless 
liquid, but as it still contains traces of salt, I preferred to call it Pur- 
ified Pepsin. 

I obtained a pepsin quite free of chloride of sodium — which by 
combustion did not leave any ashes — by swelling purified pepsin in 
water to a thick mucilaginous liquid and mixing it with alcohol of 95 per 
cent. A gelatinous almost transparent precipitate is formed, which is 
put on a cloth, washed with diluted alcohol, then pressed and dried. This 
preparation did not leave any ashes by combustion, but I was greatly 
disappointed in my expectation, when I found that the digestive 
strength of this pure pepsin was not as great as that of the purified pep- 
sin, which still contains sodium chloride. No doubt the use of alco- 
hol had impaired the digestive power of the pepsin to some extent. 

Properties of Pepsin. The pepsin is, as already mentioned, 
very soluble in water, when recently precipitated, but when once air 
dry dissolves but slowly and only in very small quantities in water. 

The dry purified pepsin, when put into water, swells up considera- 
bly, becomes perfectly white and, when vigorously shaken, disintegrates 
to small floccules, which swim in the liquid and remain suspended for 
a long time, while a very small quantity will dissolve. 

The watery solution has an almost neutral reaction, is coagulated 
by boiling, and gives with alcohol a transparent, gelatinous precipitate. 

With sulphate of copper it remains clear at first, but after several 
hours becomes turbid. 

Bi-chloride of mercury gives immediately a white precipitate. 

With tannin a very copious white precipitate is obtained. 

Nitrate of lead forms a white precipitate. 

The precipitate, formed by chloride of sodium, is very characteris- 
tic and at the same time very interesting. When a saturated solution 
of chloride of sodium is added to a clear solution of pepsin, not too 
concentrated, at first a jelly-like transparent coagulation is formed, 
which disappears upon stirring, and the liquid acquires a slightly opa- 
lescent appearance ; after a short time it becomes more turbid and 
small flakes are noticed floating in it, which soon will form into small 
transparent globules and as such rise to the surface. When the quan- 
tity of pepsin in a liquid is very small, the opalescence and turbidity 



A Fe J n;i P 872 RM '} New Method for Preparing Pepsin. 53 

is hardly noticed, but after some time the small globules will appear 
on the surface. 

The watery solution of pepsin decomposes readily; after a few 
days small flakes separate from the clear solution, which increase in 
number by longer standing, and on the fourth day already it emits a 
foul disagreeable odor. 

The watery solution of pepsin shows very little action on coagula- 
ted albumen ; a certain quantity of albumen, which by a watery so- 
lution was hardly acted upon in twenty-four hours, was readily dis- 
solved, after addition of a few drops of hydrochloric acid. A watery 
extraction of the mucous membrane was also experimented with, with 
the same result; before the addition of hydrochloric acid it did not 
dissolve albumen ; after acidulating it the albumen dissolved easily. 

Properties of Acidulated Pepsin. An acidulated solution of 
pepsin was made of such strength, that one fluid-ounce contained one 
grain of purified pepsin and two drops of hydrochloric acid, and ex- 
perimented with. 

By boiling, the clear liquid becomes turbid and, upon cooling, depos- 
its flakes. 

By addition of alcohol it remains clear at first, but upon standing, 
flakes of pepsin separate from it. 

Strong hydrochloric acid produces slight turbidity, which disappears 
by addition of more acid or by dilution with water. 

Chloride of sodium gives the characteristic precipitate. 

Bi-chloride of mercury produces opalescence. 

Tannin forms a heavy precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Gallic acid shows no action. 

Carbonate and bi-carbonate of soda produce a precipitate soluble 
in excess. 

Modified Pepsin. — A solution of carbonate of soda carefully 
added to a solution of pepsin produces a precipitate which, upon being 
separated from the liquid, will prove to be pepsin ; but a little more 
of carbonate of soda will redissolve it again, and the liquid no longer 
contains pepsin ; that is, the pepsin is destroyed or modified. 

This circumstance caused me to say in my essay (Amer. Journ. of Ph. 
1871, page 6,) " dry pepsin, precipitated with alcohol from its solution, 
did not act at all on albumen ," which remark I herewith revoke as 
erroneous. The fact was that, intending to make pure pepsin and 
not getting a precipitate by alcohol in the sour solution, I added car- 



54 New Method for Preparing Pepsin. { A F e b°A%8?2 iB ^ 

bonate of soda to neutralize the acid, and then obtained by alcohol a 
precipitate which I believed to be pure pepsin ; at that time I had 
not studied the change which carbonate of soda produces in pepsin. 

When I say above the pepsin is destroyed I mean its action on 
fresh coagulated albumen. A pepsin solution, made entirely neutral, 
or rather a little alkaline by addition of carbonate of soda, which 
afterwards is acidulated again with hydrochloric acid, has lost its 
power to dissolve fresh coagulated albumen. 

The alkaline solution assumes a foul odor after a short time ; it does 
not acton fresh coagulated albumen, except when purification sets in, 
and then the more putrid the solution becomes, the more it seems to 
act on albumen : at the same time the most natural odor of healthy 
human faeces will show itself. 

But, on the other hand, the alkaline solution, by itself as well as 
when acidulated, dissolves partly digested albumen. 

Coagulated albumen, put into pepsin solution until half gone, then 
taken out on a cloth and washed and put into an alkaline pepsin so- 
lution, will dissolve; it will likewise dissolve in an alkaline solution 
which has been again acidulated by the addition of hydrochloric acid. 
But these solutions have a different appearance from a solution by 
pepsin ; they are not as clear and thin a liquid as the latter. 

An alkaline (modified) pepsin solution does not get precipitated by 
chloride of sodium, but by addition of hydrochloric acid immediately 
a copious gelatinous precipitate will be formed. 

Digestive power of Pepsin. — In my former experiments the 
strength of pepsin was ascertained by allowing its solution at a certain 
temperature to act upon a convenient quantity of coagulated albumen 
for a given time, and determining the quantity dissolved by weighing 
that undissolved ; the albumen by this method was only partially dis- 
solved. In my recent experiments I determined the strength by 
ascertaining the amount of albumen that would be fully dissolved in 
a certain time and at a given temperature. I had found that the 
solvent power of pepsin is not inverse proportional to the time ; for 
if a pepsin dissolves X albumen in S time, 2a pepsin will not dissolve 
X albumen in =| time, as might be supposed, but require longer time. 
The last portion of coagulated albumen to be dissolved in an experi- 
ment requires much longer time in proportion, even when pepsin is 
in excess. 

Having used heretofore, in my experiments with pepsin, 10 drops 



^Fe J bTi872^ RM * \ New Method for Preparing Pepsin. 55 

of hydrochloric acid to the fluidounce of water, I wished to determine 
whether or not a smaller quantity of acid would answer the same 
purpose. It was of importance to ascertain if by the preparation 
of liquid pepsin a smaller quantity of acid would produce the same 
results, as some complaints were made of the acidity of that prepara- 
tion as first prepared. 

Of four experiments, in which a certain quantity of pepsin was dis- 
solved in 1 ounce of water with respectively 4, 6, 8 and 10 drops of 
hydrochloric acid of 1*17 spec, grav., the same amount of coagulated 
albumen was dissolved in the shortest time where 6 drops, then where 8 
drops and, thirdly, where 10 drops of acid were employed, while the ex- 
periment containing 4 drops of acid had, after 6 hours, a considerable 
quantity of albumen not dissolved. I, therefore, made all my sub- 
sequent experiments with a solution containing 6 drops of hydro- 
chloric acid to the fluidounce of water, at a temperature of 100 to 
105° F., and each vial was shaken about every 10 minutes. 

One grain of purified pepsin in 4 oz. of acidulated water was found 
to dissolve 400 grs. of coagulated albumen in 18 hours at 75° F. 

One grain of purified pepsin in 4 oz. of acidulated water dissolves 
500 grs. coagulated albumen at a temperature of 105° F., in 6 hours. 

Ten (10) grains of saccharated pepsin dissolve 120 grs. of coagu- 
lated albumen in 4 to 6 hours at 100° F. 

Although I did not succeed to prepare a pepsin like Wasman's, of 
which 1 part was capable of dissolving 60,000 parts of coagulated 
albumen I found that the digestive power of pepsin was almost inex- 
haustible. 

With one-half grain of purified pepsin in 2 oz. of acidulated water 
I dissolved 250 grains of coag. alb. ; to the solution was added an- 
other oz. of acidulated water and 250 grs. of albumen; when it was 
again dissolved I added in these fractional proportions of acidulated 
water and albumen, until finally the one-half grain had dissolved 
1500 grains of coagulated albumen. That it would have dissolved 
still more I proved in an experiment, mentioned hereafter. 

Pebton solution. — When the albumen, which by the digestive 
process is converted into albuminose or pepton, is perfectly dissolved, 
the resulting pepton solution is a very limpid, thin, slightly yellowish- 
colored liquid, which, when filtered, has an opalescent appearance. 

By addition of alcohol it remains at first clear, but forms, after 24 
hours, a gelatinous precipitate. 



56 New Method for Preparing Pepsin. { A V^i',mt K ' 

Pepton precipitate. — An equal volume of saturated salt solution 
added to the pepton solution produces a copious, perfectly white pre- 
cipitate, which, upon being collected on a filter, drained, pressed and 
dried, yields a hard white substance containing pepsin, peptons, chloride 
of sodium and a little acid. Put into water it becomes translucent, like 
horn, and dissolves after some time. 

Its solution has an acid reaction ; is not coagulated by heat ; hy- 
drochloric acid produces a heavy precipitate which, by dilution with 
water or by addition of more acid, will redissolve ; with alcohol it be- 
comes opalescent and forms after some time a precipitate. 

Bichloride of mercury gives a heavy white precipitate. 

Coagulated albumen put into the watery solution is hardly acted 
upon, but when acidulated with hydrochloric acid it is dissolved. 

Digestive power of the Pepton precipitate. — The digestive 
power of the precipitate, obtained by addition of sodium chloride to 
the pepton solution is remarkable. In many cases a solution of one 
grain of the precipitate in one oz. of acidulated water dissolved 100 
grains of coagulated albumen. 

With 20 grains of saccharated pepsin in 2 oz. of acidulated water 
I dissolved 240 grs. of coagulated albumen ; the precipitate obtained 
» from this solution by chloride of sodium weighed, when dry, 12 grains, 
of which 1 grain dissolved 100 grs. of coagulated albumen ; from this 
last solution again, by chloride of sodium, 10 grains of precipitate were 
obtained, of which 1 grain dissolved between 20 and 30 grs. of coagu- 
lated albumen. In this way the 20 grs. of saccharated pepsin, for 
which I only claim the power to dissolve 240 grs. of albumen in 6 
hours, dissolved at the rate of between 4000 and 5000 grains. 

The solution of 1500 grs. of albumen, obtained by fractional addi- 
tion of albumen and acidulated water to an acidulated solution of 
half a grain of purified pepsin, mentioned above, furnished with 
chloride of sodium a precipitate, which also had considerable digestive 
power. 

Relation of Chloride of Sodium to the digestive power of 
Pepsin. — By its preparation the commercial, saccharated pepsin 
contains always a small quantity of chloride of sodium; in my ex- 
periment, to obtain a pure pepsin free of sodium chloride, I succeeded 
by using alcohol, but the resulting product had less digestive power 
than purified pepsin, which still contains salt. It was, therefore, in- 



Mar. Joint. Pharm. \ 
Feb. 1, 1872. j 



New Method for Preparing Pepsin. 



57 



teresting to determine if chloride of sodium would aid the action of 
pepsin on albumen and accelerate its solution. 

A very small quantity of salt, a quantity that does not exceed much 
that of the purified pepsin, does not interfere with, on the contrary 
benefits the pepsin in its action ; but a larger quantity, although very 
small in itself, retards the solvent power. 

While half a grain of pure pepsin in 2 oz. of acidulated water dis- 
solved 200 grains of coag. alb. perfectly, a great deal of albumen was 
left undissolved in the same time when 5 grs. of salt were added to 
it, while by 10 grains of salt a portion' of the albumen was not dis- 
solved after three days. 

Stability of Pepsin. — As watery solutions of pepsin decompose 
very soon, particularly in warm weather, it was of interest to deter- 
mine the stability of acidulated solutions ; accordingly solutions con- 
taining one grain of purified pepsin to the fluidounce of water, and 
respectively 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 drops of hydrochloric acid were set 
aside, a portion of each in well-corked vials and another portion in 
vials only tied up with paper. The solutions containing 2 drops of 
acid became mouldy after the first and second week, while in the vials, 
with 4 drops of acid, I noticed mould after five weeks. The other solu- 
tions kept entirely clear, and when examined, after 6 months, they 
did not have any bad odor, but had lost their digestive power almost 
entirely ; albumen, put into several of the solutions, was hardly acted 
upon, and chloride of sodium did not produce the characteristic pre- 
cipitate. 

To 20 grs. of purified pepsin, swelled in 2 ounces of water, were 
added 10 drops of hydrochloric acid, which dissolved the pepsin fully 
and formed a liquid of a slight yellowish color, and the consistence 
of the officinal mucilage of gum arabic. Put aside in a beaker-glass, 
tied up with blotting paper, it evaporated slowly, and was, after 6 
weeks, dried out to a transparent gum which felt sticky to the touch. 
Examined after several months, it dissolved readily in water, form- 
ing a clear solution of sour reaction and taste, which had no bad 
odor, but acidulated and diluted to the strength usually employed in 
my experiments, did not act on coagulated albumen, and chloride of 
sodium gave no precipitate. The pepsin was therefore totally de- 
stroyed or at least made inactive. 

Anxious to learn whether liquid pepsin, which had been put aside 
^ight months before for experiments' sake, had retained its digestive 



58 New Method for Preparing Pepsin. 



Am. Jour. Pharkv 
Feb. 1, 1872. 



properties, I examined this and found that, although slower in its- 
action, it still dissolved albumen, and was also precipitated by chloride- 
of sodium. 

It seems, therefore, that the glycerin in the preparation of liquid 
pepsin prevented the pepsin from decomposition. 

In the spring I had set aside moist precipitate (by chloride of sodium) 
of pepsin of the consistence ready for the press ; when examined after 
six months it had a sweet odor, was pressed, dried, and its digestive 
power ascertained, whereby it proved to have the same digestive 
strength as when fresh prepared. 

Several times the (chloride of sodium) precipitate, while draining 
on the cloth, was entirely frozen through, but proved, after thawing 
not inferior in quality. 

The purified as well as the saccharated pepsin, examined twelve 
months after preparation, proved to be entirely as good as when re- 
cently prepared ; they had lost nothing of their strength, and dis- 
solved albumen in the same time and in the same quantities as when 
quite fresh. The only difference is, that with age the dry pepsin 
dissolves somewhat slower in acidulated water. 

Action of Pepsin on Milk. — As the opinion is still prevalent, 
even amongst physicians, that only calf rennet has the property of 
separating the casein from the milk, or, in other words, to coagulate 
milk, it was interesting to me to try the action of pepsin on milk. 

Five grains of saccharated pepsin, swelled in a little water and then- 
stirred into one pint of milk, coagulated the milk in 30 minutes. 

Of a solution of two grains of purified pepsin, two drops of hydro- 
chloric acid and one fluid-ounce of water, it took five drops to coagu- 
late four ounces of milk in about 20 to 30 minutes ; while 10 drops 
of dilute muriatic acid (20 drops to one oz. of water) did not curdle 
four oz. of milk in four hours. 

Averaging 400 drops in a fluid-ounce of the pepsin solution, it 
took one-fortieth (J^) part of one grain to coagulate four ounces of 
milk or one grain to five quarts ; according to this test, one part of 
pepsin will coagulate about 80,000 (eighty thousand) parts of milk. 

The success of these experiments depends a great deal on the tem- 
perature ; the best way is to add the pepsin to the milk when cold, 
and then heat it slowly ; when kept cold it takes much longer time 
to coagulate the milk. Also when the milk is heated first, say to- 



AM peb™"S72. wt '} New Method for Preparing Pepsin. 59 

100° F., before the pepsin is added, it takes three to four times as 
much pepsin to effect coagulation. 

Alcohol incompatible with Pepsin. — In my former articles 
written about pepsin, I have mentioned the incompatibility of pepsin 
and alcohol, and have spoken of the impropriety of dispensing pepsin 
in the form of wine or elixir. Having now a purer pepsin at my dis- 
posal than before, I repeated the experiments with entirely the same 
result. 

Seven vials of solution of pepsin, each containing the same amount 
of pepsin and hydrochloric acid, were made with that difference, that, 
while vial No. 1 contained only one fluid-ounce of water, No. 2 con- 
tained one-half drachm of alcohol and seven and a half drachms of 
water ; No. 3, one drachm of alcohol and seven drachms of water ;. 
and so each following vial one-half drachm of alcohol more than the 
preceding one, so that in vial No. 7 there were five drachms of water 
and three drachms of alcohol. The same amount of coagulated albumen 
was given into each vial, which were exposed then to a temperature 
of 100° F. After six hours in vial No. 1 all the albumen was dis- 
solved ; in No. 2 some albumen was left undissolved, No. 3 con- 
tained more, and in No. 4 over half of the albumen was not dis- 
solved, while in five, six and seven the albumen was a little changed 
in appearance, but the bulk not diminished. The contents of those 
vials in which the albumen was not much acted upon, emitted that 
peculiar sour odor which characterizes discharges of an overloaded 
stomach (with beer or wine) by vomiting. 

A solution of half a grain of purified pepsin in half a fluid-ounce of 
water, with three drops of hydrochloric acid, was mixed with one fluid- 
ounce of sherry wine, after 24 hours filtered, and then, with the 
addition of 150 grs. of coag. albumen, exposed to a temperature of 
105° F. After six hours — during which time the half grain of puri- 
fied pepsin in acidulated watery solution would have dissolved 250 
grs. of coag. albumen — of the 150 grs. at least two-thirds yet re- 
mained. I added now six drops more of hydrochloric acid to bring 
the liquid to my standard acidity, but even at the end of 24 hours a 
large quantity of the albumen was undissolved. 

Having never made pepsin by any other method, I am not able nor 
justified to judge between the different products ; but that my process 
excels by simplicity, nobody will question. That a complicated process, 



60 New Method for Preparing Pepsin. {^ITi, m™' 

by which strong bodies, as mercury, lead and sulphuretted hydrogen, are 
alternately used, to prepare a substance, should or might impair the 
^quality of the product, is very probable. That nevertheless pepsin, 
prepared by such a method, has the digestive power, speaks for the 
almost inexhaustible strength of it. 

Another point of importance in my preparation I would call atten- 
tion to, is that no artificial heat at all is used, neither by extracting 
the stomachs nor by drying the pepsin, and in my whole process no 
evaporation is necessary. To evaporate the solution of a substance, 
for which a few degrees difference in heat decide between life and 
death, is a very delicate operation, which is easily carried out for ex- 
perimental purposes, but on a larger scale is almost impossible. 

My pepsin differs from the pepsin described in Gmelin's Handbook, 
principally by the latter being easily soluble in water, while mine, 
although very soluble in the moist state, looses its solubility almost 
entirely by exsiccation. 

That pepsin precipitate, which, combined with pepton, I obtained 
from the pepton solution, is more identical to the pepsin described in 
Gmelin's Handbook (Volume 8, Zoochemie), as it is easily soluble after 
having become dry, is completely precipitated by alcohol, shows a 
more acid reaction and its clear solution becomes more turbid by ad- 
dition of hydrochloric acid than the pure pepsin. 

To bring the pepsin into a finely divided state, I preferred the use of 
milk sugar to that of starch, the substance generally used for this 
purpose, particularly by the French manufacturers ; reasoning that 
sugar with its antiseptic properties will contribute to the stability of 
it, while starch, particularly in the damp state, is very apt to get 
mouldy, and will then, as a necessary consequence, cause the decompo- 
sition of the pepsin. 

When first making the commercial pepsin, which I called sacchar- 
ated pepsin, I aimed to make it of such strength that one grain of the 
saccharated should correspond in its digestive power to one teaspoon- 
ful of the liquid pepsin (Amer. Journal of Phar., January, 1871); 
that it can be made of much greater power I have plainly shown by 
the before mentioned results. 

As for the precise strength that will be best suited for the human 
stomach, that will have to be determined by physiologists. Accor- 
ding to Schroeder, the normal gastric juice of man dissolves 21 per 
<;ent. of coagulated albumen ; five grains of saccharated pepsin, which 



AM Febyiim2 RM "} Process for Preparing Emulsions, etc. 61 

in acidulated solution dissolve 60 grs. of coagulated albumen in four to 
six hours would correspond to half an ounce of human gastric juice. 
No doubt the beneficial effect of pepsin has its limits. Several grains 
of the purified pepsin, of which one grain dissolves 500 grs. of albumen 
in six hours, might do more harm in the human stomach than good, and 
might even do positive injury. 

But, in this essay, I have given only facts based on chemical ex- 
periments ; to make use of these facts for therapeutical and physi- 
ological purposes, I leave to physicians. 

Louisville, Ky., January, 1872. 



IMPROVED PROCESS FOR PREPARING EMULSIONS OF 
LIGHTER VOLATILE OILS, ETC. 
By J. Winchell Forbes. * 

Of all the processes incident to extemporaneous pharmacy there is, 
perhaps, no one so vexatious and tiresome as the preparation of an 
emulsion, especially one containing chloroform, ether, or one of the 
lighter volatile oils, and any improvement upon the usual " elbow 
grease" method will, I am confident, meet with a hearty welcome 
from every practical apothecary. 

The advent of a recipe for a turpentine emulsion at the very last 
moment of a hard day's work, set the wits of the writer at work to 
devise some practical method of avoiding the labor and expenditure 
of time incident to such prescriptions, and the following process is 
the result : 

In order to illustrate, let us imagine the following recipe handed 
to an apothecary for preparation. 

* ^. 01 Terebinth. 

Mucil. Acaciae aa 3j. 

M. 

ft. Emulsio S.A. 

" Secundum artem." Very good, and what is the law of the art ? 

In the articles upon Mixtures in the U. S. Dispensatory, it is di- 
rected that when gum acacia is specified as the intermedium of an 
emulsion, it shall be brought "previously " into the form of U. S. P. 
Mucilage. 

At the risk of being considered presumptuous, I take the liberty 
of flatly contradicting this direction — wilfully disregarding the " pre- 
viously " and proceeding as follows : 



f 



62 Process for Preparing Emulsions, etc. {^eHim?*' 

First. Pour the turpentine into a two-ounce vial, and shaking so 
as to coat the inside of the vial with a film of turpentine ; this is to 
prevent the action of the moisture usually present. 

Secondly. I add 9j powdered acacia, and mix thoroughly with 
the oil. 

Lastly. Half a fluid-ounce of water is added, and the whole is well 
shaken. A perfect emulsion is the result, requiring less time for its 
preparation than to read the foregoing directions. The bottle may 
then be filled up with mucilage, or, according to my experience, a 
better product is obtained with water simply. 

The deviation from the letter of the law in regard to the gum 
strength of the emulsion needs no apology to the practical phar- 
macist, as the sole object in view is to emulse the oil, and it will be 
found that ten grains to the fluid-ounce of emulsion will afford a 
product superior in all respects (especially in fluidity) to one contain-, 
ing more gum, and more nearly approaching the peculiar characteris- 
tics of that most perfect of all emulsions — cow's milk. 

An emulsion of turpentine prepared in this manner and allowed to 
stand some time, shows not the least separation of its oil, but floating 
on the surface of the water is a stratum of a true " cream," which, 
like its prototype, requires but slight agitation to mix thoroughly 
with its substratum. 

I have for some time past kept an emulsion of oil of turpentine pre- 
pared as above, containing half its volume of oil, for use in dispensing, 
and as the oil is perfectly emulsed, its incorporation in any desired 
amount of mixture or vehicle requires no more labor or skill than in 
the case of a tincture or syrup. I find, also, that the emulsion rather 
improves by standing, the " cream " becoming more homogeneous. 

It is often desirable to administer this oil in quite large doses, and 
it will be found that a mixture of one part of an emulsion of the above 
strength, with three parts of syr. wild cherry will give a preparation 
that is rather pleasant than otherwise, both as regards taste and odor. 

Actual experiment has demonstrated that this method is applicable 
to all liquids that possess no solvent power as regards gum acacia, 
and that possess a reasonable degree of mobility. In accordance 
with this fact it will be found that ether and chloroform, when treated 
in this manner, will yield perfect emulsions, and, as the operation is 
conducted in a close vessel, the loss sustained in the usual process is 
not incurred. 



AM Pen;m A 2 HM } On Fluid Extract of Vanilla. 63 

The principle upon which this process is based is very simple. In 
the usual mortar process the cohesiveness of the intermedium has to 
be overcome, it being directly opposed to the union desired, whereas, 
in the new, the same condition of the gum does not occur until 
-after the union, being then opposed to their separation. 

San Francisco, Cal. 



ON FLUID EXTRACT OF VANILLA. 
By J. B. Moore. 

This preparation, though usually called a fluid extract, is in reality 
only a tincture in the common acceptation of the term. The rich and 
delightfully aromatic qualities of Vanilla has given to its fluid extract 
an importance and popularity unsurpassed by any other flavoring sub- 
stance. While it is indispensable to the housekeeper and confec- 
tioner, it is also of importance to the pharmacist and perfumer. Alone 
or associated with other flavoring substances, it is often employed by 
the pharmacist to conceal or modify the taste and odor of many un- 
pleasant remedies. 

In making this fluid extract it is absolutely essential to the success 
of the operation that the vanilla be reduced to a fine state of division, 
and it is in performing this operation that the operator encounters the 
greatest difficulty. The peculiarly tough texture of the shell not only 
renders vanilla very difficult to powder, but it also offers an obstinate 
resistance to the action of solvents, and unless it is reduced to a suf- 
ficiently fine powder to enable the menstruum to exert its full solvent 
power it cannot be entirely exhausted. 

I have tried during the last few years a variety of methods of 
making this fluid extract, and with variable success, until I adopted 
the following plan, which, having been tested by repeated trials with 
uniform success, I deem of sufficient importance to offer to the readers 
of this Journal. 

I^. Vanilla, 

Sugar, crushed loaf, aa % viij, troy. 
Alcohol, 

Water, each, sufficient quantity. 
Slit the pods from end to end with a knife ; then take them in small 
bundles, held tightly between the fingers, and cut them transversely 
into very small pieces. Of these, beat small portions at a time, in an 



64 



On Fluid Extract of Vanilla. 



f Am. Jour. Phabx. 
\ Feb. 1, 1872. 



iron mortar, with a little of the sugar until reduced to a damp powder,, 
which must be rubbed with the hand through a No. 20 sieve ; any 
coarse particles which will not pass through the sieve must be returned' 
to the mortar, and, with fresh portions of vanilla and sugar, again 
treated as before. This process is to be continued until the whole of 
the vanilla, with the sugar, is reduced to a No. 20 powder. This is 
then to be mixed with five pints of a menstruum, consisting of three 
parts of alcohol and one part of water, and the mixture introduced 
into a stone jug of the capacity of one gallon, which must be tightly, 
corked. The jug is then to be placed in a water-bath, resting upon 
folds of paper, and the mixture digested for two hours at a temperature 
of from 160° to 170°. The neck and shoulders of the jug must be 
kept cool, to prevent the undue expansion of vapor during the diges- 
tion. This can easily be done by wrapping around the neck and 
shoulders of the jug an old towel or other cloth kept saturated by 
having cold water squeezed upon it from a sponge every fifteen or 
twenty minutes. If the jug is of the capacity directed, this will be 
found to be often enough to apply the water. The jug should also be 
removed from the bath after each application of the water, and its. 
contents well shaken. In doing this it will be well to keep the hand 
upon the cork to prevent its expulsion, and perhaps consequent loss, 
of material. When the digestion has been completed, and the mix- 
ture has cooled, it is to be expressed through muslin. Pack the resi- 
due, previously rubbed with the hands to a uniform condition, firmly 
in a glass funnel, prepared for percolation, and gradually pour upon 
it first the expressed liquid, and when this has all disappeared from 
the surface, continue the percolation with a mixture of three parts of 
alcohol and one part of water until eight pints of percolate are ob- 
tained. 

When the pods have been well preserved and are very moist, there 
may sometimes be required a little more sugar than I have directed 
in the formula to make t:iem powder easily. When this is the case, 
the necessary additional quantity of sugar may be added, which will 
make no important difference beyond rendering the preparation a lit- 
tle sweeter, and this is not at all objectionable. But I have generally 
found the quantity of sugar ordered to be sufficient. 

Many substances, such as sand, glass, &c, have been suggested as 
auxiliaries in the process of powdering vanilla, and either of these 
may be employed in the above process, instead of sugar, if preferred 



AM Feb U i;i P 8 H 72 RM '} Linimentum Sap&nis. 65 

by the operator, and the sugar can be mixed with the powder after- 
wards, and dissolved in the menstruum before digestion. But I have 
always had success when using the sugar, and prefer it to any other 
substance. 

A thermometer should be kept in the water-bath during the diges- 
tion for the purpose of regulating the temperature, which should not 
be allowed to exceed 170°. 

The elevated temperature at which the digestion is conducted very 
greatly contributes to the ready solution of the active constituents of 
the vanilla; it softens and expands the tough particles of shell, and 
admits of the free access of the menstruum, (the solvent power of which 
is also greatly heightened by the heat,) to all its parts. The diges- 
tion being performed in a close vessel, there is consequently no loss of 
aroma in the process. 

The above is an expeditious and at the same time efficient method 
of making this preparation, and if the process is managed with care, 
it will thoroughly exhaust the vanilla. In fact, this is almost accom- 
plished by the digestion itself, as is shown by the circumstance that 
the dregs after they are expressed are almost tasteless. 

In the absence of any recognized standard strength for the fluid ex- 
tract of vanilla, I have, in the above formula, adopted that which is 
usually employed, namely, one troy ounce of vanilla to one pint of 
menstruum. In preparing it for general use, these proportions are 
perhaps the best that can be made. 

The alcoholic strength of the menstruum to be employed in making 
the fluid extract of vanilla is also not a matter of indifference, as upon 
this depends the color as well as the quality of the finished product. 
The one I have chosen, consisting of three parts of alcohol and one 
part of water, seems to answer the purpose most admirably. Diluted 
alcohol is not so good a solvent for the virtues of vanilla, and it ex- 
tracts too much coloring matter, rendering the fluid extract too dark, 
while alcohol alone affords a preparation objectionably light in color, 
and also makes its manufacture rather more expensive. 

Philadelphia, January, 1872. 



LTNIMENTUM SAPONIS, 
By J. A. Graefle. 
This preparation can be made in a few minutes by the following 
modification of the officinal process : 

5 



66 



Pharmaceutical Notes. 



("Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Feb. 1, 1872. 



Take of Dry White Castile Soap (finely grated), %'\v. 



Camphor, 

Oil of Rosemary, fl^ss. 

Water, fl^vj. 

Alcohol, fl^xxx. 



Put the soap in a half-gallon bottle, pour on a pint of alcohol, shake 
well, add the water and shake again till the soap is dissolved. 

Dissolve the camphor and oil in the remaining alcohol, mix the 
two solutions and filter. 

From five to ten minutes is all that is necessary for the solution of 
the soap, and the resulting liniment, when finished, is beautifully clear. 

Baltimore, Jan., 1872. 



PHARMACEUTICAL NOTES. 
By J. Dondc. 

The frequent use which is made of gum water, and the inconveni- 
ences which its preparation for each prescription presents, induced mo 
to prepare the following : 

Gum Syr up. 

Gum Arabic, in coarse powder, 2 pounds, 

Rain Water, 2 J pounds, 

Simple Syrup, 6 fluid-pounds. 

Macerate the gum in the water, shaking it occasionally, for 6 or 8 
hours, until completely dissolved ; then strain. This gives 3 J fluid - 
pounds of mucilage. Concentrate the syrup to 35° Bme., remove 
from the fire, let it cool to 60 or 70° C, and add the mucilage. It 
gives 8 fluid-pounds of syrup, which contains one-fourth part of gum.* 
Mixing 1J fluidounces of this syrup with 6J ounces of water, a per- 
fectly clear solution is obtained which contains 3 drachms of gum. 
I ha ve prepared this syrup since the year 1862. 

The extract of rhatany is prescribed often in sweetened water or 
with gum ; but its solution is slow and incomplete, often remaining 
turbid. To obviate these inconveniences I have prepared a syrup 
after the following formula : 

* This syrup contains twice the amount of gum Arabic of the syrupus acaciae, 
U. S. — Ed. Amer. Journ. Pharm. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
Feb. 1, 1872. J 



Pharmaceutical Notes. 



67 



Syrup of Rhatany. 
Dry Extract of Rhatany, 3 ounces. 

Rain Water, 5 ounces. 

Simple Syrup, , 15 fluidounces. 

Pulverize the extract, mix it with the water and 5 ounces of the 
syrup in a capsule, which place in a steam-bath, occasionally stirring 
with a glass rod until the extract is dissolved ; add the rest of the 
syrup, and evaporate to 18 fluidounces. Each fluid-drachm contains 
10 grains of extract.* 

When sulphuric lemonade is prescribed with extract of rhatany it 
is necessary to add a little gum syrup to prevent the precipitation of 
the extract. 

Syrup of Valerian, to replace infusions. 

Hydro-alcoholic Ext. of Valerian Root, 2 ounces, 
Rain Water, 2 ounces, 

Simple Syrup, 4 fluidounces. 

Concentrate the syrup to 32° Bme'.; when cooled to 40 or 50° C, 
add the extract dissolved in the water. When cold it has 36° Bme. 
Each fluidounce contains 18 grains of extract, equivalent to 1 drachm 
of the root. One fluidounce of this syrup with 8 of water may ad~ 
advantageously replace the in fusion. f 

Would it not be convenient to employ syrups for preparing drinks 
which are now made by infusion or decoction? There would result 
the advantage of having the medicine whenever needed, and always 
with the same proportion of medicinal principles. 

The fluid extracts would be very useful in the preparation of these 
syrups. 

Fluid Extract of Opium. 
In most fluid extracts alcohol is used as the vehicle of extraction 
and preservation ; but as opium, from its nature, completely excludes 
this liquid, I have recurred to glycerin for the preservation of this 
fluid extract. 

Treat the opium twice with cold water, according to the proceeding 
described by Mr. Soubeiran in his treatise on Pharmacy. Filter and 

* The amount of extract of rhatany contained in this syrup is about three 
times larger than that of the syrupus krameriae, U. S. — Ed. Am. Journ. Pharm. 

t Only one-half the strength — not to speak of the quality — of the infusum Va- 
lerianae, U. S. — Ed. Am. Jour. Pharm. 



68 Gleanings from the European Journals. | AM Feb U i,' 



Phakm . 
1872. 



evaporate the liquids to the consistency of extract ; redissolve this in 
16 times its weight of cold water; filter and add 7J ounces by weight 
of glycerin to each pound of opium employed, and evaporate to 15 
ounces. 

I have had this preparation on hand two years and a half, in good 
condition. Two pounds of good opium have always given me 15 oz. 
of extract. 

The soda ley for making san ton ate of soda (see Amer. Jour. Pharm. 
1871, p. 451) should have a specific gravity corresponding with 
12° B. 

Merida, Yucatan. January 8, 1872. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Sinalbin. O 30 H 44 N 2 S 2 16 , according to H. Will, is a glucoside, 
extracted by alcohol from yellow mustard. An aqueous infusion of 
mustard decomposes this body into sulfocyanacrylin (C 8 H 7 NSO), 
acid sulphate of sinapirin (C 16 H ]9 NS0 9 ) and sugar (C 6 H 12 9 ). Ether 
dissolves only sulfocyanacrylin, which is an acrid oil insoluble in 
water and not volatile. Sinalbin yields with nitrate of silver a white 
precipitate, from which sulphuretted hydrogen liberates cyanacrylin 
C 8 H 7 NO, soluble in water, alcohol and ether, and fusible at 69° C- 
Boiled with potassa, ammonia is evolved, and an acid C 8 H 8 3 which 
fuses at 136° C. 

The author does not state the relation of these bodies to the com- 
pounds which have been thus far assumed to be derived from yellow 
mustard. — Pharm. Zeitschr. f. Mussl., 1871, 595, from Zeitschr. f. 
Ohem. 1871, p. 89. 

Antidote to Carbolic Acid. Dr. Theodore Husemann opposes the 
use of fixed oils, glycerin and similar demulcents in cases of poison- 
ing by carbolic ; but recommends, based upon experiments with rab- 
bits made by himself and Ummethun, the saccharate of lime, the alka- 
line earth combining with the carbolic acid to form a non-poisonous 
salt. Lime water is less adapted to this purpose, owing to the spar- 
ing solubility of lime in water, and the large quantity of lime water 
required for neutralizing the poison. Precipitated carbonate of lime 
does not combine with carbolic acid, but may be employed in case the 
saccharate of lime should not be procurable at once ; the carbonate 



k Te™*'i8i2**'\ Gleanings from the European Journals. 69 

appears to act merely mechanically by absorbing the poison, and thus 
delaying its ill effects ; sufficient time is thereby afforded to prepare 
the saccharate.— Ibid. p. 609-622. 

The root of Reseda odoratu (mignonette), which has an odor re- 
sembling horse-radish, was found by Dr. A. Vollrath, to yield, by 
distillation, a volatile oil, consisting mainly of sulphocyanide of allyl. 
—Arehiv d. Pharm., 1871, Nov., p. 156. 

Tinetura Rhei aquosa. E. Fischer, of Dresden, furnishes the fol- 
lowing formula, yielding an unexceptionable stable preparation : 100 
grm. sliced rhubarb, 10 grm. each of powdered borax and carbonate 
of potassa, are infused with 900 grm, boiling water for 15 minutes ; 
100 gram, alcohol are added, and the maceration continued for one 
hour; then strain, express, add 150 grm. cinnamon water and filter- 
the filtrate should weigh 1000 grm. — Ibid., p. 158. 

Senecio Vernalis, Waldst. et Kit. was unknown to Linnaeus, and 
first mentioned by Prof. Gilibert, of Grodno, in 1781. This plant 
seems to be indigenous to Asia, probabky Siberia, and is continually 
traveling westward. After long continued Eastern winds, it was first 
observed in Siberia, in 1822, and is now found throughout Eastern 
Germany as far west as Mecklenburg. It is a troublesome weed, at- 
taining a height of 30 inches, and flowering from April till June, and 
later from September till November, multiplying very rapidly. — Ibid., 
169. 

Syrup of Tolu. Emil Van den Heuvel objects to the removal of 
the resin in the preparation of this syrup, and suggests the following 
formula and manipulation : 40 grm. powdered gum arable are tritur- 
ated with a little simple syrup to form a thick mucilage, 40 grm. tinc- 
ture of tolu are then incorporated with it, and finally the remainder of 
the simple syrup (altogether 920 grm.) gradually added. The gum 
not only emulsionizes the resin, but it likewise restores the proper 
consistency of the syrup, which is rendered too thin by the addition of 
tincture alone. — Bull, de la Soe. roy. de Ph. de Brux,. 1871, 392. 

The purgative effect of sulphovinate of soda. From his observations 
in hospitals, Dr. Rabuteau arrives at the following conclusions : 

1. This salt purges in relatively small doses; 25 grammes are al- 
ways sufficient ; the dose for children is 10 grm., which sometimes 
answers for adults. 



'0 Gleanings from European Journals. 

2. 20 grammes dissolved in three glasses of water, generally pro- 
duce four or five stools, and five to eight from 25 grammes ; the ef- 
fect usually commences in about one hour. 

3. This salt is the mildest of the saline purgatives ; it causes neither 
exhaustion nor pain ; on the contrary, the colic existing in certain 
forms of diarrhoea rapidly disappears. 

4. It produces no abnormal intesinal contraction, acts purely as a 
dialytic purgative, and may be given even during menstruation and in 
pregnancy. 

5. Owing to its slight taste, it is readily taken without repugnance. 

6. It is preferable to citrate of magnesia, presenting all the advan- 
tages and none of the inconveniences of the latter. Dissolved in Selt- 
zer water it is more agreeable, and cannot determine the formation 
of any calculus. The long-continued use of magnesia salts is danger- 
ous ; they are not prescribed by judicious physicians to old persons? 
particularly if suffering from catarrh of the bladder, owing to the ten- 
dency of inducing the formation of calculi of ammonio-phosphate of 
magnesia. — Ibid., p. 401, from Union Pharm. 

Analysis of 'the flowers of Anthemis nobilis. Mr. Camboulises exhausts 
the dry flowers with ether free from alcohol ; this tincture is evapo- 
rated to an extract, the mass taken up by boiling distilled water, fil- 
tered while hot, and, after twenty-four hours repose, again filtered. 
Evaporated to dryness, the residue exhausted by ether, and this 
liquid evaporated spontaneously, prismatic crystals of an organic acid 
are obtained, which appear to be identical with the anthemic acid dis- 
covered by Pattone in the flowers of Anthemis arvensis* The alka- 
loid anthemidin, stated by Pattone to have been obtained from the 
latter flowers, could not be prepared from Anthemis nobilis. 

These flowers, after having been exhausted by ether, were treated 
with 90 per cent, alcohol, and on evaporation yielded an extract con- 
sisting mainly of a yellowish matter, containing yellow globules of a 
fixed oil. 

With Fehling's test the flowers indicated 23*498 per cent., by fer- 
mentation only 14-890 per cent, of glucose ; its seems, therefore, 
that besides glucose, another body is present which reduces cupric 
oxide. 

100 grm. of the (dry ?) flowers yielded 6 grm. ashes, of which 3*175 
* Jour, de Pharm. et de Chim., 3 serie, t. 35, p. 198. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. "j 
Feb. 1, 1872. / 



Oil of Winter green. 



71 



grin, were soluble in water, and consisted of 0*8103 sulphate of po- 
tassa, 1-1629 chloride of potassium, 1*1907 carbonate of potassa, 
0-0111 alkaline phosphate; the insoluble portion consisted rnainly 
of phosphate of lime (1-6894), and of phosphate of magnesia^ carbon- 
ate of lime and silica. — Jonrn. de Pharm. et de Ohim., 1871, p. 337 
—341. 

Tanacetic Acid. By Frosini Merletta. The residue from distilling 
the tops of tansy is filtered, concentrated to the consistence of honey, 
then treated with chalk and animal charcoal, and finally evaporated ; 
this residue stirred into water acidulated at first with hydrochloric, 
afterwards with acetic acid, colored crystals of tanacetic acid are ob- 
tained, which are washed with distilled water. It is insoluble in water, 
but soluble in alcohol and ether, and possesses an acrid and bitter 
taste. Its salts are crystallizable. 

As a vermifuge it acts in the same doses as santonin. — Ibid., 368. 

Preparation of Crystallized Indigotin. C. Meliu uses hot carbolic 
acid, which deposits the indigotin, on cooling, in crystals. To avoid 
the solidification of the phenic acid, the author adds a little alcohol, 
or benzine, or camphor ; one part of the latter added to 15 per cent, 
phenic acid, liquefies it the same as benzoic and glacial acetic acids. 
Operating with 500 grm. carbolic acid the author obtained 2 grm. 
pure crystallized indigotin. It is recommended to wash the indigo 
previously with water, dilute hydrochloric acid and several times with 
boiling alcohol. This indigotin will answer a good purpose in colori- 
metric assays. — Ibid., 412. 

Transformation of Cane- sugar into Glucose. Raoult enclosed a solu- 
tion of one part of pure cane-sugar in 5 per cent, of water into glass 
tubes, removed the air by boiling and closed the tubes over the lamp. 
One tube, kept for five months in the dark, contained the cane-sugar 
unaltered ; another tube, kept in the light, contained, after the same 
time, a transparent solution, free from microscopic vegetation ; about 
one half of its cane-sugar, however, had been transformed into glucose. 
—Ibid., Mb. _____ 

OIL OF WINTERGREEN. 
By Dr. J. E. De Vry. 
In reading the note on " Oil of Andromeda Leschenaultii " on page 
285 of this Journal,* I supposed it would be of some interest to pub- 
" >: " See page 547 of our last volume. 



72 



Dandelion in India, etc. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Feb. 1, 1872. 



lish some experiments on a similar subject which I made in 18 ( 9 when 
I was in Java. The presence of large numbers of Gaultheria punc- 
tata and Gaultheria leucocarpa on the tops of many volcanoes of that 
island having attracted my attention, I collected the leaves of both of 
them on the extinct volcano Patoea, with the view of ascertaining the 
amount of essential oil to be extracted from them by distillation. 

65 pounds of fresh leaves from G. leucocarpa yielded forty grams 
of oil, amounting to about 0-012 per cent. 

59 pounds of fresh leaves from G. punctata yielded 340 grams of 
oil, amounting to about 145 per cent, 

Both these oils are almost identical with the American wintergreen 
oil, as I found them to consist chiefly of methyl-salicylic acid. I 
brought them home, and presented them to the chemical collection of 
the Polytechnic School at Delft. 

It wintergreen oil is really in great request by certain manufac- 
turers, I suppose it would be made with profit in Java from G. punc- 
tata. 

As Zwenger found quinic acid in the leaves of Vaccinium 3fyrtil- 
lti8, I supposed that both the species of Gaultheria mentioned as be- 
longing to the same natural family, might contain the same acid. 
Therefore, after distilling the oils, I examined the residue in the still, 
and found the expected quinic acid, as was proved by its deviation 
of the plane of polarization to the left and by the production of hy- 
drochinon, if treated with maganese and sulphuric acid. — Pharmaceu- 
tical Journal and Transactions, Dec. 28, 1871. 

THE CULTIVATION AND USE OF THE DANDELION IN INDIA. 
By John R. JackscJn, A.L.S., 
Curator of Museums, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

The dandelion is perhaps one of the most cosmopolitan of medici- 
nal plants, for besides being an actually recognized article in phar- 
macy, it is also largely collected and used by the peasantry in rural 
districts in liver complaints and in cases of dyspepsia. Taraxacum 
officinale, Wiggers (Leontodon Taraxacum, L.), is very widely dis- 
tributed through Europe, Central Asia, North America and the arctic 
regions. Several varieties of the plant are known in this country, 
some of which have been dignified into species. The commonest va- 
riety is that mostly found on cultivated ground and known as Tarax- 



Am. Jour. Phabm. ) 
Feb. 1, 1872. J 



Dandelion in India, etc. 



73 



acum Dens-leonisy Desf., which has bright green runcinate-pinnatifid 
leaves and the bracts of the involucre recurved. The plant has great 
powers of reproduction, both by its roots and by the pappus seeds, 
which are easily wafted by the winds to distances, where they readily 
germinate and establish themselves. 

The plants grow abundantly throughout the Himalayas, where two 
or more distinct varieties are known ; one is described as having large 
double flowers, quite the size of a rupee, and another with small 
single flowers, rather larger than a sixpence. The larger-flowered 
form is said to possess medicinal properties in by far the greatest de- 
gree. The plants are likewise cultivated in various parts of India, 
and the roots are collected between the months of September and 
February. To cultivate the plants properly, the following plan is 
recommended : — The seeds should be sown in beds, and the young * 
plants, when sufficiently grown, should be planted out on ridges at a 
distance of nine inches from each other. This system of planting is 
the best suited for the production of large roots, which is the princi- 
pal end to be obtained, and, to further ensure this result, the flowers 
should be gathered as they open. The roots, after they are taken up, 
are washed clean and wiped dry. 

Taraxacum roots are used in a variety of ways in India ; one use- 
ful form is that of a paste, which is made by pounding the fresh roots, 
putting the mass into tins or jars and gently baking or heating in an 
oven ; when cool, the paste is ready for use and can be kept for a 
long time. To prepare dandelion-coffee, the roots are washed, dried 
in the sun and cut up into small pieces, after which they are roasted 
in a similar manner to true coffee ; they are then ground, and to 
every nine ounces of coffee one ounce of pounded dandelion-root may 
be added; these proportions make an excellent and useful beverage. 
The use of this coffee in India has been much recommended. 

Lieutenant Pegson, in a communication to the Agri-horticultural 
Society of India, advocating the more general cultivation and use of 
the dandelion, says, "Medical men admit the value of this prepara- 
tion, and I know several gentlemen in India who are, by their own 
admission, kept alive by the daily use of Taraxacum-coffee. It is 
fairly entitled to be called a specific for the cure of torpid liver, a com- 
plaint from which the majority of Europeans suffer; the fact being 
made known when they proceed to a cool or hill climate and shiver 
and shake with cold while the thermometer is at 62° F. only. The 



74 



Tannin and Glycerin. 



j Am. Jour. Phar.m.. 
t Feb. 1, 1872. 



sallow complexion of such men, women and children, their languid 
movements and their enjoyment of heat, all alike proclaim that they 
are suffering from sluggish action of the liver. The conserve of Tar- 
axacum may be made into syrup for use. Horses and valuable dogs y 
sheep and poultry, all suffer in India from disease of the liver. A 
bolus of Taraxacum conserve to a horse, and a pill thereof to a fowl, 
would be most beneficial and act as a curative agent. Rabbits also 
suffer greatly from liver disease, but if they were supplied with a few 
(two to four) green Taraxacum leaves twice or thrice a week, the 
mortality resulting from this (hitherto) incurable disease would disap- 
pear, and rabbits could then be extensively raised for the market." — 
Pharm. Journ. and Trans. , Dec. 30, 1871. 



TANNIN AND GLYCERIN. 
By R. Rother. 

Tannic acid is frequently prescribed in concentrated solution with 
glycerin ; but tannin, commercially obtained, possesses various im- 
purities which either remain as insoluble turbidity or discolor the solu- 
tion. Firstly, a green resinous coloring matter, insoluble in water- 
but soluble in strong alcohol and glycerin, invariably occurs. This 
contamination results from the solvent action of the ether in the 
original process of extracting the tannin. Secondly, metallic chips 
of copper, iron, &c, from the. vessels in which the tannin was dried 
are never absent. 

A concentrated solution of tannin is nearly indispensable among 
the requisites of the prescription department. An aqueous solution, 
however concentrated it may be, will spoil. An alcoholic solution is 
often objectionable, but an aqueous solution, containing glycerin, can 
be utilized on most all occasions. 

This solution is best adjusted by weight ; it is perfectly stable, clear 
and transparent, and contains one troy ounce of tannic acid in two- 
troy ounces of the solution, that is half tannin by weight. The solvent 
is the other half, or 1-4 each by weight glycerin and water. More 
than this proportion of glycerin cannot be used to advantage, as the 
liquid becomes too thick to pour conveniently. This solution cannot 
be prepared, however, by directly combining the three ingredients, as 
the impurities must first be removed ; and the only preliminary sol- 
vent for this purpose, which the writer has found to answer perfectly,, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb. 1, 1872. / 



On Alnus Incana. 



75 



is a mixture of equal measures of strong alcohol and water. A very 
concentrated solution, in the proportion of two parts of liquid to one 
of tannin, can be formed with the aid of heat, which filters with the 
greatest facility, leaving the resinous coloring matter and the metals 
untouched. 

Alcohol alone, in the proportion of four to one of tannin, would not 
filter well. Water, in the proportion of at least four to one of tannin, 
would not filter even as rapidly as the solution with alcohol ; and 
whilst the alcoholic solution becomes turbid with water, the aqueous 
solution never became clear from the first, and moreover was always 
much darkened by the metallic impurities forming colored soluble tan- 
nates. The preliminary solvent, and permanent solvent above pro- 
posed are therefore the only available ones. These form a light green r 
thin, syrupy solution, miscible with glycerin and water in all propor- 
tions without losing their brightness, and forming in a more dilute 
condition colorless solutions. 

From these observations the following formula is deduced : 

Take of Tannin .... 8 troy-ounces. 
Glycerin . . ... 4 " " 
Strong alcohol ... 8 fluid-ounces. 
Water 8 " " 

Mix the alcohol and water ; add the tannin and apply heat until 
the tannin has dissolved. Filter hot, then add the glycerin and 
evaporate by a careful heat until the solution weighs 16 troy-ounces. 
— The Pharmacist, Dec, 1871. 



H HEMOSTATIC PROPERTIES OF ALNUS INOANA. 

Thomas R. Dupuis,M.D., Prof. Botany in Royal College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Kingston (Canada Lancet), recommends the Alnus 
Incana, Willd. (Tag alder), so common in the States and Canadas, as 
an excellent haemostatic, tie has prescribed the bark both externally 
and internally, and has never observed any ill effects follow its use, 
except occasionally nausea and vomiting when taken too freely. 
Four cases are related — three of wounds and one of serious epis- 
taxis — which were successfully treated with this remedy. He has 
also prescribed it in haemoptysis and in menorrhagia with benefit ; it 
is also well adapted to any internal or external passive haemorrhages 
in which astringents are generally esteemed beneficial. 



76 Digestion of Mineral Substances. . { A %{Ti mT' 

In closing his article, Dr. Dupuis solicits for the decoction of the 
bark of Tag alder a trial from all those who may be interested in the 
development of the medical remedies of our own country. — Medical 
Press, Jan. 3, 1872. 



NOTE ON THE DIGESTION OF MINERAL SUBSTANCES* 
By Richard V. Tuson, f. c. s. 
Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Veterinary College. 

Physiologists and chemists have hitherto entertained the belief that 
the principal, if not the sole function of the pepsin and acid contained 
in the gastric juice is to render soluble the albuminoid constituents of 
food, and thus prepare them for the subsequent process of absorption. 

Conceiving, however, that it would be extremely interesting to 
study the effect, if any, of the solvent constituents of the gastric 
juice upon mineral substances, especially those employed as medicines, 
I have set myself the task of investigating this subject. The inquiry 
is yet but in its infancy ; nevertheless the results already obtained are 
sufficiently positive and striking to induce me to "claim date" by 
placing on record the following experiments : — 

Experiment 1. — A mixture of calomelf and distilled water contain- 
ing 2 per cent, of hydrochloric acid. 

Experiment 2. — A mixture of calomel, pepsin, \ and distilled water. 

Experiment 3. — A mixture of calomel, pepsin, and distilled water, 
containing 2 per cent, of hydrochloric acid. 

These mixtures were placed in glass vessels, and kept at 38° C. 
(100*2 F.), i. e. at about the temperature of the body, for twenty- 
four hours, during which time they were occasionally stirred or 
shaken. They were then thrown on to filters of Swedish paper, and 
the filtrates saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen. The filtrates from 
Experiments 1 and 2 remained unaltered. The filtrate from Experi- 
ment 3 yielded a precipitate of sulphide of mercury. 

The results of these experiments therefore show that neither dilute 
hydrochloric acid (2 per cent.) nor pepsin alone is capable of dissolv- 
ing calomel, but that when these agents are mixed they do affect its 

* Reprinted from the Lancet. 

fThe calomel employed in all the experiments was previously tested as to its 
purity. 

X Pepsina porci, prepared by Messrs. Bullock and Reynolds. 



A Pe J b° u i B ;mt RM } Liq. Magnesia Bisulphitis. 77 

solution, and, consequently, that the digestion of calomel, so far as its 
solution in artificial gastric juice is concerned, is brought about under 
the same conditions as that of the albuminoids. 

The importance of this observation will become apparent, when it is 
borne in mind that it offers an additional explanation to those already 
published of the manner in which calomel enters the circulation in 
order that it may exercise the many therapeutic actions with which it 
is accredited. Whether or not oxide of antimony, sulphide of anti- 
mony and other so-called insoluble remedies, are dissolved by pepsin 
and dilute acid, is a problem which remains to be solved. The influ- 
ence of different acids, the chemical composition and characters of the 
dissolved mineral, and its behavior when subjected to dialysis, also 
the action, if any, of peptones on inorganic bodies, have likewise to 
be determined ; but these matters, together with many others, will 
form the subject of future communications. — Pharm. Journal and 
Trans., Dec. 23, 1871. 



LIQ. MAGNESIA BISULPHITIS, A REMEDY FOR CARDIALGIA 

(HEARTBURN). 
By George Archbold, D.SC. 

Some time ago a physician asked me the question, " Do the bisul- 
phites prevent the butyric acid fermentation ?" In order to give him 
an accurate answer, I promised to try two experiments. This I did. 
First, 1 proceeded to make butyric acid by fermentation of a mixture 
of chalk, cheese, and honey and water, and allowed the mixture to 
stand for four days. Secondly, in another vessel I proceeded in the 
same manner, using the same ingredients, with an addition of bisul- 
phite of lime ; set it aside for four days with the first, keeping them 
at a temperature of 80° F. ; after which I subjected each to distilla- 
tion with a little H CL* From the first I recovered a considerable 
amount of butyric acid, but from the second (containing bisulphite) 
I did not recover a trace. This at once proves that the bisulphites 
do prevent butyric acid fermentation. Now the object in ascertaining 
the fact was that a suitable remedy for heartburn might be discovered, 



* For the first two days lactic acid is formed, which combines with the lime, 
but at the expiration of four days, the lactate of lime is replaced by butyrate of 
lime, which on being distilled with dilute hydrochloric acid, and the distillate 
treated with calcium chloride, is dried into two strata, the upper being butyric 
acid. 



78 



Liq. Magnesice Bisulphitis. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I Feb. 1, 1872. 



as, according to Dr. Leared, this common complaint is due to the pres- 
ence of butyric acid in the stomach. " On considering the taste,'' 
says that gentleman, " experienced, as well as the conditions under 
which heartburn comes on, it seemed to me that the cause of it was 
the presence of butyric acid ;" and from many experiments performed 
by that gentleman on himself and others by means of the pure acid, 
symptoms were produced in every respect similar to the complaint 
itself, so that there can be little doubt but that his theory is a correct 
one. The very fact that alkalies give relief prove its cause to be from 
an acid. When the stomach is overtaxed, and in certain weak con- 
ditions of digestion, fermentation takes place ; butyric acid is set 
free from the food, i. e. it is formed out of its own elements, if the 
food be of a starchy nature ; and, according to Leared " On Imperfect 
Digestion," page 249, " the acid, by being in excess, but not pure 
(or it would be soluble), rises to the surface of the contents of the sto- 
mach, when it combines with me'lted fats (for which it appears to have 
a strong affinity) ; the acrid mixture, on being presented to the car- 
diac orifice by the motions of the stomach, is instinctively rejected 
into the oesophagus, and, by the reversal of its proper movement, 
transmitted to the mouth, accompanied by the sensations of heart- 
burn." Now, as bisulphites have the power of preventing this fer- 
mentation, they are well worthy the attention of the profession, but 
the great drawback is that the chief bisulphite manufactures are 
those of lime, soda and potash, these being objectionable, as they 
tend to injure the coats of the stomach. To remedy this failing, the 
thought at once suggested itself to me that a bisulphite of magnesia 
might be prepared ; and magnesia being free from these objections, it 
may prove a valuable remedy, and is worth notice. I have not seen 
or heard anything of the preparation previous to my making it. I 
therefore give a brief outline of the process I adopt, and hope to enter 
more fully into the subject at a future time. I first treat magnesia 
carbonate with B. P. sulphurous acid, which, on evaporation, yields 
magnesia sulphite, Mg S0 3 , which is not very soluble in distilled 
water. I then mix the sulphite of magnesia thus formed with dis- 
tilled water, in the proportion of 16 grs. to £j. and pass into it sul- 
phurous anhydride until a clear solution is obtained. The result is a 
solution of magnesia bisulphite. 

The dose may be one tablespoonful, containing about nine grains of 
the salt ; its action is a mild aperient antiseptic, preventing butyric 



Ajt Jour. Pharm. > 
Jan. 1, 1872. j 



Chromium and its Compounds, etc. 



79 



fermentation in the stomach, etc. I have tried it myself and on two 
other gentlemen, and, as far as I can judge, it has the desired eifect, 
— Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Dec. 23, 1871. 



€HROMIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS IN THE ARTS AND IN MEDI- 
CINE. 

By Dr. Louis Feuchtwanger. 

The following is a brief abstract of an interesting lecture on chro- 
mium, delivered before the Polytechnic Club of New York. It was 
fully illustrated by specimens : 

"Chromium is a very remarkable metal, which is very sparingly dis- 
tributed in the earth's crust. Chromic iron is the only mineral which 
is found in sufficient quantities to be useful as a source of this element. 
It is found in serpentine rocks, in veins and disseminated grains. It 
is quite abundant in Siberia, Styria, Asia Minor, the Shetland Islands, 
•Cuba, and the United States. The lecturer described the deposits of 
[Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina and California, which he 
ihad carefully studied. 

The constitution of Chromic Iron is exhibited by the formula 
*FeO,Cr 2 3 or (FeO,MgO), (Al 2 3 ,Cr 2 3 ). 

The following analyses exhibit the percentage composition : 



Locality. 
Baltimore, cryst. 

" massive. 
Bolton, Canada. 
L. Memphramagog. 
Beresof. 



FeO. 

20- 13 
18-97 
35-68 

21- 28 
18-42 



Cr 2 Oa. 
60-04 

44- 91 

45- 90 
49-75 
64-17 



Al 2 Os. 
11-85 
13-85 
3-20 
11-30 
10-83 



Si02. 



0-83 



Abich. 
Abich. 
Hunt. 
Hunt. 
0-91 Moberg. 



MgO. 
7-45 
9-96 
15-03 
18-13 
6-68 

The following minerals also contain chromium : 
Crocoisite, PbO,Cr0 3 , containing 31-3 per cent, of Chromic acid. 
Melanochroite, 3PbO,2Cr0 3 , containing 23*3 per cent, of Chromic 
ucid. 

Vauquelinite, 3CuO,2Cr0 3 -f-2(3PbO,2Cr0 3 ), containing 27-9 per 
cent. Chromic acid. 

Pyrope, Bohemian Garnet, a silicate of alumina, iron, and magne- 
sia, containing from two to six per cent, of Chromic acid. 

Ouvarovite, Lime-Chrome Garnet. Silicate of lime and chromium, 
containing 22 per cent, of Chromic oxide. 

Emerald, a silicate of glucina and alumina, colored by three-tenths 
of one per cent, of Chromic oxide, according to Klaproth. 



80 



A Reaction of Phenol. 



{ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb. 1, 1872. 



The following are the more important applications of Chromium 
compounds in the arts : 

1. The yellow or neutral chromate of potassa, is the basis of all 
the other preparations, being made directly from the chromic iron. 

2. The red or bichromate of potassa, is obtained from the fore- 
going salt, and is extensively employed in the arts. In photography 
it is the basis of most of the printing processes, on account of the 
property which it has of rendering gelatine insoluble, by exposure to 
light. In dying, it is extensively used as a mordant. It is the ma- 
terial from which chromic oxide, chromic aeid, and the metallic 
chromates are prepared. 

3. Chromic oxide is the most insoluble, green pigment known, it 
is extensively used in printing " greenbacks," and in staining glass 
and painting porcelain. 

4. Chromic acid is a powerful oxidizing agent. It is extensively 
used on this account in chemical researches, is found very useful as 
an exciting fluid in galvanic batteries, was used for preparing the 
beautiful " mauve red" from aniline, is employed in bleaching palm 
oil, destroying the empyreumatic impurities of acetic acid, etc. 

5. The chromates of lead, bismuth, baryta, strontia and zinc are 
extensively used as pigments, varying in tint from the vermillion red 
of the basic chromate of lead, to the pale straw yellow of the strontia 
salt. The common " chrome green " is a mixture of chromate of 
lead and Prussian blue. 

6. The beautiful violet chromic chloride, has recently been intro- 
duced as a cancer remedy. 

7. Chromium steel, made by combining about five per cent, of 
chromium with cast iron, possesses most remarkable properties. On 
account of its excessive hardness, it is the best metal for the con- 
struction of safes, while its tensile strength, equal to a strain of 140,- 
000 pounds to the square inch, specially adapts it to the construction 
of suspension bridges ; it was employed in the St. Louis bridge, and 
will be used in the Brooklyn bridge. — Amer. Chem., Dec, 1871, f. 224. 



A REACTION OF PHENOL. 
By O. Crump. 

If a current of artificial coal-gas be passed into a flask containing a 
mixture of equal parts of phenol and strong sulphuric acid, the liquid 
soon becomes colored and thick, so that unless the flask be gently 



Am. Jotjr. Pharm. ) 
Feb. 1, 1872. J 



On Arachis Oil in Olive Oil. 



81 



heated, the passage of the gas is interrupted. After a few hours, if 
the contents of the flask be poured into water, a red coloring matter 
is obtained insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and in alkaline solu- 
tions, its color being changed by the latter to blue or green. The 
formation of the color is not prevented by previously passing the gas 
through dilute sulphuric acid, solution of caustic potash, or of cupre- 
ous chloride either in hydrochloric acid or ammonia, nor does the 
•color seem to be produced by passing any of the ordinary constituents 
of coal-gas into the mixture. A similar substance, however, seems to 
be formed by digesting the mixture of phenol and sulphuric acid for 
some time at a gentle heat with two or three times its volume of com- 
mercial benzol. — Chemical JYews, Dee. 22, 1871. 



TESTING AND QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF ARACHIS 
OIL IN OLIVE OIL. 

By A. Renard. 

The author bases this process upon the detection of arachidic acid. 
A quantity of 10 grms. of the oil to be tested is first saponified ; the 
soap obtained having been decomposed by hydrochloric acid, the fatty 
acids set free are dissolved in 50 c. c. of alcohol at 95 per cent., the 
warm solution is precipitated by acetate of lead, and filtered after 
having become cold. The residue on the filter is treated with very 
strong and pure ether, which dissolves the oleate of lead, leaving 
margarate, palmitate, and arachidate of that metal. This compound 
is heated, and then treated with warm dilute hydrochloric acid ; the 
fatty acids are separated by decantation from the solution of chloride 
of lead. When the fatty acids are cooled, and thereby solidified, the 
cake thus obtained is dissolved in 50 c. c. of alcohol at 95 per cent, by 
the aid of heat; a single drop of hydrochloric acid may have to be 
added to this solution in order to render it free from a slight cloudi- 
ness. If the olive oil operated upon happens to contain arachis oil, 
there will separate from the alcoholic solution, on cooling, ci^stals of 
arachidic acid. In order to estimate the quantity thereof, the crystal- 
line mass is collected on a filter, first washed with a quantity of from 
10 to 20 c. c. of the strong alcohol just alluded to, and next with or- 
dinary alcohol, wherein this acid is insoluble. The substance upon 
• the filter is next treated with boiling hot absolute alcohol, wherein the 
acid is dissolved, the filtrate collected in a previously weighed capsule, 

6 



82 A New Dye Stuff. { kK iS;m?*- 

and the residue, left after a carefully conducted evaporation, weighed. 
The fusion-point of arachidic acid, obtained in this manner, is about 
71° ; of the pure substance, 73°. The author enters further into 
lengthy details as to the method of estimating the minute quantity of 
the arachidic acid dissolved (and therefore not* collected along with 
the great bulk) in the strong alcohol used in these operations ; the 
process is such that it may, with due care, yield very accurate results. 
Arachis oil is better known as ground-nut oil. — Qhem. News, from 
Comptes Rendus. Dec. 4, 1871. 



A NEW DYE-STUFF. 
By J. M. Merrick, S. B. 

I have recently had given to me, to be tested in comparison with 
Persian Berries and Flavine, a new yellow dye-stuff which possesses 
very unusual properties. 

It occurs in the form of a brownish yellow powder, wholly organic 
in its nature, neutral and not very soluble in water. 

A given weight of it communicates to mordanted print cloths a rich 
persistent orange color, (or yellow if lesser amount be used), and is 
equal in this respect to three and one-half times its weight in Fla- 
vine, or four and one-half times its weight of the best Persian Ber- 
ries. The process of manufacturing this coloring matter is — it is un- 
derstood — kept a secret, but it is certain that it is not an Aniline 
product. It is sold under the name of Aurantine, and if any reader 
of the Chemist can give me any information as to its origin or manu- 
facture I shall be much indebted to him. 

I find that by diffusing a small amount of this dye-stuff in water at 
180° F. and working the mordanted cloth in this bath, a rich full 
Flavine yellow is produced. On raising the temperature the yellow 
rapidly changes to a fine orange, which seems durable and persistent. 

After satisfying myself of its worth I had some tested by a large 
Print Works, and their estimate of its value agreed very nearly with 
mine. It is an interesting product and seems by its color to merit 
its name — Aurantine. — Amer. Chem., 1872, Jan., 253. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 

Feb. 1, 1872. J 



Varieties. 



83 



The World's Fair at Vienna, in 1873, will embrace 26 classes, the third class 
representing the chemical industry according to the following plan : a., chemi- 
cal products for technical and pharmaceutical purposes (acids, salts, chemical 
preparations of all kinds) ; b., materials and products of pharmacy, mineral 
water, &c. ; c, materials and products of the industry in fats (stearic and oleic 
acid, glycerin, soaps, candles. &c.) ; d., products of dry distillation) refined 
petroleum, coal oil, paraffin, carbolic acid, benzine, anilin, &c.) ; e.. volatile oils, 
perfumery ; /., matches, &c; g.. colors and dyestuffs of mineral, metallic or 
organic origin ; h., washed, colored and bleached resins, sealing wax, varnishes, 
albumin, isinglass, glue, starch, dextrin, &c; i. models and diagrams of chemical 
apparatus and processes ; statistics of production. — Pharm. Zeituny, Nov 
18, 1871. 

Eau de Goadron. — The Eau de Goudron, which a chemist in Paris, by the 
name of Guyot, is advertising and selling largely, is little else than tar water — 
aqua picis. It is found of great efficacy in the treatment of bronchorrhcea and 
allied complaints — Chemist and Druggist, Dec. 1871. 

Carbolic Acid Paper. — Carbolic acid paper, which is now much used for 
packing fresh meats, for the purpose of preserving them against spoiling, is 
made by melting five parts of stearine at a gentle heat, and then stirring in 
thoroughly two parts of carbolic acid ; after which five parts of melted paraffin 
are to be added. The whole is to be well stirred together until it cools ; after 
which it is melted and applied with a brush to the paper, in quires, in the same 
way as in preparing the waxed paper so much used in Europe for wrapping va- 
rious articles. — Chemist and Druggist, Dec, 1871. 

Test for Absorption of Carbolic Acid. — By C. H. Hall, M. D. — In treat- 
ing wounds with carbolic acid, I have found that when the acid was ab- 
sorbed in a slight degree, healthy action would set up more rapidly, and the 
healing process go on more kindly ; but when absorption takes place to such 
an extent that the acid produces its toxical effect, with the attendant symp- 
toms of depression, it not only delays but complicates recovery. My attention 
was called, in a late journal, to the use of nitric acid as a test for the degree of 
absorption, and 1 have found by experiment that the amount of the absorption 
can be accurately ascertained, and regulated to suit the emergency of any case. 

I take a given quantity of urine from the patient under treatment — about 
two ounces — and when fresh drawn, treat it with five drops of nitric acid ; if 
carbolic acid is absorbed in a toxical quantity, the urine will tnrn brown very 
rapidly and assume a daik chocolate color, which will be changed to a golden 
yellow by the addition of an excess of spirits of ammonia. The d gree of rapid- 
ity with which these changes occur, will indicate the amount of absorption, and 
the receptivity of the system to its action. — Oregon Medical and Surgical Re- 
porter, Oct., 1871. 



84 



Varieties. 



( Am. Jour. Piiarm. 
\ Feb. I, 1872. 



Singular Effects of the Hydrate of Chloral .—Reported by H Seeds, M.D., 
of Columbus, Texas. — October 25. I have under treatment Mrs. J. N., ret. 26, 
who has had leucorrhoea ever since puberty, accompanied with more or less dys 
menorrhcea ; but she has suffered more from the latter since marriage, five or 
six years ago. She is of a nervous temperament; dyspeptic the greater part 
of her life ; has never been pregnant ; during the menstruation, aud the suffer- 
ing attending it, has taken a considerable quantity of morphia. From the ex- 
cellent effects I have observed from chloral in a great number of cases, I was 
led to give it to her, and, after a thorough trial at different, times, for several 
months, during menstruation, after and before, in small and large doses, I found 
that, in doses of twenty grains, it causes natural, quiet sleep, lasling from four 
to six hours, when its soporific effects begin to pass off; then follows diplopia 
in its worst form, succeeded in fifteen or twenty minutes by muscae volitantes. 
To ase her own language, " everything appears double, aud flies or dark spots 
pass before her eyes." Her eyelids become red and swollen ; conjunctiva in- 
jected. She complains of vertigo and nausea ; but all unpleasant symptoms 
disappear in about the same length of time that the drug acted on her as a 
hypnotic. It always affects her in proportion to the quantity given. I would 
also state that this patient bears chloroform very well; no bad effects are pro- 
duced, excepting once in awhile a slight nausea some hours afterwards. — Amer. 
Jour. Med. Set., Jan., 1872. 



Monobromized Camphor. — Prof. Deneffe, of Ghent, states (Presse Med. 
Beige, Nov. 19) that for more than two years he has employed a combination 
of camphor and bromine, which he thinks is entitled to general attention. The 
celebrated chemist Laurent showed that bromine will easily uniie with cam- 
phor at the ordinary temperature; but that the product is slowly decomposed by 
exposure to the air. M. Swartz, Professor of Chemistry at Ghent, has ^hown 
that this body heated in a closed vessel is resolved into hydrobromic acid and 
a crystallized compound which is monobromized camphor (camphor mono- 
brome), a body differing only from ordinary camphor by the substitution of an 
atom of bromine for an atom of hydrogen. It is a perfectly crystallized sub- 
stance, fusible at 76° C. and boiling at 274°. At Prof. Swartz's request, M. 
Deneffe has investigted the therapeutical properties of this body, and has found 
it to be an excellent sedative for the nervous system. He intends shortly to 
publish his cases in proof of this, and, in the present communication, furnishes 
one of these, in which excitement of the nervous system passing into true de- 
lirium tremens was effectually relieved. He prescribed it in the form of pills, 70 
grains being made into thirty pills, of which one was given every hour until 
twenty had been taken. For three days longer from forty five to sixty grains 
were given in twenty-four hours, the quantity being diminished from forty-five 
to thirty grains daily for a week longer. The recovery was progressive and 
stable. — Amer. Jour, of Med. Sciences, Jan., 1872, from Med. Times and Ga- 
zette, Dec. 2, 1871. 

Inextinguishable Lamp. — A new light, which seems fitted to be of use in sub- 
marine construction of works, is in use in England. It is a cylinder of tin, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb. 1, 1872. / 



Ed itorial. 



85 



with a top filled with a phosphide of calcium, prepared by the inventor, a Mr. 
Holmes. When the lamp is thrown into the sea or river, the water, entering 
the cylinder, decomposes the phosphide of calcium, phoshuretted hydrogen 
results ; the latter escaping in great quantities ignites spontaneously, and burns 
with a brilliant light. — Chemist and Druggist. Dec. 15,187 L, from Scientific 
American. 



IJjjatmamttiral Colleges u\ JissacMiong, 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — At a meeting of the Board of Trus- 
tees the following Examining Committee was elected : Prof. Parrish, Messrs. 
Bunting, Shivers, Wiegand and Jenks. 

The Committee of Arrangements for the Commencement in March next con- 
sists of Messrs. Taylor, Shinn and Bakes. Members desiring tickets should 
make application early in March. 

The following gentlemen have attended the Laboratory of the College dur 
ing the present session : 

T. D. Addis, Pa. C. B. Evans, Pa. L. A. Matos, Cuba. 

M. Alvarez Cuba. B. T. Fairchild, Conn. Wm. McMiller, Ky. 

J. H. Bringhurst, Pa. E. Z. Gross, Pa. J. J. Miles, Miss. 

C. S. Brown, Miss. L. S. Harrison, 0. J. Oxley, Ky. 

R. T. Brumby, Jr., Ga. J. M. Harvey, Del. E. Peirpoint, 111. 

W. C. Buntin, Ind. H. Hazard, N. Y. M. D. Richardson, Ky. 

R. Y Chedister, Jr., N.J. F. P. Hill, 0. H. Schmidt, 0. 

J. B. Cherry, Pa. J. Hurty, 111. C 0. Thiebaud, Ind. 

A. C. Curtis, 0. J. M. Jones, Pa. I. Tull, Pa. 

J. H. Dawson, N .Y. W. H. Light. Ky. J. Wiley, Pa. 

E. E. Desh, Pa. T. D. McElhenie" 0. J. M. Younglove, Ky. 

The bill approved by the meeting of druggists and pharmacists held 
Dec. 19th, has been introduced by Hon. Mr. Dechert in the Senate, and by 
Lion. Mr. Marks in the House of the Legislature of Pennsylvania. 



The Maryland College of Pharmacy, at its meeting held in December, 
resolved to hold pharmaceutical meetings on the evenings of the first and third 
Wednesday of each month. The next annual meeting will be held on the sec- 
ond Thursday of March next, and Dr. Steitier, formerly one of the professors 
of this College, was invited to deliver the annual address. 

At the January meeting the following officers were chosen to serve for the 
ensuing year: J. Faris Moore. President; Joseph Roberts and Richard Sap- 
pington, Vice Presidents ; Edwin Eareckson, Secretary; J. Brown Baxley, 
Treasurer; Louis Dohme, Ferd. Hassencamp, John F. Hancock, Board of Ex- 
aminers. 

The subject of legislation and a proposed amendment to the Baltimore phar- 
maceutical law were discussed, but no definite action agreed upon. 
The lectures are delivered regularly to an attentive class of students. 



86 



Editorial. 



J" Am. JouitrPHARM. 
t Feb. 1, 1872. 



A regular meeting of the Society of the Alnmni of this College was held 
Jan. 11th. The report of the President, Mr. Win. Silver Thompson, was read 
and ordered to be entered on the proceedings of the Society. This Society 
has been in existence a little more than seven months, during which time a 
thorough organization has been effected, and it is now in good working order. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Wm. Silver Thomp- 
son, President; Charles E. Dohme, Vice President ; J. Henry Hancock, Sec- 
retary; A. A. Kleinschmidt. Treasurer; John Sohl, Charles Caspari, Jr., P. 
D. Wood. S. J. Beet, Executive Board. 

Mr. C. E. Dohme read a very interesting paper on Iodoform, which compound 
has of late years attracted much attention among the medical profession. 



Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — At a meeting held Jan. 16th, Prof. B. 
S.Wayne delivered a lecture on the Sponge, and presented the College with 
a handsome collection of sponges, some of which are rarely met with. A dis- 
coutse on the lac insect, shellac and lac dye was also delivered, after which the 
College proceeded to discuss the pharmacy bill recently introduced in the 
Legislature of Ohio. The Coilege disapproved of this bill and appointed a 
committee to draft a new bill or amend the one now pending. The result of 
this labor is to be presented to the Legislature now in session. 

The class of this College is attended by 32 students. 



California Pharmaceutical Society — The 26th meeting of this Society was 
held Dec. 13th, 1871, Mr. Wm. H. Wood presiding. 

After the approval of the minutes and the election of new members Mr. Steel* 
proposed several gentlemen as honorary members, which elicited an animated 
discussion as to what should constitute the true basis for this distinction ; Mr. 
Steele having stated in support of his proposition that one or more of the names 
proposed had been upon the roll list of the Society, that they were genial and 
courteous gentlemen whose unfortunate circumstances did not admit of their 
paying their monthly dues, and thai, in his estimation, it would be an act of 
courtesy to elect them to the position, 

Mr. Wenzell replied that he was opposed to the indiscriminate and whole- 
sale bestowal of honorary memberships, which was not only injudicious but 
reflective upon the character and dignity of the Society, that only those whose 
literary and scientific attainments had given them prominence in the profession 
were, in his opinion, entitled to this, the highest honor which a Society was 
capable of conferring. 

Mr. Simpson argued that the simple fact of impecunity and urbanity, asso- 
ciated with an enviable reputation, should not in itself constitute the require- 
ments for conferring the title, that it was the prerogative and should be the aim 
of the Society to elect only those possessing marked professional acquirements- 

By Mr. Steele's request his motion was then withdrawn. 

A resolution to amend the Constitution was tabled, while another one. 
changing the words " Executive Committee" to " Board of Directors" was car- 
ried, to conform with the laws in view of obtaining an act of incorporation. 



Am. Jour. Pk\.rm. ? 
Feb. 1, 1872. $ 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



87 



The Contributing Committee for the relief of the pharmaceutists of Chicago 
suffering from the late fire, reported through Mr. Steele that $744.50 had been 
collected, from which should be deducted $2.50, exchange paid for gold. The 
first remittance, of $800, currency, was made by telegraph draft, and the sec- 
ond, $30, by postal order. 

A communication from Prof. Ebert, of Chicago, was read, acknowledging, 
with grateful expressions of appreciation, on behalf of the Chicago College of 
Pharmacy, the Society's opportune and munificent remittance. The startling 
intelligence was also disclosed that sixty retail and all but one wholesale drug 
houses had been swept away by the disastrous fire. 

Messrs. Mallinckrodt & Co., manufacturing chemists, of St. Louis, donated 
to the Society a box of chemicals, which was gratefully accepted. 

Mr. Wenzell, by request, then read a paper on f< Abietene," a new hydrocar- 
bon, obtained from the Pinus Sabiniana, an indigenous tree found on the foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada mountains and the foot-hills of California. Mr. W. 
illustrated his subject with specimen preparations, and was listened to by all 
present with wrapt attention. 

Mr. Wood moved that the thanks of the Society be tendered to the author 
for his able and exceedingly interesting paper.* 

The British Pharmaceutical Society held an interesting pharmaceutical 
meeting December 6th. Among the specimens presented to the museum of the 
Society, the barks, roots and sections of stems of different species of cinchona 
are especially noteworthy, all the specimens beit)2 in illustration of Mr. How- 
ard's paper noticed on pages 25 — 29 of our last number. 

A paper by Prof Redwood was read, on "The Substitution of Proportional 
or Relational Numbers for Specified Weights and Measures in the Description 
of Processes in the Pharmacopoeia." The Professor advocates the use of the 
terms part and measure ; the latter term, where it occurs together with the for- 
mer in one formula, meaning the water measure of the unit of weighty whatever 
that might be. 

A paper by T. Miller, of Sheffield, "On a Method for the Estimation of 
Morphia in Opium," was read and discussed. The method proposed is based 
upon the liberation by morphia of iodine from iodic acid, dissolving the iodine 
rapidly in bisulphide of carbon, and comparing it with a similar standard solu- 
tion made with morphia. The solution deepest in color is then diluted with 
measured quantities of bisulphide of carbon until the two are alike in color; 
by simple calculation the percentage of morphia is readily found. Several pre- 
cautions must be observed, to which we may allude in our next number. 

The President, Mr. A. F. Hazelden, also read a paper containing practical 
observations on " The Syrup and Resin of Tolu, and Tincture of Cinnamon." 

Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie de Paris. — This school was re-opened on 
the 15th of November, the Director, Mr. Bussy, presiding. Mr. Buignet, Pro- 
fessor of Physics, and General Secretary of the Paris Pharmaceutical Society, 
pronounced a eulogy on Guibourt. Professors Jungfleisch and Bourgoin read 

• !: Mr. Wenzell's paper will be published in our next number. — Ep. Am. Journ. Ph. 



88 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc {^Tilm^ 

the reports on the prize essays for 1870 and 1871. Prof. Planchon reported 
on the prizes of the pharmaceutical school and on the Menier prize query. 

The query proposed for the Menier prize for 1872 is as follows : History of 
the insects which may be employed as vesicants. — Jour. Pharm. et Cliira. 1871,. 
448. 

The Next International Pharmaceutical Congress will not be held this 
year, but has been postponed until 1874. The Directories of the North Ger- 
man, South German and Austrian Apothecaries' Societies, by letters of May and 
June, 1871, suggested the postponement of the Congress for two years, mainly 
on the ground of the unsettled condition of France and the proposed consoli- 
dation of the two German Societies. The Pharmaceutical Society of St. Peters- 
burg, at the meeting heid Sept. 7th, adopted the same views.— Pharm. Zeitschr. 
f. Russl, 1871, 631. 



gjinute of % f^rmaawtital Iteetinp- 

A pharmaceutical meeting was held on the afternoon of January 16th, 1872.. 
Prof. Procter presided and Edwin McC. Boring was appointed Eegistrar pro 
tern. The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited the seed of Myristica fatua, or male nutmeg, which 
he stated was occasionally found in the shops on the Continent, generally 
worm-eaten, in three conditions, kernel, kernel and shell, and kernel, seed-shell 
and mace. The flavor of the kernel ar d mace is greatly inferior to that of the 
true nutmeg and mace. He did not know to what use they were applied unless 
it were that of adulteration. 

The Professor then exhibited a specimen of Peruvian bark and a very large 
cone from Pinus Lombertiarta. The Peruvian bark, he stated, had been sold 
to this city, by a New York house, for calisaya, but it possessed none of its 
characters, having a coarsely fibrous liber, covered with a thick, soft cork; a 
similar, if not the same article, had been sold, also from New York, to this city, 
as red bark. A conversation then followed between Messrs. Procter and Maisch 
in regard to the cinchonas. Prof. Maisch stated that Mr. Broughton and Mr. 
Howard had found an unusually large percentage of alkaloids in barks from 
cinchona trees cultivated in India, proving that careful cultivation increases 
the percentage of alkaloids. Prof. Procter asked the question, whether the 
percentage of alkaloids in the younger and older bark of cinchona trees grow- 
ing in South America had ever been ascertained? Prof. Maisch replied that 
Professor Karsten, who had spent about ten years in Venezuela, was perhaps 
the only one who had examined, on the spot, South American cinchona bark 
from well-authenticated species, and found that the percentage of alkaloids 
increased as the young bark became older. 

The California pine cone had been sent by Mr. Wenzell, of San Francisco 
who recently read a paper before the California Pharmaceutical Society on 
the hydrocarbon obtained from another species, the volatile oil of which appears 
to be extensively used in California for various purposes. 



AM Fen;i P 872 RM '} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 89 

Prof. Bridges then spoke of the bicarbonate of soda presented to the College 
from the Pennsylvania Salt Works, at Natrona (on exhibition at our last meet- 
ing), and stated that he had examined one specimen, and that several others 
were in course of examination by one of the students in the practical labora- 
tory connected with our College. The specimens will probably prove to be 
almost free from carbonate. 

Prof. Maisch stated that the specimen of capsicum presented by Mr. Hein- 
itsh at a former meeting, was the Capsicum minimum indigenous to Mexico. 
Mr. Heinitsh said that it had been introduced from Mexico into several of our 
Southern States by some army officers, and that the name given to it by the 
Mexicans signified in our language "mad pepper." 

The meeting then adjourned. 

Edwin McC. Boring, Registrar pro tern. 



^bitotial Department. 

The Language used in Prescriptions. — Several times since its creation, the 
New York Board for examining and licensing druggists and prescription 
clerks, has found it necessary to use the daily press for the purpose of explain- 
ing their action to the public. These effusions are not always very happy ones, 
and have sometimes produced an effect quite opposite to the one intended* 
Such a one was contained in the New York Times of January 9th. We have 
no intention to analyze that document, which was partly done by Mr. D. C_ 
Bobbins in the same newspaper, issued January 11th, and we do not believe 
that it would be of sufficient interest to our readers to point out the numerous 
mistakes and logical contradictions contained therein. But a statement re- 
quires to be noticed since it is apt to be used by the public as an argument 
against the employment of Latin as the technical language of prescription. We 
are informed that a number of applicants could not make out a prescription, 
calling for Tinct. gentian, co., Infus. ejusd. (namely Infus. gentian, co.), arid 
that such a prescription had actually been sent away by a number of New York 
apothecaries as unintelligible, until the mysterious ejusdem (of the like) was 
finally correctly interpreted by a man of twenty years experience in the busi- 
ness. 

This reminds us of a story we heard twenty years ago in our National Capi- 
tal, where a prescription was said to have been received calling, among other 
articles, for Aq. bull, ; the apothecary, anxious to fill the prescription, retained 
it and sent to some of his professional friends for the required bull's water, un- 
til he was informed that boiling water was meant. Now, if this was not true, 
it was at least well invented. 

In the above mentioned newspaper article it is, however, granted that most 
of the aspirants were familiar with the Latin names of the drugs and medicines, 
and that they can manage to scrub along until some extra careful (.' ?) physician 
writes an elaborate series of directions in Latin. The italicized passage needs 
no comment either for sensible physicians or practical pharmacists ; it was not 



90 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. Si"' 

intended for them, but for the public, to make them alive to the danger they 
run when placing their lives into the hands of ignorant druggists. 

And what effect has this article had upon the public as represented by the 
press ? Several newspapers of Philadelphia, in commenting upon these and 
other statements, use them as so many arguments in favor of abandoning the 
technical Latin terms altogether, and of making physicians write their prescrip- 
tions, and apothecaries label their bottles, &c, in the vernacular. The folly of 
such a demand is quite apparent to those, who have paid a little attention to 
the popular names of drugs which are in use in different localities ; they can very 
well understand the endless confusion, and even danger, that would result from 
such an innovation. 

On the other hand, if an extra-careful physician should take the pains of 
writing an elaborate series of directions in Latin, he might almost, with a cer- 
tainty, expect that they would not be followed by the pharmacist to the letter, 
for the simple reason that the pharmacist understands the manipulations in 
preparing and compounding usually much better than the prescriber, who prob- 
ably has never handled a pestle or a pill machine. If. however, directions to 
the patient are meant in the above quotation, we would point its author to 
Pereira's Physician's Prescription book, pages 9 and 10, where the objections 
to such a practice are briefly but well stated, a3 also its injustice towards the 
compounder and the patient. 

Burning of a Laboratory and Drug Store. — On the afternoon of Decern- 
ber 30th last, the store and laboratory of Mr. Frederick Stearns, at Detroit, was 
destroyed by fire, which originated from the breaking of one or more bottles of 
rhigolene, and resulted in the death of four employees — the engineer and three 
boys of 15 years and upwards. The building, 23 x 100 feet, was four stories 
high, with the cellar running the entire length of the building, and with vaults 
under the sidewalks, used for the storage of liquors, alcohol, ether, phosphorus, 
oils and similar combustible material; the upper floor having been arcaded, 
another floor was thus obtained, making, with the cellar, six in all. The ground 
floor was occupied by the store, which communicated with the cellar by a stair- 
way near its middle, and running at right angles with its length. The stairways 
leading to the upper floors were in the rear part of the building, on one side, 
the other side being occupied by the hatchway, which was open. The second 
floor was the wholesale order and stock room, the three upper floors being used 
as mill-room, press room, laboratory, &c, with the requisite apparatus. The 
steam boiler was in the vault, and in the cellar the gas had to be kept burning 
continually. 

A dozen 12-oz. bottles of rhigolene having been received from Boston, a boy 
was directed to carry the dangerous article into the vault. Immediately after 
getting into the cellar a bottle was heard to break, and almost in the same in- 
stant a volume of fire rushed up the stairway in the centre of the store and 
the hatchway in the rear, the pressure in the store being thereby increased to 
such a degree that the front door could not be opened from within, and had to 
be forced from without, to offer a means of escape for the clerks and customers 
then present ; the men engaged on the second floor had to jump out of the win- 



"fSKIw""'} Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. 91 

dow; while those on the three upper floors, including Mr. Stearns, who was on 
the fourth, and a number of girls on the fifth floor, escaped through the sky- 
light, which was in the centre of the roof. As soon as this was opened the 
flames and smoke followed instantly, threatening to cut off the last retreat. 
However, all hands reached the roof in safety, and then the task commenced 
to lower them down upon the roofs of the adjoining buildings, which was 
finally accomplished. The fire made headway with such astonishing rapidity, 
that about twenty seconds elapsed from the time the bottle was broken until 
refuge had to be sought through the skylight- In the cellar, the engineer was 
badly burned, while the three boys escaped scorching and reached the vault in 
safety, merely to be suffocated there. 

The vapors of the rhigolene escaping from the broken bottle was probably 
ignited by the gas flame ; the other bottles bursting, the escaping liquid at once 
produced such an immense flame that the fire was instantly communicated to 
ali the floors, and the fine building was reduced to ruins in less than four hours. 
The four dead bodies were then recovered. Those of the three boys preserved 
for a week an almost life-like look, but all efforts of restoring life proved una- 
vailing. The engineer had been in the employ of Mr. Stearns for 13 years. 

This sad accident and loss of life should be a warning to all to exercise the 
utmost care, and not handle this extremely volatile liquid in proximity to any 
light or fire. 

Medical Supplies on Railroads. — We learn from the Pharm. Zeitung, that 
the trains on the Altoona and Kiel Railroad, in Northern Germany, carry medi- 
cine chests containing remedies suitable for use in cases of emergency, as sudden 
sickness or accidents, until the aid of a physician can be secured. The line in 
question is a short one ; but the arrangement shows a commendable forethought 
on the part of the company, and a care for the possible needs of the passengers 
which it would be well to imitate in this country, where railroad lines frequently 
extend over thousands of miles ; much inconvenience, delay and consequent suf- 
fering might thereby be obviated. 

Reliable Advertisements. — One of our coteraporaries, a medical journal in 
good standing, in calling attention to the advertisements as containing matters 
of interest and importance to the profession, states : "We exclude advertise- 
ments we believe to be unreliable." Among the advertisements we notice, be- 
sides a number of specialities, a remedy for dysmenorrhcea, which is stated to 
be " a more important addition to the physician's list of valuable remedies than 
the hydrate of chloial or any of the various preparations which have been in- 
troduced to the profession since the discovery of anaesthesia ;" also two " hair 
renewers," which have been shown by Prof. Chandler to contain lead. 

These articles are probable quite as reliable as the Hamburg tea (senna and 
manna, advertised in Philadelphia by a grocer and by an apothecary, as a 
blood purifier and a protection against smallpox. 



92 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { k %i™lJ™*- 

EEVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Pharmacopoea Norvegica. Editio altera. Regia aucloritate edita. Chris- 
tianiae, 1870. lmpensis Alb. Oamrnermeyer. 

The former Norwegian Pharmacopoeia was issued in 1854, and contained 687 
medicaments, of which number 250 have been omitted and about 60 introduced 
in the present edition, the dropped formulas being mostly of antiquated phar- 
maceutical preparations. The Committee of Revision, consisting of two physi- 
cians (Drs. Lochmann and Lund) and two pharmacists (Messrs. Moller and 
Huoslef), has been engaged on this work fully three years, and has produced a 
pharmacopoeia comparing favorably with other modern ones. 

The Pharmacopoeia is printed in the Latin language, the introductory chap- 
ter containing the general rules and directions, and being followed by crude 
drugs, chemical and pharmaceutical preparations, in one alphabetical arrange- 
ment. To the text quite a number of tables are added, namely: List of re- 
agents and test liquids; Table comparing the medicinal with the metrical 
weight, approximately and accurately (lb. j = ^xij == grm. 360 [approx.] = 
grm. 357 8452 [accurate]); Table comparing the metrical with the medicinal 
weight; List of very poisonous articles, marked ff and with red letters, to be 
kept in a locked closet (veiatria, morphia, strychnia, atropia, arsenic, hydrocy- 
anic acid, white precipitate, corrosive sublimate, oxide of mercury, and all pre- 
parations containing the same) ; List of poisonous articles, marked f and with 
red letters, to be enclosed in tin boxes or vessels (mostly narcotic drugs and 
their pharmaceutical preparations, salts of zinc, lead, copper, antimony, &c.) \ 
Table of the maximum doses for adults of powerful medicines (when larger 
doses are prescribed the apothecary must consult the physician before dispens- 
ing); Six tables of the specific gravity and strength of alcohol, ammonia, 
acetic, hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid ; Table of solubility of various 
chemicals in cold water; Table of the atomic weight of elements, the com- 
pounds of which are used in medicine; Table of changes of names and strength 
of medicines from those of the former pharmacopoeia. 

The Pharmacopoeia recognizes three degrees of the fineness of powders: 
pulvis crassus, the meshes being 1*5 mm. in diameter; pulvis communis, 1000 
meshes to the square cm.; pulvis subtilissimus, 2500 meshes to the square cm. 
The sieves, therefore, are to have about 16, 70 and 120 meshes to the linear 
inch. Species, unless otherwise ordered, are to be passed through a No. 6 sieve 
(diameter of meshes, 4-5 mm.) Maceration is to be effected at a temperature 
of 15 to 25° C. (59 to 77° F ) ; digestion at 35 to 40° O. (95 to 101° F.) Unless 
other proportions are ordered, 12 grm. of plaster are used in spreading of the 
size of 100 square cm., except adhesive plaster, of which 2 grm., and empL 
canthar. colatum, of which 10 grm. are used. 

]f a prescription for pills is incomplete, the pharmacist uses water, syrup, 
alcohol, glycerin or powdered althea to form the mass, which is divided so that 
each pill contains 0T grin, of the articles prescribed : the pills to be rolled in 
lycopodium. These additions are to be noted on the prescription. 

In dispensing medicines for internal use, the directions are written upon 



AM Feb U i,'m2 RM '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 93 

white paper: red or some other color is used when tho article is employed ex- 
ternally. 

In the enumeration of the drugs and preparations, after the present officinal 
name that of the first edition of the Norwegian Pharmacopoeia is given next, 
then follows the officinal names, and whore the preparations vary in strength 
these variations are likewise indicated, ef the Swedish, Danish, Piussian. Ger- 
man, Austrian, British, United States and French Pharmacopoeias, and finally 
the popular name is given before the formula. The blistering plaster contains 
6 parts cautharides in 22 parts of the plaster; the heading is as follows : 

Emplastrum cantharidum ordinarium. 
Ph. N. Ed. I. 

Ph. Dan. : Emplastrum cantharidum. Ph. Bor. Ph. Germ. : Emplastrum 
•cantharidum ordinarium (canthar., 25 per ct.) Ph. Austr. : Emplastrum 

cantharidum (33 per ct.) Ph. Brit. ; Empl. cantharidis (33 per ct.) Cfr. Ph. 

U. St. : Ceratum cantharidis (33 per ct.) Ph. Fr. : Empldtre vesicatoire (33 
per ct.) 

Spanksflue— Plaster. 

To each drug a short concise description is added, and attention drawn to 
probable admixtures or substitutions, these descriptions being sufficiently defi- 
nite for those acquainted with drugs, but, like in all other pharmacopoeias with 
a similar feature, are insufficient for the beginner. The following description 
of uva ursi will explain this : 

Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Sprengel (Arbutus uva ursi, L.) Ericineae fruticulus 
in Norvegia frequens. 

Fttlia obovata, coriacea, integerrima. glabra, nitida, reticulato-renosa. Ne 
confundantur cum foliis Yaccinii vitis idaeae, L , margine reflexis, subtus opacis 
et fusco punctatis. 

Folia aestate colligenda. 

But few formulas are given for chemical preparations ; except in cases where 
they are intended of a certain condition, chemicals are merely described, and 
the principal reactions of identity and purity appended. The nomenclature is 
substantially the same as adopted by Berzelius. namely, acetas morphicus, 
oxydum hydrargiricum, subnitras bismuthicus, &c. The chemical formulas, 
according to the old notation, follow the officinal name. 

The formulas for the galenical preparations contain short accurate directions 
which are not intended for the mere tyro ; the processes are as simple as the 
nature of the product to be obtained will admit. Displacement is not prac- 
ticed ; tinctures, unless otherwise directed, are made by heating the suitably 
comminuted drug and the menstruum in a retort to a slow boiling for half an 
hour, so that scarcely any distillate is obtained ; after cooling, the distillate is 
mixed with the contents of the retort, the liquid expressed and filtered. 

All quantities are expressed in parts by weight. 

Taken as a whole, the Norwegian Pharmacopoeia is up to the requirements 
of the present time, although the American pharmacist would hardly be pleased 
with all the manipulations. We append the formulas of a few preparations, 
which are not or but little known here, and retain the officinal names of the 
Pharmacopoeia unaltered : 



94 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { AM Feb U i*, Xm*° 



Massa pilularum tonico-nervinarum. 
R. Sulphatis ferrosi, 

Gummi-resinae Asas foetidae, 
Extracti Cardui benedicti, 

of each 1 p. 

Powder and mix. 



Mixtura acida. 
R. Acidi sulpburici diluti, 
Aquas. 

Syrupi Rubi idaei, 
Mix. 



2 p. 
80 p. 
18 p. 



Mixtura aperiens. 
R. Infusi Rhei alkalini, 3 p. 

Tartratis kalici, 1 p. 

Aquas, 2 p. 

Mix. To be prepared extempora- 
neously. 

Oleum carminativum. 
R. Olei Chamomillae infusi, 90 p. 
iEtherolei Menthae crispae, 4 p. 
" Carvi, 
" Oumini, 

" Foaniculi, of each 2 p. 
Mix by agitation. 

Pulvis refrigerans. 
R. Elaeosacchari Citri, 

Nitratis kalici, of each 1 p. 

Bitartratis kalici, 6 p. 

Powder and mix. 



Species demulcentes. 
R. Fructuum Cannabis contusorum, 
Herbas Malvae concisae, 
Radicis Althaeae, " of each 30 p< 
Radicis Glycyrrhizas concisae. 10 p. 
Mix. 

Species emollientes. 
R. Florum Chamomillae, 
i{ Sambuci, 
Herbae Malva?, 
Meliloti, 

Radicis Althceae, of each, cut, 10 p. 
Seminum Lini contusorum, 50 p. 
Mix. 

Sp iritus antip a t ■alyhcus . 
R. ^Etherolei Juniperi, 

Pyrolei Succini rectificati, 

of each 4 p. 
Spiritus camphorati, 60 p. 

Solutionis Ammoniaci, 
Liquoris Supercarbonatis ammo- 
nici pyroleosi, of each 16 p. 

Mix. 

Syrupus opiatus vel thebaicus. 
R. Tincturae Opii, 1 p. 

Syrupi Sacchari, 99 p. 

Mix. 



TTie Pharmacist and Chemical Record. A monthly Journal of Pharmacy, 
Chemistry and the Collateral Sciences. Published by the Chicago College 
of Pharmacy. N. Cray Bartlett, editor ; Albert E Ebert, associate editor. 

We hail with pleasure the resurrection of our cotemporary, which comes to 
us in a double number, full of vigor and energy. Of it it may be truly said, 
that it was "baptized in fire." May it hereafter not meet with any similar 
calamity to interrupt its course of usefulness in the cause of pharmacy. 

The Journal of the Gynaecological Society of Boston. Edited by Winslow Lewis, 
M. T).. Horatio R. Storer, M. D., and George H. Bixby, M. D. Boston: Jas. 
Campbell. 

This monthly, which is devoted to the advancement of the knowledge of the 
diseases of women, comes to us enlarged by an addition of 16 pages, which will 



AM Feb U i;i?72 RM } Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 95 

hereafter be devoted to a general summary of gynaecological literature through- 
out the world. 



Western Medical Advance and Progress of Pharmacy. An illustrated quar- 
terly Journal. Edited by W. H. Lathrop, A.M., M.D. Detroit, Mich. 

Number 3 of this quarto publication is before us, containing, besides the ad- 
vertisements, about 12 pages of reading matter, arranged under the following 
heads: General notes ; new instruments; medical notes ; surgical notes ; edi- 
torial; publications received. It appears to be mainly devoted to advertise- 
ments, the limited space being hardly in accord with its title, although many of 
the items are judiciously selected. The chromo representing eight plants, more 
or less used in medicine, shows bright colors, but some of the figures bear little 
resemblance to the plants. This is especially true of Golchicum autumnale and 
its tuber. • 

Proceedings of the Vermont Pharmaeeutical Association at the Second Annual 
Meeting, held at Rutland Oct. 11th, 1871. Also, Constitution, By-Laws, 
Roll of Members, &c. Rutland : Tuttle & Co., Printers. 1871. 8vo, 32 
pages. 

This Association, consisting of 40 members, appears to be in good working- 
order, and the Proceedings show that the members are earnesty endeavoring 
to labor for the advancement of the profession. Five papers were read. Mr. 
A. 0. Gates reported on Valeriana officinalis cultivated in Vermont, but with- 
out being able to furnish statistics. A comparative analysis of this and the 
European is very desirable. Mr. J. R. Cheney reported on the use of bicarbo- 
nate of soda and sulphuric acid for making soda water, with the view of utiliz- 
ing the sulphate of soda formed. The reporter considers the value of the pro- 
duct as scarcely sufficient to warrant the expenditure of time and labor neces- 
sary for its recovery. Mr. E. C. Lewis reported on the course of reading 
necessary for the apothecary ; Mr. W. H. Northrup, on the fineness of powders 
required for percolation; Mr. F. Dutcher, on indigenous drugs collected in 
Vermont, giving some curious facts, without succeeding in obtaining statistics. 

Proceedings of the Second Annual Session of the State Medical Association of 
Arkansas, held at Little Rock Nov. 5th and 6th ; 1871. 8vo, 39 paues. 

Besides the President's address four papers were read at this meeting. The 
business, most important to apothecaries, transacted here is expressed in the 
following resolutions, offered by Dr. Ed. Cross, of Pulaski Co., and adopted : 

Resolved, That it shall be of binding force and obligation on each and every 
member of this Society to withdraw all patmnaare and support from any apoth- 
ecary or establishment where medicines are dispensed, on proof and evidence 
sufficiently clear and satisfactory that the proprietor or clerks employed therein, 
not being graduates in medicine are in the habit of assuming the responsibility 
and incurring the hazard and damage of prescribing supposed remedies and 
specifics without the written prescription or advice of a physician. 

Resolved, That it shall be and is hereby the duty of the members of this So- 
ciety to request the proprietors or pharmaceutists to whom they are in the 
habit of sending prescriptions to be made out or filled for the use and benefit 
of their patients, not to duplicate or refill the same under any circumstances 
without the written or verbal permission to do so, and, on neglect or refusing to 



96 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices, { k \i^Xmf K ' 

comply with such reasonable demands, it shall be the duty of any such aggrieved 
to withdraw his patronage and support (and immediately report the same to 
this Association) and give it to those who will alike better respect the proper 
rights of the profession and the greater good and safety of the public. 

The first resolution is just to a certain extent, if interpreted in a liberal 
manner. We remember a valued friend of ours saying, in a meeting of phar- 
macists, some years ago, that he, in common with nearly all others present, had 
relieved many a sufferer from toothache without ever being taken to account 
for it by his neighbor dentist. No true pharmacist will undertake to act as 
physician, though he may be frequently called upon to alleviate the suffering of 
his fellow-man in the absence of a physician or in trivial or emergent cases. 

About the subject of the second resolution we have repeatedly expressed our 
opinion and do. not care to enter into it again. But we would respectfully sug- 
gest to this Association that in our opinion kind words and sound reasonings 
will be productive of more good than ever so many threats of vengeance. 



Twelfth Annual Report of the Board of Directors and Officers of the Long- 
view Asylum, to the Governor of the State of Ohio, for the year 1871. Cin 
cinnati : Robert Clarke & Co., Printers: 1871. 8vo, 34 pages. 
The report, which is embellished with an engraving of the Asylum and of the 
building set apart for colored persons, contains the usual information, financial 
and statistical. We learn from it that Dr. Langdon, for many years the efficient 
superintendent of this humane institution, has resigned his position, his place 
being now filled by Dr. J. T. Webb. It may perhaps interest our readers to 
know that of 2568 insane patients treated in this asylum during 11 years, 5 were 
druggists, 3 druggists' wives, 7 physicians and 6 physicians' wives. 



The Physician's Annual for 1872. A complete calendar for the city and coun- 
try practitioner. Edited by S. W. Butler, M.D., and Geo. H. Napheys, M.D. 
Philadelphia. Price 50 cents. 

It contains a monthly calendar; lists of hospitals of the principal cities of 
the United States, of medical and pharmaceutical colleges, and of medical so- 
cieties of the United States and Canada; printed catalogues of medical books 
and surgical instruments, &c, and much other information of interest to physi- 
cians and others. In the list of pharmaceutical colleges, those of Massachu- 
setts and Maryland have been omitted, and the names of the Secretaries of 
others are incorrectly given. 

The Chronic Hypertrophy of the Lips. By R. W. Taylor, M. D., Surgeon to 
the New York Dispensary, Department of Venereal and Skin Diseases. New 
York: Wm. Baldwin & Co. 8vo, 8 pages. 
Reprinted from the " Medical World," Nov., 1871. 



Public Ledger Almanac, 1872. Geo. W. Childs, publisher. Philadelphia. 56 
pages. 

he Tribune Almanac and Political Register for 1872. New York. 78 pages. 
T Price, 20 cents. 

These two almanacs, the former of which is not sold, but furnished to sub- 
scribers of the " Ledger" gratuitously, contain a great deal of information, the 
latter mainly political and statistical, the former more local and useful to the 
individual and to families. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MARCH, 1872. 



ABIETENE A NEW HYDROCARBON. 
By William Wenzell. 
Read before the California Pharm. Soc, Dec. 13th, 1871. 

This hydro-carbon is the product of distillation of the terebinthinate 
exudation of a coniferous tree indigenous to California, and is ob- 
tained from the Pinus sabiniana, Dougl., a tree inhabiting the dry 
sides of the foot hills of the Sierra Nevada mountains and the Coast 
Range, known more familiarly, however, by the name of Nut Pine or 
Digger Pine, names seemingly suggested by the edible quality of its 
fruit, upon which the Digger Indians chiefly rely as an article of food. 

During winter the tree is notched and guttered at a convenient 
height from the ground, to receive the resin which then exudes, and 
when a sufficient quantity is thus obtained, it is carried to the stills for 
distillation. As this hydro-carbon is extremely volatile, and therefore 
much loss often sustained if the resinous exudation is kept long, dis- 
tillation is usually commenced as soon as a sufficient quantity of the 
"gum" has been collected. The crude oil, as usually found in San 
Francisco, is a colorless, limpid fluid, and requires only to be dis- 
tilled to obtain it quite pure. It occurs as an article of commerce, 
and has acquired, during the last eight or ten years, a considerable 
reputation under the names of abietene, erasine, aurantine, theoline, 
&c, for the removal of grease and paint from clothing, fabrics, &c, — 
an efficient substitute for petroleum benzine. 

In order to determine whether it was homogeneous in its composi- 
tion, or composed of several hydro-carbons, seventeen fluid-ounces of 
the crude abietene were distilled fractionally, and the several distil* 

7 



98 Abietene a new Hydrocarbon. { 



Am. Jotjr. Pharm. 
March 1, 1872. 



lates of three ounces each separately collected. The first three ounces 
were obtained with the thermometer indicating 101° C, the sec- 
ond fraction indicated a thermometric rise of a quarter of a degree, 
and the thermometer rose with every succeeding fractional part until 
the fifth fraction indicated a boiling point of 104° C. With the sixth 
or last fraction the thermometer rose rapidly from 105° to 115° C, 
when at this point the distillation was discontinued. The remaining 
ounce presented a brownish red appearance, and left, on evaporation 
in a porcelain capsule, a small quantity of a solid resinous body. 
Each fractional part was found, on examination, to possess a boiling 
point of 101° C, showing the hydro-carbon abietene is a homogeneous 
liquid. Pure abietene presents a colorless, limpid liquid, possessing a 
strong penetrating odor, bearing some resemblance to oil of oranges. 
It is specifically lighter than water, turpentine, absolute alcohol, and 
ether, its specific gravity being 0*694 at a temperature of 16*5° C. It 
is very volatile and highly inflammable, burning with a brilliant white, 
smokeless flame. It is nearly insoluble in water ; soluble in five parts 
by volume of 95 per cent, alcohol. When poured upon the hands, it 
evaporates rapidly, communicating the sensation of cold. Dry hydro- 
chloric acid, passed through it for ten hours, did not react upon it. 
It dissolves iodine with the production of a rich purple color ; bromine 
is also freely dissolved, forming an orange-colored solution. Nitric 
acid of sp. gr. 1*43 added to abietene occasioned no reaction in the 
cold, but when the mixture was heated to boiling, a moderate reaction 
was established with the disengagement of nitrous acid fumes. Con- 
centrated sulphuric acid exerted no reaction whatever, either in the 
cold or on heating ; metallic potassium was not acted upon. On pass- 
ing dry chlorine into abietene this gas was abundantly absorbed, with 
the evolution of hydrochloric acid gas, an increase of volume and density, 
accompanied by a rise of temperature. On saturating abietene with 
chlorine, assisting towards the end with a gentle heat, a thick liquid 
resulted, which, when heated on a water-bath to remove some hydro- 
chloric acid held in solution, was found to possess the consistency of 
glycerin, sp. gr., 1*666, to be colorless, insoluble in water, but soluble 
in warm alcohol, and possessing a taste resembling balsam of fir. 

In comparing abietene with terebene (spirits of turpentine), the hydro- 
carbon obtained from other species of the pine family, the Pinuspalus- 
tris y Pinus sylvestris, etc., some very striking differences are observed in 
their physical and chemical properties. Particularly noticeable is the 



A Me7iffi72 M '} Abietene a new Hydrocarbon. 99 

remarkably low sp. grav. of abietene, which is only 0-694 at 16-5° C. ; 
that of terebene being 0*840, at about the same temperature; again 
the boiling point of abietene is 101° C. while oil of turpentine boils 
at 160° C. Terebene absorbs hydrochloric acid with avidity, form- 
ing hydrochlorate, while abietene resists the prolonged action of this 
gas at ordinary temperatures. Nitric acid acts violently upon tere- 
bene, while, on the other hand, with abietene no action was instituted, 
and it was only by the application of heat that a quiet evolution of 
nitrous gas was observed. The action of chlorine upon abietene seems 
to furnish a true substitution product, the hydrogen of the hydro-car- 
bon being largely replaced by chlorine, sufficient to raise the spec, 
grav. of the liquid from 694 to 1*666. When this substitution com- 
pound was subjected to distillation, at a temperature of 256-260° C, 
hydro-chloric acid was given off abundantly, with subsequent blacken- 
ing and the disengagement of pyrogenous products, leaving, finally, a 
carbonaceous residue. 

Abietene is a powerful solvent for the fixed and volatile oils, with 
the exception of castor oil, which is absolutely insoluble in abietene ; 
while, on the other hand, castor oil is capable of dissolving nearly 
two-thirds of its volume of the hydro-carbon. 

Abietene dissolves balsam of capaiba freely and in all proportions. 
Canada balsam is dissolved in all proportions up to two parts of abietene, 
an excess of the latter precipitating the resinous principle of the bal- 
sam entirely as a white flocculent precipitate, the volatile oil being re- 
tained in solution. Balsam of Peru requires about one-fifth of its volume 
of abietene to form a clear solution, but if a quantity greater than this 
is added a turbid mixture will result, which, on repose, will allow the 
excess of abietene to rise to the surface. It will be seen at a glance, 
from these data, that, although abietene possesses the properties of a 
general solvent for fixed and volatile oils in every proportion, it yet 
is incapable of dissolving castor oil, balsam of Peru, and Canada bal- 
sam, which in their turn exert a solvent action upon abietene. 

When abietene is burned in an alcohol lamp, with flame not too 
large, a brilliant white light is obtained, without smoking. Its vapor 
is powerfully anaesthetic when inhaled, and it has been used with suc- 
cess as an insecticide against moths, &c, when sprinkled in closed re- 
ceptacles. Castor oil mixed purposely with other fixed oils, and the 
mixture then shaken with four times its volume of abietene, the castor 
oil will be found to separate and collect at the bottom of the mixture, 



100 Bromide of Calcium. { A M^7hCm^ 

forming a distinct layer, consisting of one volume of castor oil and 
two-thirds of a volume of abietene, so that by this means sophistica- 
tions of castor oil with other fixed oils may be easily detected and 
quantitatively determined. 



BROMIDE OF CALCIUM. 
By James E. Mercein. 

The good effects experienced by Prof. W. A. Hammond and other 
well-known physicians, in the substitution of bromide of calcium for 
bromide of potassium as a sedative and hypnotic, have brought this 
salt into somewhat prominent notice during the past year. The fact 
that its wholesale price seemed to be exorbitant in proportion to the 
cost of the ingredients, first induced me to try and make it for my- 
self. A thorough search in nearly a dozen works on chemistry gave 
me no clue whatever, only one or two authors giving the name even. 
In Miller's Chemistry, however, and in Watt's Dictionary of Chem- 
istry, there is a general description, but nothing to serve as a working 
formula. But after various trials I have succeeded in making the 
salt to my satisfaction, and herewith give the modus operandi for the 
benefit of others. 

Five ounces of bromine and two and a half pints of water were put 
together in a half gallon specie jar. A stream of sulphuretted hydro- 
gen was then passed slowly into this, care being taken to place the 
end of the delivery tube so as to touch the surface of the bromine. 
This was continued until the bromine was all taken up, and the re- 
sulting liquid was of a muddy yellow color with a copious deposit of 
sulphur. It was then filtered, transferred to a capsule and gently 
warmed, to drive off any trace of S 2 5 , and again filtered. The re- 
sult was a strong solution of hydrobromic acid, specific gravity 13°. 
In order to free this from any possible impurity, it was distilled by a 
sand-bath heat until four-fifths had passed over. It was then satu- 
rated with precipitated carbonate of lime, which was added in slight 
excess, so that even after applying a gentle heat, a slight quantity 
remained undissolved. This solution of bromide of calcium was fil- 
tered, evaporated by a water-bath to a syrupy consistence, then re-' 
moved from the fire and stirred until it cooled. The result was six 
ounces of bromide of calcium in fine, granular powder, possessing 
every characteristic of the salt, and freely soluble in twice its weight 



Am. Jotra. Pharm. 1 
March 1, 1&72. J 



Chalk Mixture. 



101 



of water, leaving a mere trace of residuum upon the filter. Here 
comes in the practical part of the operation. This salt, perfectly free 
from uncombined lime, such as was found in the commercial article, 
was made for about one-fifth of the market price. 
Jersey City, K J., Feb., 1872. 



CHALK MIXTURE. 
By Geo. W. Kennedy. 

Mistura cretas of our pharmacopoeia is a remedy frequently pre- 
scribed by our physicians for diarrhoea and summer complaints of 
children, and yet it is very objectionable, owing to its becoming sour, 
especially during the summer season, that being the time when mostly 
prescribed. It is surprising how rapidly it ferments, the supernatant 
liquid becoming sour and mouldy ; of course there is no necessity to 
dispense a fermented preparation, when it may be made up fresh 
every time when wanted, and yet how very inconvenient it is at times 
to prepare it as called for, especially if several customers are waiting 
in the store, and most likely all of them having prescriptions to be 
filled, each one desiring to be waited on first. 

In order to see what was sold in some of our shops as chalk mix- 
ture, I purchased some from twelve different stores ; three of the 
samples proved to be in perfectly good condition, eight partially sour 
and one quite sour ; two of the first were from stores kept by gradu- 
ates in pharmacy, the rest were not. 

By way of experiment in order to obviate this great inconvenience 
I tried the substitution of glycerin for sugar, ?m> 1 so far, up to the 
present time, I have found it to work well after i.. j following formula : 
fy. Cretse Praept. 

Glycerin ae (Bowers') a a ^ss. 

Pulv. acaciae 3ij. 

Olei Cinnamomi gtt. viij. 

Aquae Destill. viij. 
Mix thoroughly. 

The above mixture I have kept a whole summer and up to the 
present time; I made it about ten months ago, and upon opening it I 
found it in perfect condition, not even the slightest acidification having 
taken place. 



102 Fluid Extract of Gundurango Baric. { A JL J Xi,w"" 

The above process is not used for dispensing chalk mixture in my 
shop, but was only tried by way of experiment, to see if it would keep 
during the hot summer months from decomposition. 

The following formula has been used by me for some time back : 
1^. Cretae Prsept. gss. 
Sacchari albi 

Pulv. acacise aa gij. 
Olei Cinnamomi gtt viij. 
Mix intimately. 

For every fluid-ounce of chalk mixture I take one drachm of the 

mixed powders, and rub them well up with an ounce of distilled water, 

and of course the mixture is free from acidity. In cases of diarrhoea 

in children, which generally is the result of fermentation, the glycerin 

formula seems to be preferable to the one containing sugar, the 

former mixture being and remaining bland, nutritious and with SOOth- 
cs o " 

ing effect on the bowels ; to a certain extent it arrests fermentation, 
and the glycerin fully protects the gum from decomposition. 
Pottsville, Fa., Feb., 1872. 



FLUID EXTRACT OF GUNDURANGO BARK. 
By Samuel Campbell. 
The attention of the Medical and Pharmaceutical professions is 
now attracted to this drug by the many rumors concerning the won- 
derful cures effected by its use in the treatment of cancer, syphilis, 
and kindred diseases, and there is no doubt that many have been de- 
terred from giving it a trial on account of the exorbitant prices charged 
for it, (altogether speculative), varying from one hundred dollars down 
to nine dollars per pound. And the glaring inconsistency of difference 
in price between the commercial fluid extract and the drug in sub- 
stance, the former quoted at ten dollars a pint, (representing one 
pound of the bark), and the latter at eighteen dollars per pound, 
has induced me to submit the following formula as the result of a 
series of experiments whereby retail pharmaceutists may prepare and 
thereby furnish a reliable preparation to their medical patrons, 
and aid in designating the true therapeutical value, (if it has any), of 
this drug. The bark was purchased from the well-known firm of 
McKesson & Robbins, of New York City, in its crude state, and 
ground under my own supervision, hence its reliability cannot be 
questioned. The formula is as follows : 



A M a rch R i,^872. M '} Gleanings from the European Journals. 103 

Cundurango Bark, 24 troy-ounces. 

Alcohol, (95 per ct.) 12 fluid " 

Glycerin, (Bower's inodorous), 6 " " 

Water, 6 " 

Reduce the bark to a moderately coarse powder (No. 40), and 
dampen with four fluid-ounces of menstruum. Place a piece of coarse 
sponge, previously moistened, in the bottom of the percolator, and pro- 
ceed to pack the dampened powder uniformly and moderately tight. 
Place a paper or muslin diaphragm over the surface of the drug and 
pour on the remainder of the menstruum; cover over percolator and allow 
to macerate four days. If the menstruum should begin to pass through 
before that period, check it by placing a cork in the neck of the percola- 
tor. On the fifth day remove the cork and pour on 24 fluid-ounces of 
dilute alcohol, and allow to percolate until 22 fluid-ounces are obtained. 
Set aside and continue the percolation until 8 fluid-ounces more pass 
through. Expose this in a shallow vessel in a warm place until re- 
duced to two fluid-ounces, then mix and agitate with the original per- 
colate of 22 ounces, when the result will be a fluid extract of a very 
dark reddish brown color, fully representing the drug, possessing an 
acrid taste, yet devoid of bitterness. 

I have also deemed it interesting to itemize the amount of extrac- 
tive matter contained in the drug, and pursued the following method 
for obtaining a sufficiently practical result : 

24 fluid-ounces of menstruum weighs 21 J troy-ounces. 
24 " " fluid extract, when 

finished, weighs 24| troy-ounces. 

The dregs in the percolator was afterwards entirely exhausted with 
dilute alcohol, (requiring about 2 pints), and then carefully evaporated, 
yielding an extract weighing three drachms, thus proving that 24 troy- 
ounces of the bark contains 3 J troy-ounces of soluble extractive 
matter. 

Philadelphia, January 22d, 1872. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Oils of Peppermint and Alcohol, — Hager substantiates his criticism 
of Puscher's method for the detection of alcohol in volatile oils by 
means of fuchsin, by a somewhat oxidized oil of peppermint, which 



104 Gleanings from the European Journals. { a m*^i?iwl' 

dissolved fuchsin, although Hager's test by tannin proved the total 
absence of alcohol. He states, however, that the addition of one-half 
per cent, of alcohol to the volatile oil will preserve it from oxidation 
for a ten times longer period than without such addition ; the oil of 
crisped mint is preserved in like manner. Ten to fifteen drops of 
the oil of peppermint containing this addition, and put into a dry test 
tube, a piece of tannin of the size of a pea is added, slightly agitated 
and set aside for one hour and a half; the tannin will remain unal- 
tered unless a larger quantity of alcohol has been added, when it will 
be soft or dissolved ; one-half per cent, of alcohol is not indicated by 
this test in less than two or three hours. The author considers this 
addition as necessary and justifiable, as the addition of a small quan- 
tity of alcohol to absolute chloroform to preserve it from decomposi- 
tion.*— Pharm. Centr. Halle, 1871, 465—466. 

Carbolic acid Paper. — C. Homburg, of Berlin, has introduced, for 
disinfecting purposes, a paste board saturated with crude carbolic acid, 
so that each square foot contains 100 grammes. The atmosphere may 
be impregnated with the acid by suspending a suitable sheet in the 
rooms, the large surface of the paper favoring evaporation. For the 
disinfection of spittoons, urinals, bed-pans and the like small pieces 
of the paper are sufficient. The article is sold retail in sheets mea- 
suring about seven square feet, at twenty-five cents. — Ibid. p. 471. 

Oleoresina Filicis Maris. — To prevent the deposition of a precipi- 
tate in this oleoresin, Hager recommends to dry the powered rhizome 
completely over burned lime and to employ anhydrous ether, contain- 
ing but little alcohol of a specific gravity below 0*728. With an 
ether of 0*723 specific gravity and a completely dehydrated powder, 
which is best exhausted in a cylindrical percolator, the oleoresin re- 
mains perfectly clear. — Ibid, 457. 

Solution of Subacetate of Alumina is a mild astringtnt, and has 
been used for some years as a local application for suppurating wounds 
and ulcers, in gleet, some eruptions, intertrigo, &c. Hager gives the 
following directions for its preparation : 

35 parts crystallized acetate of lead, 10 parts litharge and 33 
parts water are heated until the sediment has become white ; when 
cold, 100 parts water are added and the whole well agitated. A solu- 



* See also Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1871, p. 201. 



A Wrch R M872 M '} Gleanings from the European Journals. 105 

tion of 31 parts crystallized sulphate of alumina in 130 parts cold 
water is added, repeatedly agitated and, after settling in a cool place, 
filtered. A little sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through the fil- 
trate to remove traces of lead remaining dissolved in the alumina 
solution, and the sulphuric acid is precipitated by a little acetate of 
baryta; the sulphate of baryta remains in suspension for a long time, 
but is easily removed by agitation of the liquid with five parts puri- 
fied animal charcoal and filtering. The filtrate has a specific gravity 
of 1*025 to 1-026, and contains 5 per cent, of the salt. 

This solution may be mixed and even heated to boiling with five 
times its volume of 90 per cent, alcohol without becoming turbid, but 
gelatinizes with tannin solution. — Ibid., 473—476. 

Ozonized water, which has been repeatedly branded by Hager as a 
swindle, has been examined by Prof. Boettger (Ph. Cent. Halle, 1871, 
489), who found it to contain a little nitrous acid, and by Dr. Albert 
Kremer (Ibid., 1872, 2) who found a sample to contain a trace of 
binoxide of hydrogen, but no ozone. 

New test for Alcohol. — Berthelot observes that benzoyle chloride 
C r4 H 5 C10 2 is not readily decomposed by cold or lukewarm water ; if, 
however, alcohol is present, benzoic ether is at once formed which 
dissolves in the excess of benzoyle chloride ; a drop of the latter, if 
now heated with potassa solution, dissolves readily, while the ether is 
not acted upon. The reaction is very evident if 20 or 25 c. c. of 
water are used containing only 1 per cent, of alcohol. But even with 
a few c. c. of water containing only one thousandth of alcohol, the 
odor of the ether is still very manifest. — Repertoire dePharm., 1871, 
Nov., 178. 

To distinguish Grape- from Fruit- Wine. — Neues Jahrbuch fur 
Pharmacie xxxvi. p. 314-322, contains an interesting communication, 
signed "M.," in which it is stated that fruit-wines (of apples and 
pears) contain phosphoric acid combined with lime, while grape-wines 
(from the Neckar river) contain phosphoric acid in combination with 
magnesia. If the filtered liquids are supersaturated with ammonia, 
distinct granular crystals will form from cider on the side of the glass 
cylinder after some hours, while the precipitate from grape, wine is 
pulverulent to the eye but crystalline under the microscope. Both 
precipitates dissolve in dilute acetic acid ; the solution of the cider 
precipitate separates, upon the addition of oxalate of ammonia, oxalate 



106 Gleanings from the European Journals. { k u2™h\*mT' 

of lime, and then yields with ammonia and sulphate of magnesia a 
precipitate of ammonio-phosphate of magnesia. The solution of the 
grape-wine precipitate separates by an oxalate a little oxalate of lime, 
and then precipitates, on supersaturation with ammonia, all the 
phosphoric acid as magnesia salt, so that a solution of magnesia will 
not disturb the clear liquid. One litre cider (from pears) yielded 

0- 369 P0 5 , the same quantity of Neckar wine 0-366 P0 5 . The au- 
thor found also that hi3 grape-wines naturally contain malic acid. 
One litre Malaga wine yielded 0*640 P0 5 . Further experiments with 
fruit- and grape-wines of an undoubted purity are very desirable. 

Pure Soda hydrate by Crystallization. — This process, proposed by 
O. Hermes, has been tried by Klas Lindroth, who observed that a 
very impure solution of soda of specific gravity 1-215 would not crys- 
tallize at a temperature of — 22° C. ( — 17° F.), but crystallized read- 
ily after concentration to 1-375 spec. grav. After draining the crys- 
tals in a well-covered glass funnel, they were found to contain mere 
traces of carbonate and chloride. — N. Jahrh.f Pharm., 1871, from 
Upsala Ldkarefdr. ForhandL 

A new delicate test for Ammonia has been observed by Lex. Liquids 
containing minute quantities of ammonia assume a green color when 
treated with carbolic acid and afterwards with chlorinated lime. — 
Ibid.yfrvm D. Indusi. Ztg. 

Collodium Cotton and Creasote. — According to Wirth, coilodium 
cotton yields with beechwood tar-creasote a clear liquid, which, at first 
thick, soon becomes limpid and homogeneous. Coal tar-creasote 
yields, after continued agitation with the cotton, a gelatinous and, for 
the greater part, consistent mass. — Ibid., from Pharm. Ztg. 

Testing Balsam of Peru. — This balsam has a specific gravity of 

1- 140 to 1*160, and therefore sinks if added to a solution of one part 
of table salt in four of water, which has a specific gravity of 1-125. 
The addition of even a small quantity of a fixed oil to balsam of Peru 
renders it lighter. — Ibid., from Apoth. Ztg. 

Galega officinalis, for improving the secretion of milk, was recom- 
mended by Gilles and Langenhagen. Dr. Oeffinger has used it in 
the form of syrup with good success, and reports that not only the 
quantity of the milk is increased, but that it is likewise improved in 
quality. In one case the milk consisted before the treatment of 92-4 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March 1, 1872. J 



Notes on Pareira. 



107 



water, 3-8 sugar, 1*9 butter, 2*7 casein and 0*1 salts. On the second 
day after commencing to use galega, it was composed of 90*2 water, 
4*4 sugar, 2-3 butter, 3*6 casein and 0*1 salts. — Ibid., from Aerztl. 
Mitth. a. Baden. 

Rudbeckia laciniata, Lin., in Europe. — An interesting history of the 
introduction of this North American plant into Europe, is given by 
A. Kerner, in Zeitschr. d. allg. oesterr. Apoth. Ver., 1871, No. 35. 
It appears that it was received and cultivated at Paris by Vesp. 
Robin in the beginning of the seventeenth century, and in the begin- 
ning of the following century was used as an ornamental plant in 
many parts of Europe. It is now found wild in many parts of North- 
ern and Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and Switzerland. 

Test solutions for Grape-sugar. — Julius Loewe recommended, in 1870, 
u solution of oxide of copper, soda and glycerin, w r hich he reports to 
be entirely unaltered, after having been kept for about eighteen 
months in the dark and in diffused daylight. 15*305 grm. hydrated 
oxide of copper (equal to 40 grm. pure crystallized copper sulphate), 
30 grm. glycerin, 80 c. c. soda solution, sp. gr. 1*34, and 1*60 c. c. 
water are heated with 160 c. c. water in a water-bath until solution 
is effected, when it is diluted to 1155 c.c, 10 c.c. of which are equiv- 
alent to 0*050 grm. anhydrous grape sugar ; the solution is not decom- 
posed by boiling. 

The author has also modified Boettger's reagent so as to obtain a 
permanent solution of bismuth, as follows : 15 grm. subnitrate of bis- 
muth, 30 grm. glycerin, 60 to 70 c.c. soda solution, sp. gr. 1*34, and 
150 to 160 c.c. water yield, on heating in a water-bath, a clear solu- 
tion, which may be diluted to 700 or 800 c.c. without producing a de- 
posit. —Zeitschr. f. anal. Ohem., 1871, 452. 



NOTES ON PAREIRA. 
By Edward R. Squibb, M. D. 

Pareira Brava is a drug which has withstood the mutations of 
therapeutics and commerce for nearly two hundred years, and it is a 
singular and significant fact, in view of its commercial history, that it 
has sustained a sound reputation with many critical observers. 

It appears to have been introduced to European practice from Por- 
tugal, but its sources were Mexico, tropical South America, and the 
West Indies. Under a name so indefinite as " wild vine," or " bas- 



1 



108 Notes on Pareira. l%S\*?m! 



tard vine," — the translation of the name Pareira Brava, — it is hardly- 
possible that the markets should have always been supplied from the 
same plant, even after its botanical source was determined, and hence 
the varying descriptions of different authorities may be accounted for. 
The writer has been familiar with it, both in its use and in its market 
character, for more than twenty-five years, and for the last half of 
this period supposed he knew the substance with some degree of ac- 
curacy, as its appearance was more uniform than that of most drugs. 
It, however, never had more than a very general agreement with any 
of the descriptions given of it ; and the almost universal testimony of 
those physicians who knew it best was, that although very efficient in 
the treatment of chronic diseases of the mucous membranes of the 
urinary passages, it was only useful when given in doses very much 
larger than those prescribed by the books. 

It has sp happened, that in the New York market the trade in this 
drug has been largely, though not exclusively, confined to one drug 
house, and its appearance, as met with here, is identical with oc- 
casional samples seen from other cities. Some ten years ago, the 
annual sales did not exceed three or four hundred pounds, and the 
price was fifteen to twenty cents. A Portuguese merchant, stimulated 
by this high price, imported a lot of some ten thousand pounds, and 
unable to sell it except in small lots at the expected prices, stored it 
for a year or two. This was found to be expensive management of 
so bulky an article, and the lot was finally sold at eight cents, and 
supplied the market for years. Another lot of about half as much 
shared the same fate, and fell into the same hands. The fate of these 
two lots and the glut of the market seems to have stopped importation 
entirely, and by 1871, when the annual sales had reached three to 
four thousand pounds, the supply became exhausted. . In resorting to 
foreign markets it was found scarce, and to be had only in small lots, 
and these, on arriving here, were held at seventy-five cents to a dollar 
a pound. In looking critically through one of these small lots as a 
purchaser, the writer was surprised to find nearly one-half of it so. 
entirely different from any hitherto seen, that he rejected it, and at 
once pronounced it a fraudulent adulteration or substitution, made in 
the interest of the scarcity and high price, and carefully selected out 
for purchase that only which he had seen before. Some specimens of 
this supposed fraudulent pareira were, however, taken for examination,, 
and were found to agree well with some of the older descriptions. A 



AM. Jouii. Phaem. ) 
March 1, 1872. J 



Notes on Pareira. 



109 



plate given by Pouiet in his History of Drugs, published in 1737, and 
a close examination of the structure, &c, convinced the writer that 
this was the true pareira root, and that what he had heretofore seen 
was the stem. 

In a critical review of the descriptions of Wood and Bache, and 
Pareira, these descriptions were found to apply to both, as nearly as 
such descriptions generally do to foreign drugs, but that they applied 
much better to the ligneous woody stem, which is comparatively in- 
sipid and probably inert. The root is very much darker, almost black 
externally, and both the annular and vertical wrinkles are very much 
larger and more prominent. It occurs in shorter sections than the 
stem, and knarled pieces are found eight inches to a foot in diameter. 
The texture is far less compact than that of the stem, while the beau- 
tiful arrangement of the consecutive rings seen in a cross section, 
which requires a glass in the compact stem, is well seen with the naked 
«ye in the root. The sweetish and afterward bitter taste of the woody 
stem is very feeble, and even when in the finest powder, it yields very 
little extract to any menstruum. The taste of the root is, however, 
very much stronger T and yields at least twice as much extractive mat- 
ter to the menstrua. Specimens illustrate the difference between the 
root and stem much better than any description, and will render 
further explanation unnecessary. 

It thus appears that, for some twelve or fifteen years past, this 
market has been supplied with the comparatively inert stem, instead 
of the root of pareira ; and that the ideas of at least one careful pur- 
chaser had become so fixed upon the intractable woody stems, that 
when the roots did appear, they were very nearly rejected as a fraudu- 
lent substitution. The importations of this year thus far have come 
from the European markets in small lots, and have been a mixture of 
root and stem, but less of the root than stem, and the chief object of 
this note is to attract attention to the drug, and create such a demand 
for the proper root portion, that after the present scarcity is over, 
and the market comes to be again supplied direct, the stem may be 
rejected, 

There is no doubt whatever as to the peculiar efficacy and utility 
of this drug within its legitimate sphere in therapeutics, and the won- 
der is that it has been able to sustain its well-tried and time-honored 
reputation upon the feeble medicinal properties of the stem. — Pro- 
ceedings of the Amer. Phar. Assoc. 1871.] 

Brooklyn, Sept., 1871. 



1 10 On the so-called African Saffron. { A S a J rXi P im M ' 

ON THE SO-CALLED AFRICAN SAFFRON. 
By Prof. John M. Maisch. 

Nearly a year ago, my friend A. E. Ebert sent me a sample of 
what had been offered in Chicago under the name of African saffron, 
and was in the hands of an agent of a New York house. I also pro- 
cured from Breithaupt & Wilson, New York, a sample under the 
same name, and found the Chicago and New York so-called African 
saffron alike, namely, to be the florets of Carthamus tinctorius, Cir., 
the well-known safflower or dyer's saffron, but more broken than 
what we usually see under this name and that of American saffron ; it 
is likewise more discolored. This plant is originally indigenous to 
the East Indies, but is very extensively cultivated in Western Asia, 
Southern Europe, and Northern Africa, particularly Egypt. Whether 
this so-called African saffron was really imported from Africa or not, 
I have no means to ascertain ; but it is not improbable that, with the 
staple drugs regularly shipped from Alexandria, Egypt, this lot of 
carthamus may have likewise been exported in consequence of the 
failing supply from Europe and other places. 

Through the kindness of Messrs. McKesson & Robbins, New York, 
I obtained three samples of so-called African saffron, two of which 
likewise proved to be carthamus ; one of these samples was on hand 
in New York, and offered at $3.50 per pound ; the other, the better 
quality as far as could be judged from the small samples, was, previ- 
ous to its arrival, offered at "75 cents per pound. 

The third of these samples, representing thirty pounds, held in 
London, England, and for which offers were solicited, was not cartha- 
mus ; it consists of the corolla of a plant probably belonging to the 
natural order Scrophulariacece, which in their dried condition are of a 
dirty greenish brown color ; they are about one inch long, the tube 
being about one-tenth inch in diameter, and three-quarter inch in 
length, inflated in the throat and smooth, the limb somewhat bilabiate, 
one sterile stamen, with the filament nearly free, the fertile stamens 
didynamous. Infused in cold water they impart an intense yellow 
color to it. The total absence of calyx, ovary, and even style, renders 
it impossible to express an opinion as to the genus from which this so- 
called saffron may have been derived. It is unquestionably a new 
claimant for public favor as a dye-stuff, its unsightly appearance 
probably interfering with its successful introduction. It is too dark 
colored and too coarse in its structure to be used as a sophistication 
of, or substitution for, true saffron. 



mrch^mT'} Preparation of Absolute Alcohol 111 

As far as my experience extends, the article which last winter (1870- 
71) was in the American market under the name of African saffron, 
was carthamus, while about the same time a small lot of (probably) 
scrophulariaceous flowers were offered in the London market under 
the same name. — Proceedings of the Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1877. 



PREPARATION OF ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL. 
By E. Erlenmeyer. 

The processes mostly in use for the preparation of larger quantities 
of absolute alcohol are very tedious, because the dehydrating agents, 
like carbonate of potassa, anhydrous sulphate of copper, anhydrous 
ferrocyanide of potassium, burned lime, caustic baryta, &c, combine 
with the water only after prolonged contact. The three first-named 
substances do not yield perfectly absolute alcohol even after several 
days' contact and frequent agitation. 

Mendelejeff,* in his valuable researches on the combinations of 
alcohol with water, has carefully investigated the various agents for 
the production of absolute alcohol, and prefers caustic lime to all 
others. He employs alcohol having a specific gravity not higher than 
0-792, at 20° C, and pieces of burned lime projecting above the sur- 
face, when the alcohol will be dehydrated in two days ; but, if the 
distillation is desirable after 2 or 8 hours, he directs the two articles 
to be previously heated, for half an hour, to 50 or 60° C. With this 
manipulation, however, only the middle portions of the distillate are 
obtained anhydrous. 

I have altered Mendelejeff's directions, so as to boil upon the water 
bath, for one-half to one hour, in a still connected with a return 
cooler; afterwards the cooler is reversed and the alcohol distilled, 
when the entire distillate is obtained in the anhydrous condition. If 
the alcohol contains over 5 per cent, of water, it is merely requisite 
to subject it twice or three times to the same treatment. Should it 
contain much water, then the lime must not, on the first boiling, pro- 
ject above the surface of the alcohol. It is better to fill only half of 
the space occupied by the latter, with pieces of lime, otherwise its 
rapid hydration endangers the safety of the still. Several litres of 
spirit may by this method be converted into absolute alcohol within a 
few hours. — Annal. der Chem. und Pharm., 1871, Nov., 249. 



* Zeitschr. f. Chemie, 1865, 260. 



112 



On Powdered Camphor, 



f Am. Jouk. Pharm. 
t March 1, 1872. 



ON POWDERED CAMPHOR. 
By John C. Lowd. 

Query 2. — How may Camphor be reduced to a fine powder, and retained iu 
the pulverulent condition ? 

The query on this subject having been referred to the writer, he 
hereby submits to your honorable body the result of an experiment. 

The various methods for reducing camphor to a fine powder, sug- 
gested by different writers, are singularly deficient. The objections 
are the expense and incomplete results, through the moist condition 
of the powder when precipitated from an alcoholic solution, rendering 
it unavailable for the purposes for which it is largely employed in the 
manufacture of errhines, tooth powders, &c. 

Camphor possesses the advantageous property of resublimation 
without losing any of its valuable qualities. This furnishes a sug- 
gestive hint capable of being carried out in the preparation of a fine 
powder. The method I have tried with complete success, consists in 
vaporizing the camphor from a retort into a large chamber, and its 
collection in the form of a fine dry powder. 

The apparatus used consists of a four-wick lamp, containing one 
pint of alcohol ; a copper retort four inches diameter by ten inches 
high, having a curved neck fourteen inches long and two inches 
diameter ; a chamber or receiver made of strong paper, rendered 
impervious by any suitable sizing. The paper is stretched upon a 
light frame of wood, so as to form a cubical chamber of three feet in 
length, breadth, and height, with an aperture on one side within a 
foot of the top, in order to receive the neck of the retort. Care must 
be taken to lute around the joint where the retort connects with the 
receiver on account of the imflammability of the vapor. The quan- 
tity used is one pound of camphor, and the time required to sublime 
it about thirty minutes. 

The advantages of this process are its availability and economy, the 
perfect condition of the powder as to its purity, dryness, and degree 
of fineness. It will retain its pulverulent condition if kept in full 
bottles, well worked, in a cool place. — Proceedings of the Amer. Phar. 
Assoc., 1871. 

Boston, Mass. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March 1, 1872. j 



Mucilage of Acacia. 



113 



MUCILAGE OF ACACIA. 
By R. Rother. 

Mucilage of gum arabic prepared by the officinal method is remark- 
able for its instability ; only a few days, and under peculiar condi- 
tions a. few hours, sufficing to render it sour and consequently unfit 
for medicinal use. Mucilage for medicinal purposes is an article of 
great utility to the pharmaceutist in the making of pills, emulsions, 
and other mixtures with which gum is prescribed. For these pur- 
poses it is always far superior to the powdered gum. But on every 
occasion it should either be quite recently prepared or otherwise pre- 
served from change. The moderately circumstantial and rather tedi- 
ous operation of dissolving the gum when in the original pieces debars 
the possibility of an expeditious process for extemporaneous applica- 
tion. In view of these facts, the addition of the least objectionable 
preservative can only meet with approval. Glycerin has been recom-. 
mended and used for nearly everything, and there exists not the 
slightest doubt but that it enters largely into pharmaceutical produc- 
tions. Now while glycerin may be positively injurious in some cases, 
it has become actually indispensable for others. Too frequently it is 
introduced where there is no cause for its presence, and often where 
its influence would be beneficial, the proportion was not sufficient to 
be effective. 

The decomposition of mucilage of acacia when once begun cannot 
be checked or even retarded with glycerin, but can be prevented by 
a sufficiency of glycerin, if this be present before any change could su- 
pervene. This is only secured by mixing the glycerin with the water be- 
fore its addition to the gum. Next important to the solvent is the man- 
ner in which the solution of the gum is effected. This operation can be 
most promptly and thoroughly performed b}^ placing the original 
pieces of the gum into an appropriately sized bottle, and adding the 
mixture of glycerin and water. The bottle is then securely corked, 
the whole well shaken, and the bottle laid down on its side in a hori- 
zontal position ; after 10 or 15 minutes the layer of agglutinated gum 
is moved into a vertical position by revolving the bottle ; after the col- 
umn has subsided, the bottle is farther revolved in the same direction. 
Having thus moved the bottle three or four times during the interval 
of about twelve hours, complete solution has taken place. The muci- 
lage is now well shaken and strained through muslin. The straining 
can be very rapidly done by placing a proportionately large sheet of 



114 Saccharated Cod-liver Oil { k ul°™\*mt 

moistened muslin over a funnel supported on a bottle ; the funnel is 
then filled with the liquid, two opposite sides of the strainer folded 
together and the ends twisted in opposite directions. When all the 
liquid has been forced out, a fresh portion is similarly treated until all 
has been strained. The proportion of the glycerin to be used is one 
in eight of the product. The following formula is in officinal propor- 
tions, only that eight ounces of water is replaced with an equal meas- 
ure of glycerin ; one fluid-ounce contains three drachms of acacia, 
und one fluid drachm of glycerin : 

Take of Acacia, in pieces, 24 troy-ounces. 
Glycerin, 8 fluid-ounces. 
Water 2J pints. 

Mix and conduct the process as above directed. — Pharmacist and 
Chemical Record, Jan., 1872. 



25 
25 
50 
50 



SACCHARATED COD-LIVER OIL. 

M. Tissier, in the November part of the Journal de Pharmacie et 
de Chimie, publishes a method for preparing a granulated saccharate 
of cod-liver oil, for which he claims several advantages, and which 
may be flavored by orange, vanilla, etc. The ingredients are as fol- 
lows : — 

White Gelatine, ... 4 grms. 

Distilled Water, 

Simple Syrup, 

Finely Powdered Sugar, 

Pure Cod-Liver Oil, . 
The gelatine should be cut and placed in a wide-mouthed bottle ; 
the water and syrup added, and the whole heated in a water-bath until 
dissolved. The cod-liver oil and the sugar should next be well rubbed 
up together in a mortar and then the warm solution of gelatine 
stirred in, the stirring being continued until the mixture is quite cold. 

After some time the mass will present the appearance of a dense 
homogeneous jelly ; it is then necessary to add a sufficient quantity 
of finely-powdered sugar to form a firm paste, weighing 250 grms. 
The paste is spread upon a marble slab, divided into small pieces and 
left for some hours to harden. It is then divided into small pieces 
the size of a lentil, which, after further drying, become sufficiently 
firm to allow of granulation in a mortar. The drying of this granu- 



Am. Jour. Phabm 
March 1, 1872, 



* M -} On the Absorption of Blue Ointment, &c. 115 



lated powder is accomplished on a stove at a temperature of 30° to 
35° C. The product will contain one-fifth of its weight of cod-liver 
oil. It should be kept in well-closed bottles. — Pharm. Journal and 
Transactions, Jan. 20, 1872. 



ON THE ABSORPTION OF BLUE OINTMENT AND OF SUBLI- 
MATE BY THE UNWOUNDED SKIN. 

A microscopico-chemical study has appeared by Professor Dr. Neu- 
mann, which is very interesting. He says there are five questions to 
answer to : — 

1. Does mercury, rubbed into the un wounded skin, penetrate 
through it into the organism ? 

2. What are the ways by which mercury enters the body ? 

3. Can the hypothesis (that mercury enters the body in the form 
of metal, and that it circulates in that form in the blood) be proved 
by the microscope ? 

4. Can the mercury rubbed into the skin be found in the interior 
organs chemically or microscopically ? 

5. Is corrosive sublimate, dissolved in a bath, received by the un- 
wounded skin ? 

Dr. Neumann asserts that the known physical properties of the 
globules of mercury in blue ointment are only appreciated under a 
certain limit, beyond which limit even the best microscopist can no 
longer make a difference between globules of mercury and bubbles of 
air, molecular grease, molecular detritus, microconus, carbonate of 
lime. 

That question can only be resolved by combined method : — 

a. First the entering of the globules must be proved. 

b. Then their presence in the blood and in the organs must be 
searched for chemically. 

The best method for that is Professor Schneider's, who makes an 
amalgam by small leaves of gold, and by the mercury excreted from 
the body, when a metallic mirror is created ; then by combination 
with vapours of iodine, the iodide of mercury appears by its charac- 
teristic color and crystals. 

Experiments have been made on dogs, rabbits, frogs, on the skin 
of new-born children, and on living men, and on those parts of the 
body which were destined for amputation ; then on bladders and 
pericardium. 



116 Method for Estimating Morphia in Opium. { A Ma J r°ch E i 



Pharm. 
1872. 



In order to prevent on living animals the licking off of the rubbed 
parts, bandages were applied, also the injection with curare was made 
after long rubbing, or with a solution of chloral, after which experi- 
ment the animal lives still some hours (27 hours — 4 hours). But the 
skin should not be excoriated by rubbing. Gold coins were also in- 
terpolated in the subcutaneous tissue, and in the cavity of the chest 
and abdomen to detect the amalgamation. 

The opinion that the mercury enters into the apparatus of breath- 
ing during the rubbing is refuted by the proof that mercury changes 
into vapor only by high temperature. Other physiologists object that 
very thin molecules of mercury which are suspended in the air may 
enter in the body by the mouth. Dr. Neumann refutes this opinion 
by the following experiments. He separates the head and the ante- 
rior part of the body by a correspondent aperture in the window, 
from the atmosphere in which the inunction takes place, so that no 
particle of mercury could be breathed. Of those experiments the re- 
sults were the following : — By rubbing the blue ointment in the un- 
wounded skin, globules of mercury enter by the air follicles as far as 
the bulb in the sebaceous glands, which have an open aperture, and 
then they enter in the superior part of the sudoriferous glands. Bat 
Dr. Neumann could not find what direction the globules take from 
there till the apparatus of circulation, and in what form ; probably 
they are changed into sublimate, and are resolved by the superficial 
lymphatic system. 

On the contrary, the rubbed mercury as blue ointment can in the 
blood, and in the interior organs only be found by chemical methods, 
also the sublimate when it is received by the unwounded skin. 

Globules of mercury could never be found in the subcutaneous tis- 
sue and in the cutis vera. — Med. Press and Circular, Dec. 13, 1871. 



A METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF MORPHIA IN OPIUM. 
By John T. Miller. 

The author, in endeavoring to make use of the liberation of iodine 
from iodic acid by morphia, for the estimation of this alkaloid in 
opium, obtained at first unsatisfactory results, to clear up the causes 
of which numerous experiments were tried, only a few of which need 
be mentioned : 

1. Some narcotine was added to the standard morphia solution, 



A Ma J rch R i P i H 872 M } Method for FMi mating Morphia in Opium, 117 

then iodic acid, and after the mixture had stood a few minutes it was 
shaken with carbon disulphide. The feeble color of the latter showed 
plainly that it contained less than the usual quantity of iodine. 

2. The experiment was repeated, but with this difference, viz., the 
shaking with carbon disulphide was performed immediately after add- 
ing the iodic acid. The full color was now obtained, the liberated 
iodine having been seized by the disulphide before the secondary reac- 
tion could take place. 

3. Similar experiments were tried with codeine, the invariable result 
being a diminution in the amount of iodine set free. 

4. Thebaine was found to act in the same direction as codeine. 

5. Iodine water, when added to a slightly acid solution of papave- 
rine, produces a red-brown precipitate, which gives with chloroform a 
yellow or brown solution ; but carbon disulphide abstracts the iodine 
from the compound and liberates the papaverine. The presence of 
the latter in the sample solution is, therefore, of no consequence. 

6. Though solution of narceine does not reduce iodic acid, yet 
after being heated with lime or potash it has that effect. But the 
proportion of narceine existing in opium appears to be so minute, 
there can be no risk of error from this source. 

The requisite conditions being now better understood, the samples 
were examined afresh by the reduction process, and this time the re- 
sults were deemed satisfactory. 

This sketch of the course of the inquiry may serve to explain some 
parts of the process finally adopted, which I will proceed to describe : 

Apparatus. — Three strong tubes of colorless glass, like ordinary 
test-tubes in form, about eight inches in length, and of exactly equal 
bore, which should be about half an inch. At first I used graduated 
tubes, but afterwards found it better to employ separate measures of 
smaller calibre, viz , a pipette to deliver 100-grain measures; a tube- 
measure for 50 and 100 grain measures ; and a smaller one for 5, 7*5 
and 10 grain-measures. 

Standard Solution of Morphia. — Weigh off accurately one grain of 
pure and well dried morphia, and dissolve it in 50 grain-measures of 
diluted sulphuric acid, B. P., and sufficient distilled water to make 
the volume exactly 1000 grain-measures. This solution will keep 
without appreciable change for some weeks. 

Solution of Iodic Acid. — Place in a flask 100 grains of iodine, 100 



118 Method for Estimating Morphia in Opium. { A M&r°chi%n!~ 

grains of potassium chlorate, 1 fluid-drachm of strong nitric acid and 
2 ounces of water. Heat the mixture until the iodine is perfectly ox- 
idized; nearly neutralize with sodium carbonate, then add an excess 
of solution of barium chloride. Wash the barium iodate by decanta- 
tion, and boil it for half an hour with a fluid-drachm of strong sul- 
phuric acid and 3 ounces of water. When cold, filter and add water 
to make the bulk 6 fluidounces. 

Sample Solution. — If the opium is in the moist state, dry 100 
grains on the water-bath, and after noting the loss in weight reduce 
it to fine powder. Put 20 grains of the powder into a two-ounce 
flask with one grain of oxalic acid and half a fluidounce of alcohol, 
sp. gr. 0*838, and, having attached a condensing-tube to the flask, 
place the lower part of the latter in water hot enough to cause the 
spirit to boil gently, and continue the boiling for half an hour. Filter 
into a porcelain dish, and wash the residue with half a fluidounce of 
hot spirit. Add to the filtrate half an ounce of water, and evaporate 
down to about a quarter of an ounce, stirring frequently, then add 
an ounce of cold water. After the mixture has stood for ten minutes 
or so, remove the precipitated resinoid matter by the filter, and wash 
it with a little cold water, adding the washings to the filtrate. Boil 
the latter with 10 grains of slaked lime for two or three minutes, 
filter, and wash the calcium compounds with hot water. Slightly 
acidulate the filtrate with solution of oxalic acid, and evaporate it 
down to about a fluidounce. After cooling, add 12 grains of caustic 
potash and set aside for a quarter of an hour ; then filter, and wash 
the precipitate with a drachm of liquor potassae, diluted with two or 
three times as much water. Divide the filtrate into two exactly equal 
portions : pour one of these into a 1000-grain measure, add 100 grain 
measures of diluted sulphuric acid, B, P., and water up to the mark 
and mix well. Finally, shake the small quantity of solution required 
for experiment — about half an ounce — with a fourth of its bulk of 
carbon disulphide, and pass it through a filter. 

The Experiment. — Measure off" with the pipette 100 grain measures 
of the sample solution, and transfer it to one of the trial tubes, add 
100 grain measures of carbon disulphide, and, lastly, 50 grain mea- 
sures of iodic acid solution ; then immediately close the tube with a 
sound cork and shake briskly for half a minute. The rose-colored 
solution of iodine quickly subsides, but its brightness is sometimes 
rather obscured by a slight filmy deposit on the glass. In this case 



A mSS m '} Method for Estimating Morphia in Opium. 119 

pour the contents of the tube into a clean one. Take next 100 grain 
measures of the standard solution of morphia, and, using a fresh tube, 
repeat the operation just described. Compare now the two rose- 
tinted liquids by holding the tubes side by side between the eye and 
a white cloud, or placing them against thin white paper attached to a 
window-pane. If the colors are equal in intensity, the powdered 
sample contains 10 per cent, of morphia. If unequal, add to the 
deeper one carbon disulphide in small successive measured quanti- 
ties — say of 5 or 10 grain measures at a time, as may seem necessary 
— gently mixing it in with a glass rod. When by this means the tints 
have been rendered equal in depth, the calculation is simple. 

Let v = volume in grain measures of standard color ; 

Let v' = volume in grain measures of sample color ; 
v f X 10 

then = x — percentage of morphia in powdered sample. 

* j • p * i <- i , • j • 100 — w x x 
And it w = percentage Joss ot weight in drying, 100" ~ 

= percentage of morphia in moist sample. 

Precaution. — The carbon disulphide used must remain colorless 
when shaken with solution of iodic acid. 

In order to test the ability of the eye to discern slight inequalities 
of tint, the relative quantities of iodine in the standard and sample 
colors were sometimes estimated at the end of an experiment by Du- 
pre's method. This was done by removing the supernatant aqueous 
liquid with a pipette, washing the solution of iodine with distilled 
water, transferring it to a stoppered bottle, and adding, with vigorous 
shaking, weak chlorine water from a burette until the color just dis- 
appeared. The results are given in the subjoined table, and show, I 
think, that the eye has a fair claim to be trusted. When a number 
of morphia determinations have to be made, the use of this iodi metric 
process is convenient, as only a single daily reference to the standard 
is then needed. 

The time required for determining the morphia value of opium on 
the above plan is about two hours and a half. As regards accuracy 
and reliability, I may state, that so far as my experiments have gone 
— and they have not been few — the results have appeared, after care- 
ful scrutiny, to be nearer approximations to the truth than those ob- 
tained by the ordinary methods by precipitation. I have, therefore, 
much confidence in the process. Nevertheless, I am ready to admit 



120 Complex Nature of Cathartine. {Vr°cM P S" 

that an analytical method which deals, as this does, with a substance 
so complex and variable in composition as opium, must have an ex- 
tended trial before its reliability can be placed altogether beyond 
doubt. 



Table of Results. 



Sample. 



Percentage of 
1 crude morphia ob- 
tained by B. P. 
process. 


Weight of precipi- j 
tate after washing 
with chloroform. 


Amount of real 
morphia in preci- 
pitate estimated 
by reduction 
process. 


Percentage of 
real morphia in 
sample as deter- 
mined by re- 
duction process. 


C o 1 o r i - 
metric. 


1 U U I - 

metric. 


Colori- 
metric. 


JLOUl- 

metric. 


1 


138 


12-8 


110 




11-3 




2 


12-0 


10-8 


9-4 




10 






112 


10-0 


8-8 




9-2 




4 


10-2 


9 3 


7-7 


7-81 


8-0 


8-1 


5 


5 8 


5-6 


5-0 




5-4 




6 


16 2 


15-0 


13-6 




140 


• 


7 


6-4 


6-1 


5-5 


5-76 


6-4 


6-43 


8 


10-0 


9-4 


9-0 




10-0 




9 


13-8 


12-6 


110 


11-2 


11-5 


11-8 


10 


11-3 


10-6 


9-6 




10 




11 


14-2 


13-0 


11-6 




12-0 




12 


6-1 


5 7 


5-0 


5-13 


51 


5-28 


13 


10-4 


9-8 


8-7 




9-0 




14 


12-6 


12-4 


12-0 




12-5 




15 


11-4 


10-1 


8 8 


8-6 


9-6 


9-5 


16 


9-5 


8-7 


7-6 


7-4 


8-3 


8-48 


17 


9-4 


9-2 


8 8 




9-5 




18 


17-4 


15-8 


138 


14-0 


14-5 


14-2 

! 



Sheffield, October, 1871. 



COMPLEX NATURE OF CATHARTTNE. 

By E. Bourgoin. 

After first referring to the researches made by Lassaigne and Fen- 
nelle, in 1821, on the senna leaves, and allusion being made to the 
cathartine then discovered and considered to be the active principle of 
the drug alluded to, the author states that, having occasion to pre- 
pare cathartine, he has, on experimenting with it, found it to be made 
up of chrysophanic acid, a dextrogyre glucose, and chrysophanine. 
The cathartine, prepared as described by Lassaigne and Fennelle, is 
fi,r$t treated with ether, whereby the chrysophanic acid is eliminated > 
next, the residue is treated with water, whereby the dextrogyre glu- 



Am. Jocr. Phakm. ) 
March 1, 1872. / 



The Odors of Plants. 



121 



cose is dissolved ; the ehrysophanine is best obtained by treating the 
cathartine first with ether, next dissolving it in water, and precipitating 
that solution with acetate of lead, the ehrysophanine combining with 
lead, and being set free by treating this lead compound with sulphur- 
etted hydrogen. Y\ r hen, however, it is desired to obtain a large quan- 
tity of ehrysophanine, it is best to work with a strong senna infusion, 
from which the mucilage is thrown down by means of alcohol, the 
clear solution next treated with neutral acetate of lead solution, fur- 
ther treatment with sulphuretted hydrogen, filtration, evaporation of 
the clear liquid to syrupy consistence, and precipitation with alcohol 
at 90 per cent. ; the precipitate (crude ehrysophanine) is purified by 
means of alcohol, until that liquid runs off colorless. The properties 
of ehrysophanine will be described by the author in another paper. — 
Ohem. News, Jan. 19, 1872, from Compt. rend., Bee. 18, 1871. 



THE ODORS OF PLANTS * 
By James Britten. 

The subject of the phenomena of odor and color in plants, and of 
the causes which induce or govern them, is one of considerable inter- 
est ; and the relations which exist between the two are sufficiently 
striking. Thus, it has been statistically ascertained, and a very little 
reflection will confirm the conclusion, that white flowers stand highest 
in number among fragrant species, next yellow, then red, and lastly, 
blue. And it is among white flowers that disagreeable odors are most 
seldom found, while orange and brown are frequently unpleasant in 
scent. In such calculations, however, it must be remembered that 
the appreciation of odors is by no means the same to different people : 
scents which are agreeable to one, are often the reverse to another. 
The strong odor of Tagetes patida and T. erecta is not objectionable 
to some ; while others, besides the well-known fox hunter, are of 
opinion that the Sweet Violet is a " stinking flower." There are even 
some unhappy beings — we trust they are but few — who cannot endure 
the scent of a rose. The sense of smell, too, is much more acute in 
some persons than in others ; and we have frequently remarked an 
analogy to color-blindness in the want of perception of odors mani- 
fested by some among our friends. 

A good summary and comparison of scents will be found in M. 

* Reprinted from the Gardener's Chronicle. 



122 



The Odors of Plants. 



/Am. Jour. Phaem. 
t March 1, 1872. 



Lecoq's "Etudes sur la Geographic Botanique de l'Europe," from 
which some of the following details are borrowed. In almost every 
case, however, additional instances of similarity will suggest them- 
selves to the reader, especially if he be gifted with a keen nose, and % 
good memory for smells. In the first place, it may be laid down as a 
general principle, that a larger proportion of white flowers are fragrant 
than those of any other color ; yellow comes next, then red, and 
lastly, blue ; after which, and in the same order, may be reckoned 
violet, green, orange, brown and black. 

Among white flowers, certain types of scent are very prevalent, 
Thus many umbelliferous plants have a strong odor of honey, which 
is very marked in Anthriscus sylvestris, and is found also in the 
aquatic ranunculi ; Eucalyptus glandulosa recalls the same scent ; 
and in the almond and apricot we encounter it, qualified by that 
flavor of prussic acid which is so perceptible in the hawthorn when 
one does not inhale too closely the fragrance of its flowers. This 
scent is intensified in Spircea Ulmaria ; in S. Filipendula it is modi- 
fied by a soupcon of the odor which is found also in the privet and in 
Actcea spicata, and attains distinctness in the elder. Many rubia- 
ceous shrubs have similar odors, and resemble certain Apocynece ; 
and the Philadelphus coronarius has so much affinity in scent with 
the orange, that it is often called the " mock orange bloom." Other 
types of scent among white flowers are presented by the white lily* 
the jasmine, the tuberose, and the lily-of-the-valley. It is curious to 
observe that, among cultivated plants, white-flowered varieties are 
very often the most — if not the only — fragrant ones ; this is the case 
with the white petunia (?) and a commonly cultivated white-flowered 
verbena (?). It is also worthy of notice that many of the scents^ 
among white flowers are only pleasant when in very small quantit y 
and become absolutely disagreeable when intensified ; this is the case, 
especially, with the hawthorn and white 1'ly.^ 

Among yellow flowers, the scent of the orange is often found, we 
may note, in the common broom, and in Biseutella saxatilis and other 
yellow Crucifers. The curious alcoholic odor which has earned for 
Nuphar lutea its English name of " Brandy-bottle " is found also in 
the yellow Brugmansia floribunda, as well as in the yellow catkins of 
Salix caprea. Hippocrepis comosa recalls the smell of cheese, and 
this odor attains its maximum in the blossoms of Genista Scorpius. 
The honey scent is found in several yellow-blossomed plants, notably 
in Galium verum and Mahonia intermedia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March 1, 1872. / 



The Odors of Plants. 



123 



Roses and pinks occur to one at once, when sweet-scented red- 
flowered plants are referred to ; but with these exceptions it is diffi- 
cult to characterize the odors of plants belonging to this series. But 
among lilac flowers a great resemblance in scent mavbe traced; thus 
the sweet odor of vanilla, which is so powerful in the garden helio- 
trope, is found again in different degrees of intensity in Petasites 
fragrans, Valeriana officinalis, and the common lilac ; we meet with 
it also in Plantago media, which is exceptional among plantains in its 
fragrance and in its colored corolla. 

Blue flowers are very rarely fragrant, and when so, only in a slight 
degree. The blue variety of Phyteuma spicata exhales a faint per- 
fume, and one or two campanulas are slightly scented. Franeiscea 
Hopeana has, however, deliciously fragrant blossoms, which recall at 
once the scent of the orange and the tuberose ; but although at first 
blue, they soon lose their color and become white. 

Certain species, the flowers of which arc of sombre hues, are very 
fragrant. Thus in the early flowering Galycanthus prcecox, one finds 
a multitude of odors, such as rose, jasmine and tuberose, harmoni- 
ously blended. The night-flowering stock [Matthiola tristis), Ilesperis 
tristis, and one or two more, compensate by their fragrance for the 
absence of beauty of color ; while other dark-flowered plants, such as 
the henbane, have an intensely disagreeable odor. 

Thus we see that it is not the most brilliant flowers which are the 
most fragrant ; indeed, many of the most brilliant in color ha ve no 
scent whatever. The beautiful Malvaceae of equinoctial America, the 
pelargoniums of the Cape, the passion-flowers (?), the gladioli, and 
some of the most striking Leguminosce are destitute of perfume. 

One or two conclusions as to the geographical distribution of sweet- 
scented plants may be arrived at from the preceding facts, united with 
many more which space will not permit us to cite. We have seen 
that a large proportion of pale and white blossoms are fragrant ; and 
it is ascertained that these predominate in northern regions. We may 
therefore conclude that the relative number of odorous flowers is 
greater towards the poles than towards the equator. It would seem 
that the too powerful action of light and heat is opposed to the ema- 
nation of the odors of flowers ; and we see many species, which are 
scarcely fragrant during the day, become so in the evening or at night. 
But if the odors emitted by the blossoms are more frequent in the 
North, the reverse is the case with the essences enclosed in the glands. 



124 On Meat and the Methods of Preserving it. 



Am. Jour. Phatik. 
March 1, 187a. 



Plants with fragrant leaves, aromatic fruits, and wood penetrated with 
essential oil, are scarcely found except in warm or tropical countries. 
— Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Jan. 6, 1872. 



ON MEAT AND THE METHODS OF PRESERVING IT. 
By H. Endemann, Ph. D. 

Meat is composed of various substances, which, up to the present 
time, are not yet all known. Their number is being increased every 
few years by new discoveries, which however do not always meet the 
expectations of over-zealous admirers of Liebig's Extract. Theories, 
which attribute to newly-discovered substances the life-giving power 
which has made the extract of meat a valuable medicine, must be con- 
firmed by physiological experiments ; whereas, thus far, they have 
failed entirely to assign a specific function to any of the products of 
the decomposition of albuminous substances formed in the living or- 
ganism. I may therefore avoid any omission in the enumeration of 
the component parts of meat, by grouping all these substances under 
the general heading, " Products of the Decomposition of Albumen.*^ 

Meat consists of fibrin and albumen (about 25 per cent.) and the 
rest of its solid constituents (about 2J per cent, in the average) is 
composed of the products of decomposition of albumen and of alka- 
line salts. The albuminous substances, fibrin and albumen represent 
the nourishing properties of meat, while the salts, possessing likewise 
nourishing qualities, are important for the promotion of digestion. 
About twenty years have elapsed since Liebig made his first investi- 
gations on the constituents of meat. It w T as then also that he ad- 
vanced his views concerning the nourishing properties of the extract 
of meat, and we find in the " Chemische Briefe," published shortly 
afterwards, his ideas set forth so clearly that the unprofessional reader 
may understand and duly appreciate them. 

I feel confident that the value of this extract was and is, even now, 
over-estimated. Liebig himself abandoned the idea that the organic 
constituents of the extract were the agents of its beneficial effects, and 
experiments, made some years ago in England, show plainly that the 
ashes of the extract are capable of producing the same effects as the 
extract itself. Even now, however, after the explosion of the theories 
that albuminous substances might be built up again from the products 
of their decomposition, experiments are constantly made to find or- 



*^Tiam*'} On Meat and the Methods of Preserving It. 125 

ganic constituents capable of producing the effects of the extract itself, 
as is evidenced by the recent discovery of carnine, the physiological 
effect of which is, according to the experiments, more than doubtful. 
Liebig states that " the extract, which is produced by extracting 
meat by cold water, is the nourishment for the muscle ;" but the meat 
liquor is not only the agent of transmitting the nourishment from the 
blood to the muscles, it also contains the waste products formed dur- 
ing the action of the muscles. Liebig in preparing his extract, how- 
ever, excludes the real nourishment by coagulating it and carefully 
collects the products of decomposition for the good of humanity. 

But, if the alkalies alone constitute the value of this extract, is 
there not a waste of most valuable material? The interest of the 
manufacturer will not be disputed, but why does the intelligent con- 
sumer pay dollars for that which he might buy for a few r cents? 

The fact is, that the public is as yet in the dark; the published ex- 
periments are known in most cases only to scientific men and com- 
mand attention, while the want of support by illustrious names makes 
them soon forgotten. For the proper utilization of meat, the albu- 
minous as well as the extractive portion must be preserved, for the 
former not only re-supplies the body with albumen, which had be- 
come decomposed by the action of the muscles, but serves also as a 
combustible, while the extractive portion is necessary for a proper 
digestion. Let us see how these requirements are fulfilled by the 
methods in vogue for the utilization and preservation of meat. 

When meat is salted, it is treated with an excess of salts (common 
salt and saltpetre), which absorb the water, forming a concentrated 
solution, which contains besides these salts much of the extractive 
portion of the meat. This solution is removed before using the meat, 
and the latter is even soaked in fresh water for some time, to remove 
the excess of salts. It is evident that such meat is very poor in ex- 
tractive salts, and for this reason very difficult to digest. 

The action of smoke depends upon the carbolic or cresylic acid con- 
tained therein. These substances coagulate the albumen and fibrin, 
and thus prevent decomposition. Smoked meat is therefore not so 
easily digested as raw beef, since not only the gastric juice must re- 
move the carbolic acid before digestion is possible, but the albumen 
and fibrin, being already coagulated, will resist more strongly the dis- 
solving action of the juice. The conditions will be even more unfav- 
orable for a proper digestion, if the salting and smoking process have 
been combined. 



126 On Meat and the Methods of Preserving it. { A S a J r ° c u h R i, ] 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

1872. 



One of the most rational processes of modern invention is the pres- 
ervation of meat by enclosing it in air-tight cans. This process would 
undoubtedly give full satistaction, if it were not for mechanical diffi- 
culties, which cannot as yet be surmounted. If property carried out, 
however, it is the best process known, because it furnishes the meat in 
its pure and unadulterated state, the great agent of decomposition, at- 
mospheric air, being excluded. 

When we come to consider the different agents of decomposition, 
we find that they are, first the atmospheric air with its myriad germs 
and spores, and secondly water. No decomposition is possible with- 
out the latter, and I propose therefore the following method of preser- 
vation. The meat, after having been cut in slices, should be dried in 
a hot air-chamber, at a temperature below 140° Fab. If the appa- 
ratus is well constructed, the drying may be completed within three 
hours, if filtered air be drawn rapidly through the chamber. 

In this operation the meat becomes quite hard, and can easily be 
ground in a mill. It is then in the condition which is best adapted 
for use. The fibrin and albumen not being coagulated, are able to 
take up water and the fibres expand into their natural state. 

The powder is of a slight brownish yellow color ; has a trifling odor 
of roast meat, and keeps exceedingly well. This proves that the 
salts contained in the meat are entirely sufficient for its preservation,, 
if the quantity of water keeping them in solution is greatly diminished 
by evaporation. 

Its use is easily understood. For beef soup — two ounces of the 
powder are boiled for a few minutes with one pint of water and the 
other usual ingredients. The soup thus prepared will be stronger 
than that prepared from half a pound of fresh meat, for a solid piece, 
even after long boiling will never permit as thorough extracting as 
the meat powder. 

For solid roast meat dishes, the addition of one egg to a pound of 
meat powder, together with the requisite quantity of water, suffices to 
reunite the separated fibres by means of the coagulating egg-albumen. 

The fact that the albumen and fibrin are not coagulated, makes it 
a valuable medicine for consumptives, and in all cases of debility 
where good nourishment is requisite. It is even more easily digested 
than raw meat, for the reason that, if it is taken with cold or luke- 
warm water, the process of swelling will take place in the stomach., 
where being surrounded by gastric juice, the latter is absorbed. 



A MiTifmSf'} On Meat and the Methods of Preserving it. 127 

This I have tested by actual experiment. Corresponding quanti- 
ties of raw meat and meat powder were digested in glass flasks, under 
the influence of equal quantities of diluted muriatic acid and pepsin at 
a temperature of about 110° Fah. While the contents of the vessel 
containing the meat powder, after six hours' treatment, represented a 
uniform, though not quite clear fluid, the vessel containing the raw 
beef contained yet pieces of the undigested material. A dog was fed 
for eight days with a daily ration of five ounces of meat powder, cor- 
responding to about one pound of fresh meat. The average weight of 
the discharges from the rectum was about one-fourth ounce daily (dried 
at 200° Fah.), the maximum being 8*5 grms., the minimum 5*2 grms. 
Microscopical examination did not show even traces of undigested meat 
fibre. The only part of the meat found undigested were the relics of 
the sinews. Pieces of wood, cork, paper and threads of the carpets 
formed, besides the mucous membranes and constituents of the bile, 
the solid part of the excrements. The dog, who had formerly been 
fed on mixed food, grew very lively during this treatment. His 
weight at the end of the treatment was 12J pounds. 

As no apparatus in which the temperature could be regulated dur- 
ing the drying of the meat existed, I have been obliged to construct 
one according to my own ideas. 

This apparatus is so constructed, that the air is sucked through it 
by an exhauster moved by steam power. Two valves, one for hot air, 
the other for cold air, the air being filtered in both cases through cot- 
ton, and both acting under the equal outside pressure, supply the ap- 
paratus with pure dry air of a certain temperature, which is regulated 
by the aid of a thermometer. An apparatus of this kind is in opera- 
tion at my laboratory. 

The drying room of this apparatus measures 27 cubic feet. The 
air is heated by steam pipes carrying 60 lbs. pressure, and having 27 
square feet heating surface. The exhauster is an inverted quadruple 
Fan blower of the Railway Manufacturing Company, of Rahway, N.J., 
and removes by 420 revolutions, 25 cubic feet of air per minute. 

By increasing the heating surface and using a larger exhauster, the 
apparatus may be made more effective yet, so that 100 lbs. of beef 
can be easily dried within three or four hours. 

Chemical Laboratory, 128 Worth St., New York. 

— Amer. Chemist, Jan., 1872. 



128 Anomalous Production of Ozone. {^Ti,^' 

ON THE ACTION OF HEAT UPON SOLUTIONS OF BY DRATED 

SALTS.* 

By C. R. Tichborne, F. C. S. 

The author used for the examination of the dissociation of water of 
hydration, such salts as presented a change of color when passing 
from the hydrated to the anhydrous state. He had experimented 
upon those of cobalt, copper and nickel. Thus, to take th3 familiar 
instance of cobalt, the anhydrous salts of which are blue, whilst the 
hydrated are pink, no amount of boiling will convert a pink solution 
of cobalt into a blue one, except it is extremely concentrated, but in 
every case such salts were all changed into the anhydrous condition 
on boiling under pressure. When the " thermanalytic" point, as the 
author called it, was reached, the pink cobalt salts w r ere converted 
into the blue ones, copper into yellowish-brown, and, in the case of 
chloride, nearly a black solution. Some caution is required in the 
performance of these experiments owing to the danger of an explosion. 
An important observation made in connection with these experiments 
was the fact that dilution acted differently in the cases of chromatic 
change produced by dehydration and those producing basic results. 
It is exactly the reverse. The author had pointed out in a previous 
report that chromatic changes resulting from the formation of basic 
salts by dissociation (7. e. chromic or ferric salts) is influenced by di- 
lution lowering the thermanalytic point, or the increase in volume of 
water will assist the dissociation. But in the second class the increase 
in the volume of water ruins the thermanalytic point and retards the 
dissociation. 

Prof. Sullivan complimented the author upon the importance of 
this investigation, and this line of research generally. — Ohem. News, 
Jan. 19, 1872. 



ANOMALOUS PRODUCTION OF OZONE. 
By Henry H. Croft. 
Professor of Chemistry, University College, Toronto. 

About six years ago, when evaporating some syrupy Iodic Acid, 
prepared according to Millon's process, over sulphuric acid, I noticed 
that when the acid began to crystallise, the air in the jar (covering 



* Abstract of a paper read before the Royal Irish Academy, Jan. 8, 1872. 



Am. .Jour. Pharm. / 
March '1, 1872. $ 



Pharmaceutical ■ Colleges, etc. 



129 



the drying dish) had a strong smell of ozone, or active : oxygen. A 
couple of years afterwards, on again making iodic acid, ! this observa- 
tion recurred to my mind, and I carefully tested theair in the jar 
during the evaporation ; no trace of ozone could be detected until the 
acid began to crystallize, When the smell of ozone became immediately 
perceptible, and all the usual teats for that body succeeded perfectly. 

During the last month I have had occasion to convert two ounces 
of iodine into iodic acid, and exactly the same result has been ob- 
served. The acid usually solidifies to opaque verrucose masses ; but, 
on this occasion, the crystals formed were clear and brilliant. The 
solution had in this, as in all the former cases, been boiled down to 
thin syrup, so that no trace of chlorine, or nitric acid., could possibly 
have remained to act on tlie ozone paper. The air in the jar was 
tested from day to day, both by the smell, and the action, of iodized 
starch paper. Even when a few crystals began to form no change 
was noticed, but when the crystallization set in fully the evolution of 
ozone was most remarkable, the strong smell being quite character- 
istic, entirely different from that of chlorine or nitric acid* 

I am quite unable to account for this ozonification of. the air (or 
oxygen) over crystallizing iodic acid. My friend, Mr. Sterry Hunt, 
has suggested that it may arise from a partial deoxi.dati.on similar to 
that which produced ozone when hypermanganates are decomposed, 
as observed by him and other chemists. As the crystallizing acid 
remains perfectly white, either opaque or transparent, and as the 
lower oxides of iodine are of a yellow, or even brown color, accord- 
ing to Millosi, I cannot accept this explanation, and even if it were 
true, the phenomenon would be equally unintelligible — a reduction 
taking place during crystallization. I can offer no explanation of the 
simple fact that air over crystallizing pure iodic acid, becomes ozon- 
ized, but I think that the observation seems to offer a wide field for 
further experiments, which I have unfortunately not the time to carry 
out. — Canadian Pharm Journ., Jan., 1872. 



ijmrmaMtiai Colkps anir ^mtmiimL 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.— The annual commencement will take 
place on the evening of March 15th, at the Academy of Music; the valedictory 
will be delivered by Professor Maisch. 

The Board of Trustees have resolved to assist the local committee of the 
American Medical Association, which will meet in this city on May 7th next, 
in their endeavor to get up an exhibition of objects of interest to the medical 
profession. The committee of the College desire for this purpose mainly speci- 
mens of new or rare drugs, medicinal chemicals and pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions ; nostrums or secret preparations will not be accepted. Offers of suita. 
ble articles are solicited for this exhibition during the month of March Or early 



130 



Pharmaceutical College*, tic 



j Am. Jock. Phau*. 
i March l, ma. 



in April. The committee consists of James T. Shinn, Chairman, 3 . M. Maisch, 
Charles Bullock, Dr. W. H. File. Kdward Parrish, M. L. Rosengarten and 
•Joseph P. Remington 

The New York College of Pharmacy will have its commencement in As- 
sociation Hall, corner of Fourth avenue and 23d street, on Tuesday, March 19. 
Professor Chandler will deliver the valedictory address. 

The Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain held a pharmaceutical meet- 
ing on February 7th. Among the donations to the Museum was a specimen of 
chloral hydrate, a few ounces of which had been kept in a half gallon jar ; from 
this small quantify there had grown out about twenty or thirty spear-like 
crystals, five or six inches in length, a phenomenon which has not been satis- 
factorily explained.* 

Mr. Greenish read a k£ Note on Tincture of Cinnamon." which elicited the 
following interesting discussion, which we take from the Pharmaceutical Jour- 
nal and Transactions. February 10th : 

The President inquired, in reference to Mr. Greenish's statement that with 
a strong spirituous preparation the decomposition of tincture of cinnamon would 
not be likely to occur, how long it was since the author made the preparation of 
tincture of cinnamon upon which he based his observations ? 

Mr. Greenish : I think quite two years. 

The President said that was a considerable time ; and if the preparation 
would keep two years, that was perhaps as long as could be expected. Not 
only did he agree with Mr. Greenish and Mr. Giles that the different strengths 
of spirit might be used with advantage for different tinctures, but he also 
thought that sometimes a different mode of applying the spirit and preparing 
the ingredients might be used with advantage. He might mention especially 
the tincture of calumba. Calumba was one of those roots which was with great 
difficulty exhausted, and it was also one that absorbed a large amount of the 
menstruum, of which there was a considerable loss in making the tincture. He 
had found (and he believed this method was approved by Professor Redwood) 
that it was better to slice the calumba than to powder it. But still he found 
that there was a difficulty in slicing it equally, and that with an ordinary root 
cutter the substance would break off, and some pieces would be lump and 
thicker than they ought to be. Hence he had taken a portion of the distilled 
water which he should have used in making the proof spirit, and placed some 
of it over the calumba — the whole uncut root — and allowed it to remain for 
twelve hours. There was just sufficient water to cover the calumba, and the 
next morning he found that the substance was in a nice condition for slicing 
with the cutter, — neither too soft nor too hard. He found, also, that when the 
calumba was in that condition, the loss was considerably less upon the gallon 
of tincture than it was when either powdered or ordinary sliced calumba was 
employed. He believed that some process of that kind might be applied to 
other tinctures. Tincture of orange-peel was one upon which there was a great 
loss of menstruum ; and he believed an improvement might be made in its prep- 
aration. He was not prepared at present to state exactly what the improve- 
ment should be, but he believed that the liquid might be applied to the orange- 
peel in a better way. He should be glad to hear remarks on the subject. 

Professor Redwood said that he was sure the members were much indebted 
to Mr. Greenish for bringing forward this subject, and he (Prof. Redwood) 
should be glad if gentlemen, who, like the President and Mr. Greenish, were 

* In the alow crystallization of chloral hydrate from bisulphide of carbon prismatic needles of? 
such a length are readily obtained. Editor Amur Town, Pharm. 



\ 



Am. Jour. Piurm. ) 
March 1, 1872. / 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



131 



constantly and largely engaged in the preparation of this and similar medicines 
ordered in the Pharmacopoeia, would give the Society a little more in detail 
the result of their experiences and observations. Tt had struck him (Professor 
Redwood) that there were two points in connection with the subject which it 
was very important to keep separately before the mind. One was the occur- 
rence of decomposition, and the other was the evidence of a decomposition. It 
seemed to him that all the inferences which had been formed with reference to 
the tinctures that had just been brought under their notice were inferences 
founded simply upon the obvious appearances which the tinctures presented 
to the eye ; and in cases in which there had been some alteration or variation 
in the mode of operating, such as au alteration in the strength of the menstruum 
or spirit, it seemed to have been inferred, because there was no evidence to our 
senses of decomposition, that no decomposition had taken place. He thought 
that that was too violent an assumption. He was not at all clear that in cases 
where, in consequence of the use of a stronger spirit, there had been no deposi- 
tion of insoluble matter, there had been no decomposition. The decomposition 
might have taken place, though the deposit had not been formed. That was a 
point upon which they required proof one way or the other. It was quite pos- 
sible that' the spirit had held in solution the product of decomposition which, if 
a weaker spirit had been used, would have given a muddy appearance to the 
tincture. If that were so, then there naturally arose another question, — Was 
there in such a case, or would there be, an advantage in the substitution of the 
stronger spirit for the weaker? He should be inclined to say, No. He would 
rather continue the use of the weaker spirit, and for this simple reason, that 
they wanted the tincture to be used in a definite condition. It might be a tinc- 
ture which would not keep for more than a certain limited period ; and if that 
were so, it ought to be used within that period, and not used beyond it. If it 
became muddy when the decomposition took place, that would preclude its use ; 
but if by the use of a different menstruum— a stronger spirit -that mnddy char- 
acter was prevented, theti there was an inducement to go on using the tincture 
when it was in an unfit state. In fact, it appeared to him that the case was 
somewhat analogous to that of oil of bitter almonds. Oil of bitter almonds in 
the purified state, freed from hydrocyanic acid, underwent, a speedy oxidation. 
He would not say that this oxidation always occurred, for Dr. Tilden had shown 
them that if the oil were anhydrous, it might be kept without rapid oxidation ; 
but in its ordinary state, when purified from hydrocyanic acid it would oxidize 
quickly, and pass into the state of benzoic acid, which would crystallize in it ; 
and, in place of the fluid oil, there would be a mass of crystals nearly filling the 
bottle, and they would at once indicate that there had occurred such a change 
as would preclude the use of the oil. or at least of the altered part of it. If, on 
the other hand, they had essence of bitter almonds instead of oil. — that is to 
say, if they had dissolved the oil previously in a certain quantity of spirit, — 
there was no longer such an indication as that. There would be no deposi- 
tion of crystalline matter, because there was present a menstruum (the spirit) 
which, as the benzoic acid formed, dissolved it. That seemed to him to be a 
somewhat analogous case to what possibly occurred in tincture of cinnamon. 
It was most desirable that there should be some experiments to indicate 
whether decomposition took place when external evidences of it were absent. 

Mr. Greenish said that the cinnamon had absolutely gone out of the two 
preparations he had mentioned, or scarcely a trace of it was left, and. therefore, 
in the decomposition the cinnamon was evidently decomposed, and there was a 
very copious precipitate. When made with the stronger spirit, the compound 
tincture of cinnamon and the simple tincture had each a strong smell of cinna- 
mon after having been kept for about two years. In every Pharmacopoeia 
which he had consulted on the subject, except that of the Uuited States, a 
stronger spirit was used — either six of spirit to two of water or rectified spirit. 

The President askeci Professor Redwood what method he would propose to 
be adopted for ascertaining at what time chemical change eomrrienced in tinc- 
ture of cinnamon, and to what extent? 



132 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



/Am. Jour. Pharw. 
t Marfehl, 1872. 



Professor Redwood said Mr. Greenish had just referred to one evidence 
which certainly went to show that the tincture made with the strong spirit had 
retained the cinnamon oil longer than the other, for the flavor of cinnamon still 
remained. What they would have to look for would undoubtedly be oil of cin- 
namon in the one case, and einnamic acid in the other. As the oil of cinnamon 
disappeard, the einnamic acid would be produced. But, it was not easy to judge 
of the proportion of an essential oil in a strong solution of it, by the taste or 
smell He had recently had evidence of this in the investigation of a subject 
allied to that before the meeting, and which he had intended alluding to in con- 
nection with the President's paper submitted to them at the previous meeting. 
One of the subjects referred to in that paper was syrup of tolu ; and it was stated 
that in making that preparation the tolu did not become completely exhausted 
of the constituents which gave the peculiar character to the syrup. That was a 
subject of some importance to the pharmaceutist, and one, moreover, to which he 
had directed his attention, independently of its being brought forward in the 
paper. He had been requested to examine a specimen of balsam of tolu for the 
purpose of ascertaining whether it was genuine or not. He found clearly that it 
consisted of the resinous matter of the balsam of tolu answering to the reactions 
w T hich that resin would give, but it was deficient in some of the most important 
constituents of good balsam of tolu. namely, einnamic acid and the peculiar oily 
matter which gave to balsam of tolu much of its peculiar flavor. He concluded 
that it was balsam of tolu which had been used for making syrup, or for some 
similar purpose. In compliance with a suggestion made by Mr. H anbury, he 
had used some of this partially-exhausted balsam for making syrup of tolu ac- 
cording to 1 1) e Pharmacopoeia, and compared the product with some syrup 
made with perfectly good* and genuine balsam. Now. taking the syrups in the 
form in which he had produced them, he did not find it very easy to distinguish 
the one from the other ; but, if half an ounce of each of those syrups were put 
into a bottle and diluted with eight or ten times its volume of water, there 
would be no difficulty in distinguishing between them, — one solution being poor 
and vapid compared with the other He should test the tinctures in a some- 
what similar way. In examining the balsams, of course he should go to the 
quantitative determination of the proportions of einnamic acid in them, as there 
appeared a probability that exhausted balsam of tolu might find its way into 
commerce. It was quite clear that something more was required than was at 
present given in the Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of indicating what balsam 
of tolu ought to be. In the first volume of the Pharmaceutical Journal, Pro- 
fessor Soubeiran, of Paris, reported the results of experiments he had made in 
consequence of a statement that the same balsam of tolu might be used two or 
three times for making syrup without any deterioration in the quality of the 
product. Soubeiran came to the conclusion that, taking account of the pro- 
portion of balsam of tolu which was ordered, it could be used twice without de- 
terioration in the product, but not more than twice. The proportion then or- 
dered in the Paris Codex was one part of balsam to four parts of water It 
was evident from the experiments of Soubeiran that a smaller proportion would 
yield a syrup equally good, and the proportion in the Paris Codex has there- 
fore been altered to one part of balsam to ten of water. The proportion pre- 
scribed in the British Pharmacopoeia is even less, being one to about thirteen, 
while in Russia the proportion remains atone to four. Having reference to the 
quality of this syrup, we could neither diminish the proportion of balsam or- 
dered in our Pharmacopoeia nor use exhausted balsam without injury to the 
product. There was a vast difference between syrup of tolu prepared accord- 
ing to the Pharmacopoeia, and that which had been occasionally recommended, 
which was produced by putting tincture of tolu into ordinary syrup. Syrup of 
tolu, made according to the Pharmacopoeia, was one of the most elegant, agree- 
able and successful of our officinal syrups. It contained a considerable quanti- 
ty of einnamic acid, while it derived the flavor of the balsam from the oily and 
resinous matter. On every ground it was important to maintain the character 



* 



A M ; ieh R i P i872 M '} Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings, 133 

of that syrup, and in doing so those who made it must take care that they were 
not imposed upon with exhausted balsam. 

Mr. Mackay said that he would refer to the analogy which Prof. Redwood 
had stated existed between tincture of cinnamon, when kept for a considerable 
time, and the remarkable change which took place in the oil of bitter almonds 
when freed from prussic acid and diluted with spirit. Some years ago a quan- 
tity of, essential oil of bitter almonds was accidentally sent out in small bottles 
by a celebrated house in England and distributed throughout the length and : 
breadth of the country under the name of *' essence of bitter almonds," and a 
portion of the oil so labelled came into his- neighborhood and fell into the hands 
of- an inquisitive servant girl, who swallowed fully a teaspoonful, the result 
being, he need scarcely add, fatal. The public mind then became very much 
alarmed about the use of the essence Of bitter almonds in any shape, and the 
consequence was that a great many persons who had been engaged previously 
in the manufacture of essence of bitter almonds, determined to make their 
preparation free from prussic acid. He was amongst the number who deter- 
mined to do so, and distilled very large quantities of the oil in the usual way 
over potash and lime, in which process, as a matter of course, he was successful 
in removing the prussic acid ; but the effect when this oil was diluted with spirit 
was very much what Prof. Redwood had described : there was a considerable 
quantity of benzoic acid formed, more especially if the bottle happened to be 
exposed to the sunlight. But then came the peculiarity which he wished to 
notice, namely, that though there was a deposition sufficiently great to line the 
interior of the bottle with benzoic acid, there was not an absence of flavor. 
There was so much of the peculiar flavor of bitter almonds left that the com- 
pound was used freely for domestic purposes, and in the only cases in which 
parties refused to use it. the refusal was due more to the unsightly appearance 
of the liquid than to the positive absence of flavor. 

After some further remarks upon the preservative influence of alcohol upon 
organic matters, the following papers were read and discussed: ''The Mada- 
gascar Cartlamom or Longouze," by Mr. Daniel H anbury; The Separation and 
Quantitative Determination of the Different Cinchona Alkaloids " and " Si- 
madera Indica," by Dr. J. E. De Vrij. The bark of this tree, and particularly 
the kernel of the fruit, contain a crystallizable bitter principle, samaderin, dig;,' 
covered in 1857 by Van Tonningen, which gives, with concentrated sulphuric 
acid, a beautiful red viojet color. 



Pinuta of tljc fljaraacctttitai gleCings. 

A pharmaceutical meeting was held on the afternoon of February 20th, 187*2, 
Dr. Pile prerided and William Mclntyre, in the absence of the Registrar, was 
appointed Registrar pro tern. The minutes of the last meeting were read and 
approved. . 

Professor Rogers, of the University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, was 
introduced to the meeting. 

A copy of the latest edition of the Danish Pharmacopoeia; published in 1869, 
in the .Latin language,, was presented from Mr. H. M. Wilder. 

Professor Parrish exhibited annatto seed from Para, which are said to be ; 
used for obtaining a finer tint of color than that which is produced by annatto.: 

Professor Maisch exhibited specimens of syrup of senega and syrup of: 
ipecac, prepared by Mr. J. B. Moore from his formulas (published in "American 



134 Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. { A S/reh i, mSf ' 

Journal of Pharmacy," March, May and July, 1870), which had been kept for 
over 16 months ; also syrup of orange flowers, prepared of double the strength 
of tbe officinal syrup ; also, from George W. Kennedy, of Potlsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, mistura erela?, having the mi gar replaced by glycerin, and kept for 10 
months. Mucilage of gum Arabic was also exhibited by the Professor, made 
by him in 1870. in which half the water was replaced by glycerin (see Mr. Bo- 
ther's paper, on page 113 of the present number.) This mucilage had been 
made lor certain investigations which have not been finished. 

Professor Parrish exhibited to the meeting camphor in the state of powder, 
prepared by Mr. 0. H. Heinitsh. last October, by sublimation, as proposed by 
Mr. Lowd. It was still in a pulverulent condition, and consisted of very minute 
crystals. 

Professor Procter presented a specimen of the oil of the liver of the sun 
fish, prepared by Mr. Marvin (manufacturer of cod-liver oil), at Portsmouth, 
N. H. This oil has a bright oran«e-yellow color, an odor differing from cod- 
liver oil, and was prepared in the same manner as cod-liver oil. Nothing is 
known of its medicinal properties. This fish is the Tetraodon mola, a species 
of ostracion described in the 10th volume of Cuvier's work (Pisces). 

Professor Procter now exhibited some specimens of organic principles, made 
by Prof. K. 8. Wayne, of Cincinnati. These were hydras tin, from Ffydrastts 
Canadensis ; sulphate of berberina, from the same plant; marrubin, the bitter 
principle of horehound ; phloridzin. from apple tree bark; xanthoxylin, from 
the bark of Xanthoxylum fraxineum. and celastrin, from Celastrus scandens. 
The two last, Mr. Wayne claims to have discovered. They are both neutral 
principles. Xanthoxylin from this plant was described by Dr. Edward Staples 
in the 1st volume of the "American Journal of Pharmacy," page 163, 1829> 
which Mr. Wayne has overlooked. The celastrin. which now for the first time 
is noticed, is in perfectly white crystalline masses of minute crystals like chlo* 
ral hydrate. We are not aware of its properties or characteristics, but these 
will be noticed in an article to be prepared by Prof. Wayne. 

Professor Maisch exhibited cinnamic acid and styracin of various degrees of 
purity, obtained from liquid storax. Styracin may be readily obtained in tufts 
of snow-white needles, by crystallizing it from petroleum benzine. He likewise 
showed some bibromide of camphor. C20 Hie O2 Bi'2, discovered by Laurent in 
1840, and monobromated camphor, U20 H15 Br O2, discovered by Swartz in 
1862, and lately recommended by Prof. Deneffe as a sedative for the nervous 
system. (See Araer. Journ. Pharm. 1872, p. 84). In attempting to make this 
new therapeutic agent on a somewhat, larger scale, an explosion took place 
while the closed vessel was kept in boiling water, in consequence of the press- 
ure exerted by the confined vapors of hydrobromic acid, uncombined bromine 
and camphor. Suitable precautions having been taken in anticipation of such 
a possibility, no injury was sustained. The monobromized camphor resembles 
Borneo camphor in odor. 

Professor Bridges said it afforded him much pleasure to call the attention of 
the meeting to a new industry in this country — the manufacture of phosphorus, 
by Messrs. Rose and Lowell, of Rancocas, Burlington County, New Jersey. 
The bottle on the table, marked Jan., 1872, is believed to contain the first stick 



A %Itfh\\mT'\ Minute* of Pharmaceutical Meeting*. 135 

of phosphorus cast in America, aud presented a handsome appearance. Dr. 
Pile remarked that Mr. Rose had informed him in conversation that it was 
made from spent bone black from the sugar refineries, and pays a profit at the 
market rates. The manufacturers are already able to supply it in large quan- 
tities. 

Professor Rogers was called upon to make a few remarks about the recent 
investigation in regard to the sale of medical and other diplomas. The Doctor 
suggested that the meeting would be interested to first hear something in regard 
to the recent veto of the Pharmaceutical Bill by the Governor. He eulogized 
the bill as a wise and just measure, and expressed bis wonder and astonishment 
at the veto. 

Professor Parrish rehearsed the history of the bill in detail, from its origin. 
It was prepared by a committee in consequence of the demands made by the 
public press, and passed upon by the druggists of Philadelphia met in conven- 
tion, adopted by both houses of the Legislature, and now vetoed by the Gov- 
ernor, who, from the objections as reported in the papers must have been much 
deceived in the character and effect of the bill. The objections were commented 
upon, and in conclusion Prof. Parrish asserted that we much need the protec- 
tion of such a law to give character and standing to our profession. The pub- 
lic need it for their protection. 

Dr.. Rogers said that for one his heart was deeply interested in our profession, 
and that we are emphatically on the same platform with the physician : with- 
out skilfully prepared remedies the physician's art would be, indeed, very much 
crippled. Physicians should stand by the pharmacists, and demand the pass- 
age of this bill. We need competent persons to dispense our prescriptions, 
and are well assured that accidents rarely happen with the educated pharma- 
cist. 

Prof. Rogers further dwelt upon the outrageous frauds recently discovered 
in the sale of medical diplomas. This trade has been going on for some time, 
and only recently the profession and public have found it out. The parties 
have been until now adroit enough -to cover their tracks, but occasional cor- 
respondence has brought it to light. Without the participation of the faculty ^ 
the press took it up and forced it upon the attention of the Legislature. A 
committee of investigation has been appointed, and the faculty of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania were summoned to testify before it. 

The investigation threatening the culprits, they have not attempted to defend 
their case, but attempted a flank movement aud attack upon the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

The Doctor explained the careful mode of printing diplomas, and the impos- 
sibility of their falling into the hands of those who would make fraudulent use 
of them. The charge of their over-issue was a mere invention, entirely un- 
supported by evidence. 

Those fraudulent medical schools— the Philadelphia University of Medicine 
and Surgery (Paine's), the American University of Philadelphia and the 
Eclectic Medical College (Buchanan's) — pretend to have competent rules for 
governing them ; but it was proved that they had not lived up to them in any 
particular. Fie hoped for legislative action to relieve the public from this 



Editorial, 



( Am. JoOii. Fft\RM 
\ Mai'eh 1, 18754.' 



imposition . practiced not only iri' this country but over Europe. The name 
University of Philadelphia is frequently confounded with University of Penri- 
sylvani-a (af Philadelphia), and favors the system of deception complained of. 

Professor' Bridges remarked that in Europe, where medical practitioners 
were licensed, many had applied, having- these diplomas, who had never been 
out of their own country. 

A discussion took place in regard to political considerations influencing the 
working of the bill, and the pharmaceutical board to be appointed under its 
provisions, it being known that some even went so far as to attempt influencing 
members of the t-ollege in reference to nominations before the bill was a law. 

It was urged that the main purpose should be to get the bill passed, and then 
guard against abuses; It was thought that the 'Governor had not properly 
investigated the bill. 

A copy of the general bill spoken of was now read by Dr. Lynch. It proves 
to be a copy of the objectionable New York law, adapted to an entire State. 
It was shown that the members of State Legislatures, not residents of large 
cities, had mostly been opposed to general pharmaceutical laws ; and, for this 
reason, the idea of obtaining such a law had been abandoned in most States, 
efforts being now made, to secure the enactment of Special laws, with the full 
expectation that their beneficial influence would in a short time extend to other 
localities. ' 

The unjust provisions of the proposed general law were fully criticized, and 
the hope was expressed that, since the Senate had indefinitely postponed it, it 
would never again be called up in that body. 

After some suggestions looking towards a meeting 1 of druggists and pharma^ 
cists to take proper action in this matter, the meeting adjourned. 

William MoIntyre. Registrar pro tem. 



ifMtovial IDcpatimcut. 

The Philadelphia Pharmacy Bill, which we informed our readers, in Feb. : 
ruary, had been introduced in both houses of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, 
passed, after some opposition in the Senate, with large majorities, and was laid 
before Governor Geary for approval. On the 20th of February the Philadel- 
phia morning -papers contained the following, telegram from Harrisburg: 

Governor Geary to-night sent to the House his veto of the Philadelphia 
Drug bill, as prepared by the, Pharmaceutical Bpa.rd. His objections in sub- 
stance are— that, first, it is a special law for Philadelphia instead of a general 
law for the State, as it ought to be. New York and New Jersey both have 
general laws, Second. The bill impresses the Governor with the conviction 
that it is designed for the special benefit of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy ; and it .seems to assume that the graduates, of no other medical school 
have the necessary knowledge to compound or sell drugs. This discrimination 
appears invidious. The fees in each case are ten dollars, instead of five, as in 
New York. There is nothing in the bill to prevent interference with practi- 1 
tioners ofMnedicine, who do not keep a pharmacy or store for retailing- medi- • 
eines. iVl . h , : ; : •. ■ ■' ■•Si : :-ttis^i^-M0' 



,1m; Jour. Pharm. ) 
March 1, 1872. J 



EiUtbrmi. 



137 



Supposing that this" account represents the veto message correctly, we must 
say the Governor was probably never before misinformed oh any subject to a 
greater extent than in this instance, all the facts 'stated "therein being errone- 
ous. However desirable it may be t6 have the provisions of such a law extend 
over the entire State, it is nevertheless tiue, that in all the States, with the 
single exception of Rhode Island, wherever such a general law had been intro- 
duced, it was defeated. We must remember that in thinly settled districts, 
where frequently for many miles no drug store can be found, physicians are 
compelled to dispense medicines and carry them in suitable forms in their sad 
die-bags, while the sale of popular remedies is usually in the hands of country 
storekeepers who make no pretensions as to any acquaintance with drugs and 
their preparations. Hence the necessity which exists in the larger cities to 
confine the practice of pharmacy to pharmacists alone is not felt there, and the 
opposition to general laws came, in most cases, only from the representatives 
of such districts. I ri most of the States the idea of a general law was soon 
abandoned, and the efforts confined to the securing of local laws, with the 
expectation that their provisions would gradually extend to other localities- 
In 1871 the proposed laws were defeated in the States of New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio, Michigan and Illinois; even the only attempt 
at a general law for Pennsylvania, introduced by Mr. Harry White into the 
Senate, January 21st, 1868. was reported with a negative recommendation three 
days afterwards, and did not pass. Besides the Georgia law of 1848, which is 
a dead letter, and the Rhode Island law of 1870, modified in 1871, only the fol- 
lowing local laws referring to the practice of pharmacy are now in force within 
the United States : Baltimore, M d., 1870 ; and New York City, 1871 ; but bills 
are pending now before the Legislatures of several States. 

That the vetoed bill should be for the special benefit of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy is nowhere apparent. By its provisions, that institution 
had merely "to nominate ten persons out of the most skilled and competent phar- 
macists of the City of Philadelphia (the nominations were not to be confined to 
members of the College), out of which number the Mayor was to appoint the 
Pharmaceutical Examining Board, consisting of three nominees. By none of 
its acts did the College ever pretend that it along represented all the skill and 
competency among the pharmacists of Philadelphia, and the reliable and com r 
petent pharmacists not affiliated with it would most assuredly have received , 
the same consideration as any one of its members, or. rather the nominations 
would doubtless have been made with the sole regard to effect the greatest 
possible benefit for the public. ^ 

Governor Geary sadly misunderstands the character of medical colleges, none 
of which claims, that we are aware of, that its.graduates.in medicine are as such, 
also skilled and competent pharmacists; least of all is this the case with the 
faculty of the honorable medical colleges of this city. Regarding graduates 
in pharmacy, the vetoed law placed on the same footing the diploma qi certifi- 
cate from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy or from any other college or 
school of pharmacy whose diploma or certificate is based upon a regular terrrt 
of service in the drug and apothecary business, , /f here was, therefore, no in yi.-, 
dious distinction. 



138 



Editorial 



j AM. JotTR. PHABW. 

( March 1, 1872. 



The Governor is unaccountably misinformed when he states that the fee in 
New York for examination and certificate is only five dollars. All our readers 
know that it is thirty dollars for proprietors and ten dollars for prescription 
clerks. As originally proposed by the committee, the fee was fixed at five dol- 
lars, but by the meeting of druggists and pharmacists held Dee. 19th, 1871, it 
was raised so as not to exceed ten dollars, which was considered a more just 
and proper compensation for the necessary time and labor of the Board. 

The last clause of the veto message is obscure. We suppose its meaning to 
be that practitioners of medicine should not be prevented from furnishing 
medicines to their own patients. Aside from the question whether or not such a 
course on the part of physicians in a densely populated city like Philadelphia 
is desirable or not, there is nothing in the vetoed bill to prevent physicians from 
drugging their own patients with their own medicines to their heart's content j 
for section 1 of the vetoed bill refers only to persons who open or carry on a 
retail drug or chemical store, or engage in the business of compounding and dis- 
pensing medicines, or of selling at retail any drugs, chemicals, poisons or medi- 
cines. 

We have heard it intimated that the officiousness of some parties, in trying 
to secure their own nomination before the bill had even pissed the Legislature, 
is one of the causes why its former friends in that body are disposed to give it 
the cold shoulder. We should be sorry if this would prove to be the case ; for 
we are convinced, that by far the largest number of, if not all the members of 
this College, are determined to mike only such norninatio js which will, reflect 
no discredit upon this institution, and solely with regard to fitness for the re- 
sponsible position. 

What the ultimate fate of this vetoed bill will be we cannot predict. If it 
does not become a law the citizens of Philadelphia cinnot attribute the result 
to any action on the part of the phirm icists; they have done their duty, and 
voluntarily proposed to take upon themselves obligations in order to protect 
the public, and to assume responsibilities which no law heretofore enacted in 
this country had imposed upon them. We have shown that the objections 
raised by the Chief Executive Officer of the Commonwealth are invalid, and 
we can leave the subject to the just discrimination of all concerned. 

A Model Pharmacy Act was introduced by Mr. White in the Senate of 
Pennsylvania, January 26th. It proves the danger of objectionable legislation, 
and is therefore of interest far beyond the limits of this State. The bill, by a 
decided majority, has been indefinitely postponed, but there is no telling when 
it may be called up again, and " to be forewarned is to be forearmed." 

The bill in question is a verbal copy of the Irving bill, which was saddled 
upon the pharmacists of New York City nearly a year ago, and altered merely 
to apply to an entire State. The originators of that law and the commissioners 
acting under it may congratulate themselves on the excellent example set by 
them on the subject of regulating the practice of pharmacy in an intelligent 
community. 

No. 129 of the file of the Senate is "An act to establish aboard for the 
examination of and licensing of druggists and venders of medicine in the State 



Am. Joun. Pharm. ( 
March 1, 1872. J 



Editorial. 



139 



of Pennsylvania." It provides for a board, to be appointed by the Governor 
for three years, consisting of two skilled physicians and one (unskilled ?) drug- 
gist. This board is to examine and license all druygists and clerks for a fee of 
thirty dollars each, to be appropriated as a compensation for the services of 
said board, the balance, if amy, to be paid into the State Treasury. There being 
no provision as to the place where the forunate three or a majority thereof shall 
meet, of course the pharmacists residing on the Delaware may be required to 
apply for examination on the Monongahela River or Lake Erie, and vice versa. 
No provision is made for any redress against the decisions of this august board. 
The members are irresponsible for three years, and pocket $30 from every 
" vender of medicines,'' and every unfortunate person who may be "employed 
as clerk by any druggist, keeper, proprietor or superintendent of any drug store 
in the State." 

We recommend this bill to the careful consideration, not only of those who, at 
its passage, may be engaged as " druggists, venders of medicines," &c, but also 
to those who may be in need of a fat office. Verily, the New York law is an 
innocent babe compared with this one, which we are informed was concocted 
in Philadelphia, and, as stated before, very properly postponed indefinitely by 
the Senate. 



The Bogus Diploma Business, which has been carried on in the city of Phil- 
adelphia for a number of years past, has at last attracted the attention of the 
Legislature, and the Senate has appointed a committee to investigate the mat- 
ter. Several meetings have been held, and very curious facts have been elicited. 
A Dr. Bissell declined to answer the question, whether he knew anything about 
the sale of diplomas, because it might criminate himself. Mr. Jos. B. Reed, 
reporter of the "Age." testified that Dr. Buchanan, of the Eclectic Medical 
College, offered him a diploma for $25. Mr. 0. S. Bates obtained his diploma 
from the same college after six months' study ; he kills small-pox with sweet 
spirits of nitre and cold water, has a right to do as he pleases with his own 
patients, and doctored several years before he got his diploma. Dan. Parlow, 
colored, an herb doctor, received, as a mark of honor, a diploma from Dr. Bu- 
chanan through Dr. Bissell. A W. H. Hack?, colored, attended two courses, 
of about six lectures each, at the American University of Philadelphia, and 
obtained a diploma for $25. Jonathan Davis, colored, received his diploma 
from the same institution, for $30, after attending one course of (six ?) lectures. 
Dr. Dan. M. Fleming received an honorary degree from the Philadelphia Uni- 
versity of Medicine and Surgery for $30. Dr. Harbison told Dr. Hylton that 
he could get Paine's diplomas (Philadelphia University of Medicine and Sur- 
gery) to sell to any one who wished to buy them. 

The above comprises only a very small portion of the testimony before the 
Senate committee, the investigation not being concluded. 

Explosions in Chemical Manipulations. — At the meeting of the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences at Vienna, held January 4th last, Professor Dr. F. C. 
Schneider communicated his experiments made with the view to obtain iodine 
compounds of a composition analogous to hypochlorites, chlorites and hypochlo- 



140 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices, {^wh^im* 

rates, and briefly described the process in Anzeigerd. Kais. Akad.d.Wiss. No. 
1. Mercury oxy-iodide was treated with a solution of iodine in potassium iodide ; 
after two weeks the excess of the oxy-iodide was covered with a crystalline 
crust which dissolved neither in water nor in aqueous hydriodic acid. On at- 
tempting to break the crust with a glass rod, a violent explosion took place 
shattering not only the vessel, but also the test bottles standing upon the same 
table. Professor Schneider was seriously wounded in the face and particularly 
about the eyes, but is doing well and expects to soon investigate the nature of 
this dangerous compound. Cyanogen and ammonia were absent, so that the 
explosion could not have been due to the formation of nitrogen iodide. 

Mr. Charles Rice, of New York, was badly burned on the left side of the face 
and on the left hand, by the bursting of a sealed tube in which he was pre- 
paring some apomorphia, a new therapeutical agent, the tube being heated in 
an oil bath. We are glad to learn that the sufferer is doing well. 

Being requested to prepare some monobromated camphor, we experimented 
first on a small scale with S warts' method by heating the requisite quantities 
of bromine and camphor under pressure to 212° P. The experiment was suc- 
cessful, bnt the pressure in the vessel had evidently been very considerable, in 
consequence of the volatile nature of the articles used and of the products of 
decomposition. In attempting now to make a larger quantity, suitable precau- 
tions against a possible explosion were adopted, and not in vain ; for an explo- 
sion occurred in which nearly the entire charge was lost, but without doing any 
injury. We are now endeavoring to procure this, substitution compound by a 
less dangerous process. 



REVIEWS AND J3IBLI0 SRAPHIO AL NOTICES. 



Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte der Pharmacognosie. Pharrnacie und Toxi- 
cologic, heraungegeben von Med. -Rath Dr. Wiggers. Prof, in Gottingen und 
Dr. A. Hmemann. Prof, in Chur. Neue Folge'.h Jahrgang, 1870. Gottingen. 
Yandenhoeck & Ruprecht's Verlag, 187 1. 

Annual report on the progress of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacy and Toxicol- 
ogy. Svo. 636 pages. 

The systematic arrangement of the literature of the above mentioned branches 
of science is the same as adopted in the previous volume. The numerous es- 
says are judiciously condensed, presenting all the important facts and details 
of the various investigations and observations ; and frequent references to the 
same subjects investigated in previous years, enhance the value of the work 
and are calculated to complete the picture of the preseut status of our scien- 
tific knowledge. The following subjects in the volume before us are of partic- 
ular importance and interest: Inulin, treated upon 9 pages ; Sarsaparilla, 7 
pages; Cubebs, 9 pages ; the fruit of Mezereon, 5. paces ; Tampico jalap, 4 
pages ; Hyoscyamus, 4 pages ; Cinchona, 42 pages ; Manna. 7 pages ; Conium 
fruit, 6 pages ; Aconite, 12 pages; Opium, 21 pages; Mustard, 3 pages; 
Guarana, 5 pages; Ricinus, 5 pages ; : fixed oils, .12 pages ; volatile oils,. £0 
pages; alcohols and derivatives, 49 pages; extracts, 9 pages, &c. 



A MaiXi P i872 M '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 141 



This volume, like its twenty-nine forerunners, will be welcomed by all who 
appreciate the annual sifting and condensation of the extensive pharmaceuti- 
cal literature throughout the civilized world. 



Year- Book of Pharmacy ;■ comprising abstracts of papers relating to Phar- 
macy, Materia Medica and Chemistry contributed to British and Foreign 
Journals from July 1. 1870, to June 30, 1871, with the Transactions of the 
British Pharmaceutical Conference at the eighth annual meeting, held at 
Edinburgh, August, 1871. London: John Churchill & Sons. 8vo, 65T 
pages. 

The " Year-Book" occupies about 470 pages, while the remaining 187 
pages are devoted to the 44 Transactions," the Constitution, Roll of Members, 
List of Local Associations, and the General Index. The Year-Book embraces 
the following chapters: Materia Medica, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Phar- 
macy, Notes and Formula?. Bibliography. In the different chapters, no attempt 
has been made at any systematic arrangement, except that papers relating to 
the same subject are noticed one after the other. Under the head of "Phar- 
macy" an alphabetical enumeration seems to have been intended. Most of the 
papers are printed entire or in lengthy abstracts, and rarely we meet with a well 
digested resume of a paper of importance. References are usually made to the 
journal in which the essays originally appeared, although for most of the read- 
ers ©f the Year-Book the_ eimultaneons quotation of the journals in the Eng- 
lish language, they being mere accessible, would probably have rendered the 
work more valuable. We have also noticed the omission of some papers on 
similar subjects as those selected by the compilers. The occasional reference 
to the Year Book of 1870 enhances the value of the last issue, although these 
references might have been more numerous. Considering everything, we must 
say that this second Year-Book is a vast improvement over the first issue, and 
the compilers will, with the experience gained in these two years, doubtless 
produce a still more valuable report next year. 

In the part containing the Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Con- 
ference a number of interesting and valuable papers are printed, which were 
read at the eighth annual meeting, held at Edinburgh. 



Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the Nineteenth 
Annual Meeting, held in St. Louis, Mo.. September, 1871. Also the Constitu- 
tion and Boll of Members. Philadelphia: Sherman & Co., printers. 1872. 
8vo, 720 pages. 

This volume contains the minutes, reports and papers of the last meeting, 
occupying 605 pages, or 100 pages more than the largest volume (1868) ever 
published by this Association ; and, in addition thereto, the general index for 
the last ten years, occupying 115 pages, which was prepared by Mr. Thos. S. 
Wiegand. As for some years past, the report on the Progress of Pharmacy, 
covering 200 pages, is amongst the most prominent features of this annual 
publication. M r. Wm. T. Wenzell, the compiler of this report, has adopted 
in the main the same systematic arrangement which has been used since 1862 : 
instead of merely reprinting the papers or copious extracts of the same, mere 
abstracts are produced sufficient to cover the results, more particularly all the 
information which may be considered, really new, the original source of these 



142 Remews and Bibliographical Notices. { K $*S!i 

contributions being faithfully recorded ; but references to American or English 
journals in which these papers were reproduced are in most cases omitted. 
The reporter reiterates the recommendation made by several of his predecessors, 
to appoint a permanent reporter, or divide the labor among several members. 

The other committee reports are on the drug market, on sophistications and 
adulterations, on unofficinal formulas, on legislation, and on the exhibition at 
the meeting. 

The papers read at the meeting were about forty in number, many of consid- 
erable interest and importance. This number was considered sufficiently large 
to warrant the adoption of a new arrangement, and accordingly they are classi- 
fied under three general headings: Pharmacy, Materia Medica and Chemistry. 
The list of queries to be reported on at the next meeting, which is to be held at 
Cleveland, is unusually large, and if the investigation of the subjects is not 
delayed by the acceptors, the interest and scientific as well as practical value 
of the next volume will be still greater. 

The work may be obtained from the Editor, at the price of $4.50 per copy in 
paper cover, and bound at $5.25. These prices include the postage. 

The Industrial Monthly. A practical Journal for Manufacturers, Mechanics, 
Builders, Inventors, Engineers, Architects ; with a record of Railway Pro- 
gress, 1872. Vol. 3. Issued by the Industrial Publication Company, New 
York. 4to. $1.50 per year. 

With the new year, the Technologist has changed its dress and adopted the 
above title. It is a well conducted Journal, full of useful information, and 
copiously illustrated with excellent engravings. 

New York State Inebriate Asylum, Binghampton, N. Y. Annual Report of 
the Superintendent and Physician for the year 1871. 

This report, which was transmitted to the Legislature of New York, shows 
the condition and gives an account of the management of the asylum, connected 
with which is the OHapod club, to which most of the patients belong, and which 
was formed for literary and social enjoyment. Since the opening of the Asy- 
lum, May 1, 1867, 1017 patient* were received at the Asylum, and 244 during 
the past year. 

The Mutual Relations of the Medico! Profession, its Press, and the Community . 
By Dr. Horatio Storer. Jr. Boston : James Campbell, publisher. 1872. 
8vOj 24 pages. 

Reprinted from the "Journal of the Gynaecological Society, of Boston." 

Anaesthetics. By Walter Coles, M.D., of St. Louis, Mo. Wheeling: Frew, 
Hagang & Hall, printers. 1871. 

Reprinted from the "Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of 
West Virginia/' June. 1871. 



Vivisection. A prize essay. By G. Fleming, Esq., F.R.U.S., &c. Published 
originally by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 
Philadelphia : Women's branch of the Pa. Society for the Prevention of Cru- 
elty to Animals. 1871. 8vo, 64 pages. 



' A ?i/rTi,mt M '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 143 

The essay is a powerful argument against vivisection, and attempts to prove 
that it is neither necessary nor justifiable for the purposes of science. In an 
appendix the author endeavors to disprove the arguments of Dr. Carpenter, one 
of the judges, against the position taken by him (the author). A further appen- 
dix quotes the argument against vivisection made by Professor H. J. Bigelow, 
M.D., in his address on " Medical Education in America/' which we noticed in 
our last volume. 

It appears to us, that many problems ate to be solved connected with physi- 
ology and other branches of medical science, in the investigation of which vivi- 
section cannot be avoided. See the paper published on page 115. of this num- 
ber, on the absorption of mercurial ointment. &c. 

The half yearly Abstract of the Medical Sciences, being a digest of British and 
Continental Medicine, and of the Progress of Medicine and the Collateral 
Sciences. Edited by William Domett Stone', M.D. Vol. L1V. January, 
1872. Philadelphia": Henry C. Lea. 8vo. 292 pages. 

Braithvmite's Retrospect of Practical Medicine and Surgery. Cart LXIV; 
January. Uniform American Edition. New York : W. A. Townsend. 8vo, 
331 pages. 

Half yearly Compendium of Medical Scie7ice. Part IX. January, 1872. Phila- 
delphia : S. W. Butler, M.D, 8vo. 308 pages. 

The above three publications contain the usual selections and abstracts of 
papers on medical and surgical subjects, published during the preceding six 
months. 



T'"' Hhutoated Annual of Phrenology and Physiognomy for 1872. By S. li. 
Wells, editor of the Phrenological Journal and Life Illustrated. New York. 
12mo., 72 p. Price 25 cents. 

It contains short essays written in a popalar style, on subjects indicated by 
its title. 



Fireside Science. A series of popular scientific essays upon subjects connected 
with every-day life. By James R. Nichols, A. M., M. D. New York : pub- 
lished by Hurd & Houghton. 1872. 283 pages. 

This handsome volume contains twenty-three essays, most of which have ap- 
peared in the columns of the " Boston Journal of Chemistry,'' but have been 
revised and partly re-written before publishing them in their present garb. The 
aim of the author, to present some of the facts of science in their bearing upon 
hygiene, the arts, agriculture, &c, in a way to interest and instruct Ihose who 
gather by the fireside, and those who labor in the workshop and the field, has 
been successfully carried out, abstract reasonings and technicalities being care- 
fully avoided, while on the other hand the statements are presented in a brief, 
natural and lucid manner, which is sure to interest the intelligent reader. Oc- 
casionally the descriptions are very graphic; the paper, "Among the Coal 
Miners," for instance, cannot fail to be specially appreciated by those who have 
passed up the picturesque valley of the Lehigh to enter into the valley of the 
Susquehannah below Wilkesbarre, although it can scarcely do justice to the 
beauties presented at every step, notwithstanding the scenery is depicted with 
evident delight. 



144 



Obituary. 



f Am. Jour. Phabm. 
\ March 1, 1872. 



Ad intelligent reader is sure to derive useful instructions and sound views 
upon many subjects from a perusal of this volume, even if he does not believe 
in the kind of vitalizing' capability which the author thinks is inherent to the 
excrementitious salts found in. the manure heap, ... 



Announcement of the Spring Course of the Rush Medical College, Chicago. 

The building of this College was destroyed by the great fire last fall ; 
the Faculty have secured the lecture and clinic rooms of the Cook county hos- 
pital, corner 18th and Arnold Sis., to commence on March 6th, the usual 
Spring Course, which will continue sixteen weeks. 



OBITUARY. 

Joseph Arnold, a student of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, died in 
this city. Feb. 14th, having nearly completed his 2 1st year. The deceased was 
a son of Dr. Arnold, of Uazleton, Pa., in whose office he first acquired a love 
for pharmacy. In 1868 he came to this city and engaged with Mr. C. E. Haen- 
chen to learn the business. Early in February he was taken sick with a dis- 
ease of the spine, which attack proved fatal. While attending his first course 
during the past session, he was an attentive student and well liked by the mem- 
bers of his class. 

Joseph M. Hindmeyeb, a student of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
we are informed, died of typhoid fever, on Sunday, the 18th inst. 

Charles Shoemaker, a graduate of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
Class 1866, was drowned near Wilmington Del , on February 1st. The follow- 
ing communication, regarding his death, has reached us : 

The Executive Board of the Alumni Association, have heard with regret the 
death of Mr. Chas. Shoemaker, of the class of 1866, which took place on the 
afternoon of Feb. 1st, while skating on the Christiana Creek. 

Mr. Shoemaker was a native of Germantown. Pa., a son of Benjamin Shoe- 
maker, a teacher for many years in that place. He was regularly educated in the 
drug and apothecary business, and graduated in 1866; he removed to Wilming- 
ton. Del., a few years since, and had established a thriving business; his ur- 
banity and ability had secured him many friends among those whose intercourse 
he enjoyed, and his sudden death, at the age of 25 years, has saddened those 
who had met him either on business or in social life. His death, however, did 
not find him unprepared, for he had the well grounded hope of a blissful im- 
mortality. 

Tfros. S. Wiegand, R, M . Shoemaker, B. D. Paxson, Committee. 



Mr. Lecanu, Professor at the Ecole de Pharmacie and member of the Board 
of Health of Paris, France, died in that city in December last. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



APRIL, 1872. 



ON THE FRUIT OF MAGNOLIA TRIPETALA. 

By Wallace Procter. 
An Inaugural Essay. 

Among the numerous trees which are embraced in the flora of 
North America, none are more interesting as a group than those be- 
longing to the natural order Magnoliacece, and especially those of the 
genus Magnolia. 

The chemical relations of the several species of Magnolia have been 
but partially examined ; the species glauca and grandiflora only hav- 
ing been submitted to analysis. In the following essay an attempt 
has been made to isolate the principal chemical constituents of the 
species tripelala or umbrella tree. 

According to Dr. Wood (U. S. Disp.), this is a small tree, some- 
times, though rarely, reaching an elevation of thirty feet and almost 
always having an inclined trunk. It is remarkable for the size of its 
leaves and flowers. The former are eighteen or twenty inches long, 
by seven or eight in breadth, thin, obovate, somewhat wedge-shaped, 
entire, acute at both extremities, pubescent when young, and often 
disposed in rays at the extremities of the shoots, displaying a dome- 
like surface thirty inches in diameter. Hence has arisen the name 
" umbrella tree," by which this species is distinguished The flowers 
are terminal, seven or eight inches in diameter, white, with from five 
to twelve oval acute petals, of which the three outer are reflex ed. 

Michaux says that the umbrella tree, first seen in the northern part 
of the State of New York, is multiplied further south in the valley of 
the Susquehanna, but is most abundant in the Carolinas, Georgia and 
Tennessee. It prefers a deep soil and a shady locality. The fruit 

10 



146 On the Fruit of Magnolia Tripetala. Si^ 

is cone-shaped, from three to five inches in length, and one and a 
half to two inches in diameter ; its green color changes to a beautiful 
rose color in the autumn. 

This fruit is a compound succulent capsule, consisting of numerous 
dehiscent carpels, arranged in a sort of imbricated spike, in each of 
which is a rod seed attached to the carpel by a silky thread ; these, 
when the carpels dehisce, fall out and remain suspended. The seeds 
are red, irregularly shaped, somewhat flattened and angular, and 
quite bitter and acrid when chewed, and consist, when fresh, of a 
soft outer portion, with smooth epidermis and a soft oily kernel en- 
closed in a hard shell. 

The fruit med in the first experiments was gathered September 7th, 
1871, from a tree about twenty feet high, growing in the vicinity of 
Mt. Holly, N. J., while yet unripe; it was purplish colored and fleshy. 

On grating, the firm juicy exterior was removed, exposing the seeds 
and cellular structure of the capsule beneath. xVbout three weeks 
later the remainder of the ripe fruit was collected, when most of the 
carpels were opened with the seeds yet attached. 

Experiment 1. — A quantity of the fresh capsules, deprived of the 
seed, were sliced and macerated in alcohol 95 per cent, for five days, 
the tincture filtered, and the alcohol recovered by distillation with a 
water-bath still, leaving a reddish-brown, semifluid, resinous extract 
with a separate watery portion. This extract was set aside for several 
days, until a deposition of crystals occurred, when the dark mother 
liquid was drained off and set aside ; it solidified after a time by the 
formation of other crystals of the same kind. 

This crystalline matter was found to be readily soluble in alcohol, 
ether and chloroform, but owing to the fact that the resin was also 
taken up, it was difficult to purify. Seeking to overcome this diffi- 
culty, I tried purified commercial benzine, and was gratified to find 
that it would dissolve the crystals without acting much on the resin- 
ous and coloring matters of the fruit and seeds. 

The black crystalline mass was then digested in boiling benzine, 
and, on cooling, the filtered solution deposited the crystals almost 
pure, and quite free from coloring matter. A quantity of the dried 
capsules, deprived of the seeds, was powdered, exhausted with alcohol 
of 95 per cent, by percolation, and the tincture allowed to evaporate 
spontaneously. The dark brown soft extract resulting was well washed 
with hot water, dried and treated with boiling benzine repeatedly 



A Vrni;m2? M } On the Fruit of Magnolia Tripetala. 147 

until exhausted, and the solutions permitted to evaporate spontaneously, 
when colorless crystalline matter separated, like that from the fresh 
capsules, with some soft resin dissolved and precipitated. 

JExperi?nent 2. — A quantity of the seeds were macerated in alcohol 
of 95 per cent, for six days, the tincture filtered and allowed to 
evaporate spontaneously. A dark brown semi-fluid extract resulted, 
which, on standing, became charged with numerous crystals. The 
whole was then subjected to pressure between bibulous paper until the 
dark fluid portion was absorbed, and the crystals, yet impure, were 
left on the surface. These were treated with hot benzine, which 
yielded them in a pure colorless condition on cooling and by evapora- 
tion. The paper containing the absorbed dark portion was treated 
with ether, and the ethereal solution evaporated. This extract, by 
treatment with benzine, gave additional quantities of the crystals. 

Experiment 3. — A tincture, made from the bruised seeds, was 
boiled with magnesia, as in the process for liriodendrin, until the 
color became grayish brown, and filtered hot, evaporated to one-third, 
mixed with three times its bulk of water, and set aside. After stand- 
ing several days a few crystals were deposited. 

Experiment 4. — Another portion of the tincture of the seeds was 
boiled, with the addition of some hydrate of lime, for half an hour, 
until the mixture assumed a greenish brown color. It was then fil- 
tered, evaporated and thrown into water as before. The yellow tur- 
bid liquid was set aside for several days, when numerous flattened, 
acicular crystals of a light amber color, from a quarter to half an 
inch in length, studded the sides and bottom of the vessel and floated 
on the liquid. These crystals were free from lime, were destroyed by 
heat and soluble in benzine. 

The several crystalline products obtained in the preceding experi- 
ments from the capsules and seeds separately treated, appear to be 
the same substance when carefully recrystallized from benzine. In 
the fruit this substance is intimately associated with a soft resin pos- 
sessing considerable acrimony, and it has been observed that the 
purest crystals have the least acrimony. The taste is at first feeble 
from its insolubility, but when swallowed, after a time an irritation of 
the fauces is produced — an effect noticed at once when the alcoholic 
solution is tasted. 

When the impure crystals are tasted, the impression on the tongue 
is almost painful, and the choking sensation is immediate. When 



148 On the Fruit of Magnolia Tripetala. { x %TimT' 

pure, the crystals have no odor, but that of the impure resembles the 
fruit. 

The crystalline form varies with the manner of obtaining it; when 
it separates from a mixed alcoholic and watery liquid, or by the cool- 
ing of a hot aqueous solution, it is in slender needles sometimes termi- 
nated with two faces ; others are acicular. When it crystallizes in the 
resinous extract from the slow evaporation of the tincture, the form 
is that of a flattened four-sided prism with dihedral terminations. 

But when it has been purified and recrystallized by slow evaporation 
from a solution in benzine in a deep vessel, they are in flat, four-sided 
prisms, terminated at each extremity by two planes, so as to give 
them the aspect of elongated hexagonal tables. A close examination 
of a number of the thicker crystals showed them to consist of several 
superimposed slates, with many of the terminal planes rounded, giving 
a shuttle-like form to the crystal. Without being able to determine 
the question, there is some probability that the form belongs to the 
square prismatic system, as many of the fractured crystals exhibit 
rectangular fissures. 

This substance is nearly insoluble in cold water, but after being 
boiled with the crystals, water deposits a few minute needles. It is 
very soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and carbon bisulphide, and 
in benzine (light petroleum oil), especially when heated ; quite solu- 
ble in fixed oil, and, to some extent, in hot glycerin, from which it 
partially separates, on cooling, in crystals. It is neutral to test 
papers. 

When distilled to dryness with strong liquor potassse, no ammonia- 
cal odor is manifested. Solutions of potassa and soda dissolve it, and 
yield it unchanged in an amorphous form by saturation with an acid. 
Diluted acids appear to have no chemical effect upon it hot or cold. 
When the crystals are dropped on strong sulphuric acid they are col- 
ored red, and the acid itself becomes reddish, but the crystals do not 
lose their shape until heated, when they are destroyed with the evolu- 
tion of sulphurous acid. Strong nitric acid turns them brown, form- 
ing a resinous mass, which is destroyed by heat with red fumes. Hy- 
drochloric acid (sp. gr. 1-16) does not attack this substance hot or 
cold. 

Iodine in substance added to the crystals does not affect them, nor 
when heated in a watch glass, nor does any reaction occur when a 
drop of tincture of iodine is added to a solution of the crystals in al- 
cohol. 



A A P J rTf,m2 RM *} On the Fruit of Magnolia Tripetala. 149 

The crystals fuse in boiling water ; when they are placed on the 
surface of mercury, having a thermometer immersed in it, and a grad- 
ual heat applied, they were found to fuse at 180° F., and not to re- 
crystallize when the temperature falls ; when the heat reaches 250° to 
260° F. white vapors are evolved, which at 300° to 320° F. are abun- 
dant, and cause coughing when inhaled. When the crystals are heated 
between two watch glasses the vapors condense in minute transparent 
globules, like oil, which readily dissolve in alcohol, and are obtained 
in crystals by its evaporation ; only a part of the substance can be 
thus obtained — at least one-half of it remains as a hard transparent 
resin. When the heat is increased to redness this is consumed with- 
out residue. 

Prof. Emmet, of the University of Virginia, published a paper on 
Liriodendrin, the bitter principle of the bark of the tulip poplar 
(Liriodendron tulipifera), in April, 1831 (see Jour. Phila. Coll. Pharm. 
iii. 5) in which he describes minutely the characters of that substance. 
He says it exists in an amorphous (resinoid) condition, and a hydra- 
ted or crystalline form, that it cannot be crystallized from its hot 
concentrated, alcoholic solution, the liriodendrin separating as a trans- 
parent varnish. 

When water is added till the alcoholic solution becomes pearl white 
and the temperature is kept at 40° to 50° F., crystals are obtained 
by spontaneous evaporation ; these have different forms — rhomboidal 
plates, plumose or stellated prisms, and scales like boracic acid. It 
may be washed with cold acid and alkaline solutions without any loss. 

When gently heated, the crystals fuse, slightly effervesce (owing to 
the escape of water), and then become olive colored and amorphous. 
The alcoholic solutions of both varieties possess an intensely bitter 
taste, and leave an impression of heat upon the tongue. Crystallized 
liriodendrin is brittle, inodorous, fusible at 150° and volatile at 270° 
F., but only partially sublimable. Caustic potassa in strong solution 
boiled with the crystals appears to convert them into oxalic acid, 
which distinguishes liriodendrin from the resins. Cold concentrated 
muriatic acid has no action on it, but when heated it effervesces, and 
assumes a deep emerald green color. Iodine imparts to the crystals 
by contact immediately a bright chrome yellow color, and forms an in- 
soluble grass-green compound, which is instantly decomposed by ni- 
tric acid. 

Dr. Stephen Procter, in an essay on the bark of Magnolia grandi- 



150 On the Fruit of Magnolia Tripetala. { A "aJSI'uSST! 

^fora (Amer. Jour. Pharm. xiv. 89,) describes a crystalline body dis- 
covered in that bark, which he found analogous to liriodendrin in its 
fusing point, volatility and solubility, but less bitter. 

W. D. Harrison, by an analysis of the bark, leaves and fruit of the 
Magnolia glauca (Amer Jour. Pharm. xxxiv. 29), found the crystal- 
line substance of Dr. Procter in the bark, but was unable to detect it 
in the fruit — a want of success probably due to the use of solution of 
potassa as a menstruum. 

By comparing the statements of Prof. Emmet with those now ob- 
tained, it must be evident that the crystals from Magnolia tripetala 
are not liriodendrin, though an analogous body. 

The reactions of these substances with muriatic acid, caustic potassa 
and iodine are quite different, and the bitterness of the Magnolia 
crystals is much less marked than the other. 

At this stage an opportunity to examine the fresh bark of Lirioden- 
dron root was afforded. A portion was exhausted with alcohol of 95 
per cent., and evaporated to a soft extract. This, when treated with 
a solution of potassa (1 part to 256), gave the putty-like mass de- 
scribed by Professor Emmet, extremely bitter and totally different in 
taste from the crystals obtained of Magnolia. When dissolved in al- 
cohol, and water added till milky, crystals were not obtained in the 
short period allotted for the experiment. When treated with benzine 
like the Magnolia extract, crystals were not formed, the liriodendrin 
separating in transparent globules, of a yellowish color, and persist- 
ently acrid and bitter taste. 

Under these circumstances the principle now described, which is 
presumed to be identical with that found by Dr. Procter and Mr. Har- 
rison in two distinct species, is entitled to be called Magnolin. 

Experiment 5. — When the soft, resinous matter from the capsules, 
which has been exhausted with benzine, is dissolved in alcohol and 
treated with subacetate of lead in excess, it partly precipitates, in 
combination with oxide of lead, the other part remaining in solution. 
By washing the precipitate first with alcohol and then with diluted 
acetic acid, the resin is separated, and after washing with water and 
dried, is perfectly tasteless and of a dark brown color, no odor and 
burns with a sooty flame, leaving a bulky charcoal residue. It is 
brittle and hard. The alcoholic liquid from which the resin was pre- 
cipitated was mixed with a slight excess of sulphuric acid to remove 



A AV J rTi',i872 RM *} On the Fruit of Magnolia Tripetala. 151 

the lead, filtered, evaporated to dryness, washed with water and dried. 
The soft resin thus obtained had a pungent taste when chewed, and 
was readily soluble in alcohol. The alcoholic extract of the bruised 
seeds contains some fixed oil, to which its softness is partially due. 
The amount of resinous matter is smaller than in the capsules. When 
the kernels are separated from the shell of the seed, and pressed, a 
bland yellow fixed oil is obtained. The activity of the seeds resides 
in the exterior tissues. 

Experiment 6. — The watery portion that separates from the resin- 
ous extract when the alcohol is nearly dissipated, in evaporating the 
tincture, contains glucose, as it readily reduces oxide of copper in 
Trommer's test. When it is evaporated to dryness, a mixture of 
granular crystals of sugar and crystals of magnolin is obtained, very 
pungent to the taste. 

Experiment 7. — The dried capsules, deprived of seeds, were boiled 
in water to obtain a brown cloudy decoction, which was strained, being 
too gummy to filter through paper. It afforded no precipitate with 
gelatin, was not affected by tincture of iodine, but sesquichloride of iron 
caused a brown gelatinous precipitate. It was precipitated by acetate 
of lead, and afterwards copiously by subacetate. It was also precipi- 
tated by nitrate of silver. 

Experiment 8. — The recent fruit has a somewhat aromatic odor 
when bruised. Six ounces of the fresh capsules were well sliced and 
placed in a distillatory apparatus with half a gallon of water, and 
heat applied by sand-bath until a quart of distillate was obtained. 
This was slightly milky, with patches of an oily nature floating. 
The distillate had the odor of the fruit without its pungency, and con- 
tained a small portion of volatile oil. No attempt was made to deter- 
mine the inorganic constituents of the fruit. 

In conclusion, it may be inferred from the preceding experiments 
and their results, that the fruit of Magnolia tripetala contains a 
crystalline (resinoid) principle analogous to liriodendrin, a solid resin 
precipitable by subacetate of lead, a soft, pungent resin closely allied 
to the crystalline principle, fixed oil, volatile oil, gum and glucose. No 
investigation was made for acid present or coloring matters. 



152 A New Source of Potash Supply. { AM Ap J r ^; mf^ 

A NEW SOURCE OF POTASH SUPPLY. 
By Herbert Hazard. 

An Inaugural Essay. 

The present sources of the potash supply are rapidly failing ; every 
year the area of the supply becomes smaller, and the product, in conse- 
quence of this and the increased demand, becomes more and more ex- 
pensive. At the rate the country has been settled and the woods de- 
stroyed for the past ten or fifteen years, the source of supply in the 
United States will, in a comparatively few years, almost entirely fail. 
States which, a few years since furnished large quantities of ashes, 
now furnish none ; wood has become too valuable in the arts to be 
burned even for fuel. The people as well as the Governments, in 
the older States, have commenced to discuss the ways and means of 
perpetuating their hard-wood forests, both as a protection to the land 
and for mechanical purposes. Soft woods do not yield enough of the 
salts to pay for working their ashes ; hence we are driven to the 
newly-settled portions of the West . and Northwest for our present 
supply, the largest portion of which comes from Michigan and Wis- 
consin, where the trees are cut down and burned as the readiest means 
of clearing them from the land. But as the population of these States 
is rapidly increasing, and railroad lines are being proportionately ex- 
tended, the forests are brought into more direct communication with 
the lakes and large cities, thus finding a market for their timber ; and 
the saw-mill will then use up ail the surplus trees, which will go into 
commerce as lumber instead of ashes, as at present ; these causes will 
very much reduce, if not wholly terminate, the present supply from 
the Northwestern as they have from the Eastern States. . 

The forests of the Old World, by care and cultivation, still furnish 
large quantities of potash, but never sufficient for home consumption, 
therefore this source of supply is not available to us ; again, the de- 
mand for these salts is constantly increasing, both in medicine and in 
the arts, two more very cogent reasons why a never-failing source of 
supply should be secured. 

This, it seems, can be accomplished in the following manner: 
Throughout the Western States large quantities of corn are produced, 
the cobs of which are now considered of little or no value, yet they 
may share the same fate as many substances which, though formerly 
considered worthless, have become new mines of wealth through the 
aid of chemistry. By the following assays and comparisons, I pro- 
pose to demonstrate their value to pharmacy and the arts. 



A Ap J rii B i' 5 m 2 RM } A New Source of Potash Supply. 153 

One hundred parts air- dried cobs yield, after drying at 212° Fah., 
the following results : 





Cobs. 


Ashes. 


KCl. K 2 CO3 . 


Silica, Charcoal, 
Lime, Iron. 


Loss. 


1st, 


91-70 


1-120 


•820 -750 


•140 


•230 


2d, 


90-95 


1-040 


•805 -745 


•180 


•115 


3d, 


92-85 


1-015 


•840 -755 


•245 


•005 


4th, 


90-94 


1-115 


•830 .795 


•300 


•020 


Averagiii 


g, 91-61 


1-072 


•824 -762 


.217 


•093 


Or, one hundred parts dried 
suits : 


at 212° Fah., 


give the following re- 




Ashes. 


KOI. 


Silica, Charcoal, 
K2 CO3 . Lime, Iron. 


Loss. 


1st, 


1-221 


•894 


•818 


•150 


•253 


2d, 


1-143 


•885 


•819 


•192 


•132 


3d, 


1-093 


•904 


.834 


•252 


•007 


4th, 


1-226 


•913 


•874 


.329 


•030 


An average of 1 171 


•899 


•836 


•230 


.105 



The cobs were incinerated as thoroughly as possible without the 
use of nitric acid or other oxidizing agent, the presence of silica im- 
peding the complete combustion of the charcoal. The ashes were 
assayed by exhausting them with water and filtering off the soluble 
portion, leaving a residue on the filter consisting of silica, charcoal,, 
carbonate of lime, and a trace of iron. The filtrate was supersatu- 
rated with muriatic acid, evaporated to dryness and redissolved in 
acidulated water, leaving an additional quantity of silica, which was 
added to the first portion and weighed with it. The solution was 
then evaporated to dryness and weighed as chloride of potassium, and 
from this weight the carbonate was calculated. 

In volume 4th, Watt's Dictionary of Chemistry, the results of some 
analyses by Hoss are given, from which it appears that ash, oak, elm 
and willow, which of our most common forest wood are richest in pot- 
ash salts, yield respectively *74, 1*50, 3*90 and 2.85 parts carbonate 
potash in one thousand of wood. 

The average yield of one thousand parts of cobs, as shown by the 
tables above, is 7-62 parts carbonate potash, or nearly twice as much 
as the best specimens of wood, and from a material which can fill its 



154 A New Source of Potash Supply. { k \*Ti £ K " 

full measure of usefulness for other purposes before it comes into the 
hands of the manufacturer of potash. 

But the questions may be raised, how can these cobs be collected 
in quantities sufficiently large to pay for working them, and is the 
supply sufficiently large to be of any commercial importance ? The 
first question is easily answered, for they are already collected at the 
shipping points of the growing districts, where large shelling mills, 
capable of running through 500 bushels ears of corn an hour, are es- 
tablished ; here, then, are the places where a supply of cobs may be 
procured. The figures below will show with what rapidity they accu- 
mulate. 

A bushel of corn weighs 70 pounds on the cob ; a bushel of shelled 
corn weighs 56 pounds, leaving a balance of 14 pounds cobs to the 
bushel ; and a mill, shelling 500 bushels an hour, turns out 7,000 
pounds cobs an hour, or equal to 70,000 pounds per working day of 
ten hours. As many of these cobs as are necessary are used for the 
purpose of generating steam to run the shelling-mills ; the surplus is 
sold, given away or even cast out into waste places to decay. By 
collecting the ashes from these waste cobs, together with the ashes 
from the furnaces, it will be readily seen, by reference to the preced- 
ing analyses, what large quantities of potash salts may be produced 
from these now worthless cobs. 

That the supply of cobs can never fail, the following statistics will 
show : 

The corn crop of the United States, for 1870, was 1,094,000,000 
bushels, of which amount 

Illinois yielded 201,378,000 bushels. 

Indiana " 113,150,000 " 

Missouri " 94,990,000 " 

Iowa " 93,415,000 " 



Making a total of .... 502,933,000 " 

in four States alone. 

The corn crop of the whole country, for 1871, was 1,100,000,000 
bushels, which, at 14 pounds cobs to the bushel, will yield 15,400,- 
000,000 pounds, or 7,700,000 tons cobs, containing an average of 
three-quarter per cent, pure carbonate potassa. We have the enormous 
quantity of 115,500,000 pounds of that valuable alkali lost to com- 
merce annually, which, if thrown into trade, would add very largely 
to the general resources of the country. 



Am. Jour. Phibm. / 
April 1, 1872. / 



On Cotton Seeds. 



155 



ON COTTON SEEDS. 
By Horatio N. Fraser. 
From the Author's Inaugural Essay. 

From the time when cotton was first cultivated in this country until 
within a few years, the lint or fibre was the only part used either in 
medicine or the arts ; the seed, or all that part not used for re-plant- 
ing, was considered as having no value, and was looked on only as an 
incumbrance. Since these seeds weighed nearly twice as much as the 
part formerly used, it became the subject of thinking men's experi- 
ments — how they could be turned to some use; and the results of 
these experiments have lead to the discovery and subsequent usage of 
the various products obtained therefrom. 

A chemical analysis of the seeds demonstrated that a large per 
centage of a fixed oil could be produced from them, and not only that, 
but that the kernel might be advantageously used for food for animals. 
This latter was tried some years ago, but led to bad results ; for even 
the best gins which were invented could not separate the lint entirely 
from the seeds to which it adhered, consequently this insoluble mat- 
ter, with the hulls, formed hard masses in the stomach, and produced 
even fatal effects from the irritation of the membranes of the intes- 
tines. But, to obviate this, hullers have been made which decorticate, 
or remove the hull, with the adhering lint, entirely from the kernel. 
This is almost an invaluable invention for the planter ; for, when we 
consider the millions of pounds of cotton which are annually produced 
in the Southern States, and also that the weight of seed is double the 
weight of the other portion, then we may be able to estimate the value 
of these seeds, turned into nutritious food for stock, to those who 
formerly wasted them, and were forced to buy what these now furnish. 

Since small hullers have been introduced on many of the planta- 
tions, the planters are enabled to hull their own seeds. These are 
thrown into the top of the hullers, and first come in contact with 
knives, which cut the hull ; then they are passed through sieves, by 
which process the kernel and hulls are separated. The kernel is divided 
into two portions ; the first is that part which has been broken or cut 
by the knives ; this is ground to make the meal used for feeding, and 
constitutes one third of the whole weight of kernel. The remaining 
two-thirds come out whole, and are sold for other purposes. This 
meal has been found to be as rich in flesh and fat producers as linseed 



156 



On Cotton Seeds. 



/Am. Jotjb. Phakm. 
\ April 1, 1872. 



meal for stock, and supersedes the use of it in the cotton-growing 
States. The hulls are piled in heaps until they arrive at the right 
state of decomposition to be used as a fertilizer, for which they are 
well adapted, being rich in the phosphates and lime, characteristic of 
substances used for this purpose. The seeds contain a fixed oil to the 
amount of about thirty-seven per cent, of the weight of the kernel, 
most of which is obtained by expression. 

At the factory on Long Island, which the writer visited, the seeds 
are bought with the hulls on, although the whole kernel is generally 
bought directly from the planter. These are first thrown into a gin, 
which separates some more of the lint. This is packed in bundles and 
sold for ordinary cotton batting. From this they are conveyed to the 
hullers and undergo the decorticating process. The kernel is then 
carried by an elevator to a box, which feeds two large iron rollers, 
converting it into meal ; the meal is put into a large vessel heated by 
steam, to render the oil more fluid, and then is put between iron plates, 
which are forced together by hydraulic pressure, which presses out 
nearly all the oil and some mucilage. About eight per cent, of oil is 
left, which cannot be removed except by solvents. This oil, as then 
obtained, is of a handsome dark wine color and sweet taste. This 
then undergoes the purifying and bleaching process, which is kept a 
secret by the manufacturers. 

The purified oil is either a golden yellow or white color. An oil is 
also produced by chilling the purified oil, and expressing, to obtain a 
variety almost free from stearine, called by the manufacturers " win- 
ter oil," from the fact that cold will not thicken it. 

This oil is used extensively in the arts, chiefly to adulterate and 
substitute higher priced oils. Cheap paints are ground in it, and it is 
used to a certain extent to adulterate linseed oil. But, being a non- 
drying oil, only a small per centage could be used. 

It is also used for adulterating sperm oil for burning, and for mix- 
ing with lard oil. The most practical way to detect these is to heat 
the suspected oil with distilled water ; separate the water and add a 
solution of subacetate of lead. If it contained cotton-seed oil, a white 
precipitate will be formed, on account of the presence of mucilage, 
which is always found in this oil.* If the sperm or lard oil is pure, it 
would be indicated by the absence of any milkiness. 



* Even after it has been purified ? 



Ed. Am. Jour. Pharm. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April 1, 1872. J 



On Cotton Seeds. 



157 



It is also used to adulterate olive oil, and chemistry has found no 
practical mode by which they can be definitely distinguished apart. 

A soap has been made of the residue left after refining. It is of a 
more or less dark brown color, and disagreeable smell. It is used in 
the laundry, and sells from three to seven cents a pound, according 
to quality. It was also attempted to make a soap from the white oil. 
This, when first manufactured, is of a handsome white color, but after 
standing some length of time it becomes dark, and finally almost black. 
It is not made now. 

It is used to the amount of ten per cent, in making fancy soaps, to 
give them a good lather, for which the oil is said to be the best known ; 
but even in this small amount the odor of the rancid oil can be de- 
tected. 

The hulls are used for fuel in the factory, and the greater part of 
the cake meal was sent to Europe, the farmers of this country, at that 
time, not being generally acquainted with its properties. It sold for 
about thirty dollars a ton. 

A few years ago, the oil was noticed in the journals in connection 
with preparations of pharmacy, to be substituted for oils in liniments 
and ointments, for which it is adapted by its properties as an emol- 
lient, but nothing definite was arrived at. Being cheaper than even 
the commonest grades of olive oil, and resembling it so much in its 
behaviour, it is peculiarly fitted for the preparations of the pharmaco- 
poeia in which the olive oil is used. Mixed with aqua ammoniae in the 
officinal quantities for "Liniment. Amnionic," it makes a product 
which has all the essential properties that are indicated by the olive 
oil, and has the advantage of not forming so thick a mixture, thereby 
making it more convenient. In the "Lin, Camphors," it seems to 
serve exactly the same purpose as the officinal oil. 

Lead plaster made with the cotton-seed oil has been substituted 
with advantage for the officinal, and has been used to mix with it to 
the amount of fifty per cent* by some manufacturers of the plaster. 
This, made with the cotton-seed oil alone, forms a handsome, light 
colored plaster, apparently equal in all respects to the English, with 
the exception that it does not become hard enough to keep its shape, 
in the usual form of selling it. But when mixed with olive oil in equal 
proportions, this difficulty is entirely overcome. 

The cost of the plaster made with the cotton-seed oil, using the best 
English litharge, is twenty cents per pound. This difference in the 



158 Moisture in Air-dry Drugs. {^Tdm™* 

cost, combined with the practicability of using it, will recommend it 
to the more careful examination of druggists who deal extensively in 
this preparation. 



ON THE AMOUNT OF MOISTURE CONTAINED IN AIR-DRY 

DRUGS. 
By Geo. W. Kennedy. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, March 10th, 1872. 

How many pharmacists would believe it if informed that the drugs 
which they are daily handling contain from 10 to 18 per cent, of 
moisture, which they lose in drying ? I myself could scarcely credit 
it when my first experiments were made, and thought I might have 
lost some of the drug between the repeated weighings, but repetition 
of the experiments always confirmed the results previously obtained. 
Even the powders, which are supposed to be dry or very nearly so, 
lose in some cases from 8 to 10 per cent, of moisture, 

I have experimented with a large number of drugs, sufficient, I be- 
lieve, to give the pharmacist a true idea of the amount of moisture 
contained in them, and the results show conclusively that such phar- 
maceutical preparations like syrups, tinctures, fluid extracts, &c, 
must be much weaker when prepared from merely air dry material 
than when made from anhydrous drugs. 

The process of drying was conducted in a common cooking stove 
oven, at a temperature of about 120° Fahrenheit, to which the drug 
was exposed until it ceased losing any more weight. By being exposed 
to a low but continuous heat the loss in volatile oil may probably be 
greater than when the drug is dried at an elevated heat, but its nor- 
mal amount is very small in most of the drugs experimented with, so 
that the deduction of the volatile oil expelled in drying would alter 
the figures below but little. 

The dried drugs were placed in a room for two weeks and then re- 
weighed, the increase of weight representing the amount of moisture 
reabsorbed in that time. While these experiments were made the 
weather was cold and dry, and this circumstance doubtless accounts 
for the smaller percentage absorbed again, while in a few case3 the 
loss of volatile oil may explain a portion of the deficiency. 

The following tables show the loss sustained by the drugs men- 
tioned, and the gain in weight of the dried articles under the circum- 
stances mentioned above : 



A Ap J rin;m2 RM -} To Detect Sulphuric Acid in Vinegar. 159 



1. Roots, Rhizomes, &c. 



Lappa, 


Loss. 


Yield, absorption. 


16-25 


83-75 


10-40 


Calumba, 


16- 


84- 


11-50 


Taraxacum, 


15-25 


84-75 


9-75 


Asclep. tuberosa, 


15-25 


84-75 


10-75 


Cypripedium, 


14- 


86- 


5- 


Gentiana, 


13- 


87- 


9- 


Panax, 


12-75 


87-25 


4-75 


Krameria, 
Polygonatum, 


12-67 


87-33 


9-17 


12-60 


87-40 


6-80 


Scilla, 


12-50 


87-50 


8 50 


Althaea, 


12-50 


87-50 


8-50 


Gossypium, 


12-40 


87-60 


6-40 


Helleborus niger, 


12- 


88- 


8-25 


Colchicum, 


11-50 


88-50 


8- 


Inula, 


11-40 


88-60 


6-40 


Rheum, 

Spigelia, 

Podophyllum, 


1 1-33 


88-67 


8-33 


11-25 


88-75 


7-25 


10-33 


89-67 


6-73 


Serpentaria, 


10-33 


89-67 


5-83 


Senega, 


10-30 


89-70 


5-67 


Asarum canad., 


10-25 


89-75 


3-85 


Valeriana, 
Saraaparilla, 


10-20 


89-80 


6- 


9- 


91- 


4-50 


2. Stb 


MS AND 


Wood. 




Dulcamara, 


12- 


88- 


6-33 


Quassia, 


10- 


90- 


8- 


3. 


Barks. 




Rhus glabrum, 


14-67 


85-33 


8-67 


Xanthoxylum, 


14-50 


85-50 


8-50 


Cinnamomum, 


10-50 


89-50 


6 50 


Prunus Virg., 


10- 


90- 


5-25 


Cinch, calis., 


9- 


91- 


2-80 



Pottsville, Pa., March, 1872. 



4 


Herbs. 










Gain bv re- 




Loss. Yield, absorption. 


Absinthium, 


14- 


86- 


8-50 




12-25 


87-75 


8-25 


XjyJ U tJIlOfj 


11-60 


88-40 


5-60 


XJ OUUU 1 no. 


10-80 


89-20 


5-20 


Cr ! pp H nm t\ 

XJ 1 C L/ 11 U U-l <£ j 


10-33 


89-67 


6-33 


5. 


Leaves. 




Uvularia perfol., 


18- 


82- 


8- 


Conium, 


16- 


84- 


6- 


Cataria, 


14-50 


85-50 


11-50 


Aconitum, 


14- 


86- 


9-25 


Belladonna, 


13-75 


86-25 


5-75 


Hyoscyamus, 


12-25 


87-75 


5-85 


Senna Alexand., 


12-20 


87-80 


7-20 


Melissa, 


11-75 


88-25 


i ou 


Matico, 


11- 


89- 


6- 


Tussilago, 


10-50 


89-50 


4-67 


Salvia, 


10-50 


89-50 


8- 


Stramonium, 


10-33 


89-67 


7-83 


PfiQmttrinnQ 


10-25 


89-75 


6-65 


Uva ursi, 


10- 


90- 


4- 


Buchu, 


9-20 


90-80 




6. 


Flowers. 




Lavandula, 


14-25 


85-75 


7-75 


Arnica, 


13-80 


86-20 


8-80 


Anthemis, 


9-80 


90-20 


6-80 


7. 


Seeds. 






Stramonium, 


10- 


90- 


7- 


8. Powdered Drugs. 




Rheum, 


8-25 


91-75 


5-25 


Inula, 


8-33 


91-67 


5-30 


Calumba, 


8-50 


91-50 


7- 


Colchici Rad., 


9- 


91- 


6- 


Sanguinaria, 


9- 


91- 


7- 


Cimicifuga, 


9-80 


90-20 


4-80 



TO DETECT SULPHURIC ACID IN VINEGAR. 
By James T. King. 

The salts of barium are far too delicate a test for free sulphuric 
acid in vinegar. When it is made by the oxidation of alcohol, the 
water used for diluting the spirits, in many localities, contains suffi- 
cient sulphate of lime or other sulphates to give a decided reaction 
with chloride barium, and if the vinegar be made from cider, it will 
generally give evidence of the presence of a sulphate with this test, 
even when the sample is pure and free from the usual adulteration. 

The following process will detect the five-hundredth part of free 
sulphuric acid, and is sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes. 



160 Tinctura Opii, U. $. P. {^/Ti.iS?"" 

An ounce of the vinegar to be examined is put into a small porce- 
lain capsule, over a water-bath, and evaporated to about half a drachm, 
or to the consistence of a thin extract ; when cool, half a fluidounce of 
stronger alcohol is added and thoroughly triturated. The free sul- 
phuric acid, if present, will be taken up by the alcohol to the exclu- 
sion of any sulphates. 

Allow the alcoholic solution to stand several hours and filter ; to the 
filtrate add one fluidounce of distilled water, and evaporate the alcohol 
off by gentle heat, over a sand-bath ; when free from alcohol it is set 
aside for several hours and then again filtered. 

To the filtrate, acidulated with hydrochloric acid, add a few drops 
of a solution of chloride barium, and a white precipitate of sulphate 
of barium will result, if the sample of vinegar has been adulterated 
with sulphuric acid. 

Middletown, N. J 7 "., March, 1872. 



TINCTURA OPII, U. S. P. 

By Allen Shryock. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, March 19th, 1872. 

Allowing the opium to be wholly exhausted of its active principles, 
one grain would be represented by 12 8 T minims of the tincture, ac- 
cording to the U. S. formula ; but a minute quantity of morphia has 
been detected in the residuary matter, so that the tincture is rather 
weaker than the proportion of opium employed would indicate. To 
determine this difference, though slight, would be of interest. 

Powdered opium was analyzed, and found to yield l&fVa per cent, 
of morphia, giving 3171 grains in 50 troyounces ; this quantity being 
converted into 40 pints of tinctura opii, U. S. P., the dregs of the 
same were analyzed, and found to contain 18 grains of morphia, upon 
which data we may readily calculate the loss as represented by mor- 
phia. Assuming the amount of morphia contained in the powdered 
opium to be represented nominally by 100 per cent., the amount of 
morphia retained in the dregs (13 grs.) will be represented by -40996, 
or approximately § of one per cent. Therefore 12 T 8 - minims of tinc- 
ture of opium in strength equals 1 grain of powdered opium less § 
per cent., or T %%% gr., and 1 grain of powdered opium in morphia 
strength equals 12 ^ minims. 

With this slight difference, however, 12, 8 t > minims of the tincture 



A % J r°ni;m2 RM '} Elegant Pharmacy. 161 

may even represent more than 1 grain of powdered opium in thera- 
peutic action, though lacking slightly in strength, from the fact of its 
being in a more diifusible state. 

t %% of the opium used was taken up by the menstruum, and each 
fluidounce of the tincture contained 4*93 grains of morphia. 

The residues left in making Galenical preparations are always 
more or less charged with traces of their active principles. The 
proper menstrua and mode of preparing them presents a wide and 
interesting field for investigation. 



ELEGANT PHARMACY. 
" Nuuquam non paratus." 

The above not inapplicable term, "Elegant Pharmacy^ has been 
frequently brought to my notice, and demanded from me considerable 
attention as a subject worthy of consideration and study by all prac- 
titioners of this now fast advancing science. I have been more par- 
ticularly attracted by it of late, not only by the vast strides that have 
been made in the development of the science, but as well by the ex- 
isting fact of the great increase in the numbers of the practitioners 
and votaries of one distinct branch of the art known as homoeopathic 
pharmacy. With them, in my mind, elegant pharmacy is one of the 
great causes of their increase and success. Without granting them 
to be on equal grounds with regard to the virtues of their prepara- 
tions, or that their infinitesimal deductions are a reality, and their 
theory a correct one, we of the old school cannot but admire the taste- 
less, agreeable, non-nauseating doses they administer — the elegant 
pharmacy they display in their medicinal preparations. 

That this course might be more closely followed by allopathic phar- 
maceutists is, I think, practical, and needs only the aid and unison of 
action on the part of the allopathic physician with the pharmacist. 

The homoeopathic physician is, with but few exceptions, a dispenser 
as well as practioner ; his remedies are in almost every case special 
preparations, always ready for his use. With the allopathic physi- 
cian it is different ; he depends on the pharmacist for the compounding 
of his formula. The knowledge of medicine is only one of the many 
branches with which the physician must of necessity be familiar. 
The virtues, powers and actions of the different remedial agents 
brought to his notice, form part of the study of his profession, but 

11 



162 Elegant Pharmacy. {"^SUSST 

the art of choosing, preserving, preparing, combining, disguising and 
dispensing these remedies rests with the pharmaceutist. He it is the 
physician holds responsible for the quality and efficacy of his remedial 
agents ; and surely with such a responsibility there should exist some 
bond of fellowship between them. What physician is not pleased to 
find the result of the administration of medicine to have been suc- 
cessful, and hear from the lips of his now convalescing patient such 
words as these : " Oh, doctor, I am so much better, and your medi- 
cine was so easy to take, so agreeable." To whom is he indebted 
for this compliment (powerful in a pecuniary as well as professional 
point of view) ? To him who, by his skilful manipulation, had so dis- 
guised the perhaps nauseous properties of the drug he had ordered 
that they were not tasted, and at the same time preserved the active 
properties, so that they had successfully performed their functions in 
the suffering system. 

Though great advances had been made, in the past decade of years, 
in the art of dispensing, a vast field for improvement is still open to 
the students and practitioners of the art. Many, very many of the 
active remedial agents in daily use by physicians are nauseous and 
disagreeable to the taste, and [many patients shudder at the thought 
of the doctor's visit (not the doctor), because they fear the disagreea- 
ble dose it may be necessary for him to order them. 

To lessen the number of these bugbears of the sick and ailing is 
the work of the pharmacist ; to hide and disguise these disagreeable 
tastes and odors, and yet preserve the power and efficiency of the 
remedy, is what I call elegant 'pharmacy. 

Cannot a great deal be done to further this cause by a greater unity 
of action on the part of those interested in it ? I think so. I would 
suggest also the abnegation of secret formulas. What is advantageous 
for one should be for all, especially with regard to such things as 
remedies for suffering humanity. Improvements should be for the 
universal benefit, not for the mere financial advantage of the improver. 
A more liberal policy towards one another will go far to aid in the 
advancement of the science of pharmacy, and bring about a much 
more healthy and active condition of the art. With a correct knowl- 
edge of chemistry, botany and materia medica, we should couple ele- 
gant pharmacy, so that our compounds will rival, if not excel, homoe- 
opathy in their simplicity, beauty and adaptability. Medicus. 

Newark, N. J., March 8, 1872. 



A Apri?*',i87 A 2* M '} Gleanings from the European Journals. 163 

GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Ferrous Sulphate, precipitated by alcohol, contains less water of 
crystallization than the crystallized salt, and loses a portion of it 
readily on exposure to dry atmosphere. G. H. Barckhausen found 
that 1 gramme of the crystallized salt required 17*2 c. c. of a solution 
of chlorinated lime for oxidation, while the same quantity of the 
precipitated salt, immediately after drying, required 18-8 c. c. ; after 
four hours' exposure at the ordinary temperature, 19*5 c. c, after one 
hour's exposure to about 80° F., (25 to 27° C.) 20-6 c. c, and after 
another hour, 21*4 c. c. of the same solution of chlorinated lime were 
necessary for complete oxidation. — Archiv d. Pharm., 1871, Dec, 
197. 

Commercial Butyric Ether and Butyric Acid. — Dr. A. Burgemeister 
examined butyric ether, sold as pure from a well known factory, and 
found it to contain small quantities of water, alcohol, acetic and pro- 
pionic ethers ; the main constituents were butyric ether (boiling point 
118-120° C.) and capronic ether (boiling point 172° C), almost equal 
in volume to the former. 

Commercial butyric acid, obtained from the same firm, yielded 
nearly one-third of its volume of capronic acid. The formation of 
capronic acid during the butyric fermentation of sugar in the presence 
of cheese and under addition of chalk is well known, but that it is 
formed in such a large quantity seems to have been overlooked. — 
Ibid., 199. 

Chlorine in Mixtures. — Chlorine water is best prescribed in dilute 
aqueous solution, which, however, loses its chlorine rapidly in con- 
tact with the atmosphere. Since sweetening of such solutions is usually 
desirable, Mylius made a number of experiments, which proved that 
syrup of marshmallow present in the proportion of 1 : 6, caused a loss 
of chlorine amounting to 68*3 per cent in five hours, and honey, under 
the same conditions, a loss of 94*6 per cent. The loss occasioned by 
glycerin equalled 13*22 per cent, in five hours, by simple syrup 27*2 
per cent, in six hours, and by mucilage of gum arabic 15*2 per cent, 
in the same time. Comparative experiments of the effects of glycerin 
and simple syrup indicate that the latter acts less rapidly than the 
former. The author concludes that chlorine water is best prescribed 
in dilute aqueous solutions, sweetened with a little simple syrup, and 



164 Gleanings from the European Journals. { AM Ap,Ti ) i872 RM ' 

with the addition of some mucilage to prevent the rapid escape of the 
gas when the cork is removed. — Ibid., 210-214. 

Powdered French Chalk is recommended by Mylius for rolling pills 
of nitrate of silver made with white bole; the smooth surface imparted 
to the pills may probably recommend its use in other cases. — Ibid., 
215. 

Finely Divided Phosphorus. — Mylius suggests to fuse the phos- 
phorus under water, to which some white clay or asbestos has been 
added, and agitate until cold. On shaking, a uniform milk-like mix- 
ture is obtained, in which the finely divided phosphorus is kept sus- 
pended sufficiently long to be weighed out correctly. — Ibid. 216. 

Pommade tannique pour la regeneration des cheveux blancs, pre- 
pared by Filliol & Andoque, Paris, contains, according to A. Geheeb, 
no tannin, but sulphur and 3*866 per cent, lead in the form of acetate. 
—Ibid. 236. 

Sel Boergrave, a Belgian speciality, was found by Dr. E. Pfeiffer 
to be merely coarsely powdered epsom salt ; another sample con- 
tained between 2 and 3 per cent, of citric acid. The original com- 
position, it is said, requires to the epsom salt the addition of 1 per 
cent, of chloride of sodium, 2 per cent, of sulphate of potassa and 
some sugar. — Ibid., January, 1872, 26. 

Supersaturated Solutions of Sulphate of Soda. — De Coppet uses 
the anhydrous salt, which has been heated to above 33° C. and cooled 
again, carefully protected from the dust of the atmosphere. The salt 
is added in small portions to cold water, contained in a vial, which is 
placed in a water-bath having the temperature of the surrounding 
atmosphere, so that the temperature of the solution scarcely varies 
during the experiment. In this manner the author succeeded to dis- 
solve at 14° C. 35*8 anhydrous sulphate (Na 2 S0 4 ) in 100 parts of 
water, while the saturated solution of the hydrate (Na 2 SO 4 ,10H 2 O), 
at the same temperature, contains only 12*4 parts of the anhydrous 
salt in 100 of water. — Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., 1872, Feb., 
117. 

Preparation of Pure Muriatic Acid. — Hager states, that by Bet- 
tendorfs process,* all arsenic is precipitated from crude muriatic 
acid by stannous chloride, but if a trace of this precipitate is poured 
into the retort with the acid the distillate again contains arsenic. 

* Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1871, 222. 



Am aphi i, i P 872 RM } Gleanings from the European Journals. 165 

After the reaction with the stannous chloride the crude acid contains 
bichloride of tin, which readily distils over when the acid is rectified. 
The author recommends Duflos' process for the removal of arsenic 
from crude muriatic acid as the best ; it consists in diluting the acid 
to a specific gravity of 1*13, removing any sulphurous acid present 
by powdered peroxide of manganese, and digesting the liquid with 
bright strips of metallic copper, which appears also to remove thal- 
lium, that is occasionally present. The formation of perchloride from 
the protochloride of iron is then prevented by adding to the acid in 
the retort some copper clippings. — Pharm. Cent. Halle 1872, N. 6., 
p. 52. 

Pure Carbolic Acid is now prepared by Schering, of Berlin. 
Hager has compared it with Calvert's pure acid and found both not 
to be affected in color by the light. Calvert's carbolic acid fused at 
41° C, Schering's at 43-5° C. ; the former congealed at 33, the latter 
at 36° ; the former dissolved at a medium temperature in 19-20 
parts, Schering's in 17*5 parts of water; 100 parts of Schering's 
carbolic acid dissolve, at a medium temperature, 20 parts of water, 
Calvert's only 18 parts. The author ascribes these small differences 
to the presence of a little water in Calvert's, while Schering's acid 
appears to be anhydrous.* — Ibid., N. 8, p. 68. 

Preparation of Collodium. — The process which has been for years 
successfully used in the laboratory of the university of Munich is as 
follows : 30 grm. finely powdered saltpetre and 30 grm. sulphuric 
acid are mixed in a glass cylinder by means of a glass rod until the 
former is dissolved, 2 grm. cotton are then added and the whole well 
stirred for five minutes. After washing with much water, then with 
alcohol and drying, the cotton dissolves readily in a mixture of equal 
parts of alcohol and ether, and the solution leaves on evaporation a 
perfectly transparent film. The presence of much nitric acid in the 
oil of vitriol seems to render the collodium film opaque. The prepa- 
tion, at one operation, of a larger quantity of collodium cotton than 
30 grammes appears to alter somewhat the optical behavior of the 
collodium ; and the same result is obtained if the last traces of acid 
are removed by ammonia. — N. Repert. f Pharm., 1872, N. 1, p. 6. 

Ampelopsis hederacea. — Wittstein analyzed the leaves of this plant 



* Why should the latter then require for solution less water than the former? 
Ed. Am. Jour. Pharm. 



166 



Urethral Suppositories. 



f Am. Jock. Phabm. 
\ April 1, 1872. 



in 1845, and proved among other constituents the presence of tartaric 
acid. Prof, von Gorup-Besanez collected the leaves in June, and 
found them to contain albumen, bitartrate of potassa, tartrate of 
lime, gypsum, free tartaric ac'd (no malic or citric acid), pyrocatechin 
and sugar, (levulose and dextrose.) Collected in the beginning of 
September the leaves contained albumen, tartrate of lime (no bitar- 
trate of potassa), pectin, pyrocatechin, glycolate of lime and invert 
sugar (probably levulose with little dextrose). The author has also 
analyzed the ashes of the leaves from both collections, and compares 
the constituents of this plant with those of Vitis vinifera. — Ibid,, N- 
2, p. 109-116. 

URETHRAL SUPPOSITORIES. 
By Joseph L. Lemberger, Lebanon, Pa. 

In presenting these suppositories to your notice, I do not expect 
to introduce a new idea, but simply apply an old idea to a new use, 
with a substantial reason for so doing. 

Amongst the varied demands claiming the pharmacist's attention 
was one for something by means of which to reach the neck of the 
bladder to allay " vesical tenesmus " without the use of a syringe. 
The case was one of " pelvic cellulitis," excruciatingly painful, the 
bladder only relieved by means of a catheter, and that operation be- 
ing always very painful in anticipation, and much more so in reality, 
the patient for a number of years suffered most excruciating pain 
upon the introduction of the catheter, the duration of the paroxysm 
being more frequently one hour than less. 

The idea suggested itself to the attending physician that if there 
could be a suppository made to reach the neck of the bladder, acting 
endermically, an alleviation of pain might be induced. After some 
consultation and experiment, the form or shape herewith submitted 
proved to be the most satisfactory. 

The mould for making them was suggested by the old-fashioned 
candle-mould, on a miniature scale, as sample herewith presented. 
Each suppository was made to contain three grains of powdered 
opium, and the composition most suitable seems to be a mixture of 
filtered yellow wax and cacao butter, in proportion of seven of the 
former to three of the latter, made as follows : 

After preparing the mould by stringing it as you would wick a can- 
le-mould, with this addition, allowing the wick or string to be seve- 



A "AjS! , i,i8w" , y Bromide in Iodide of Potassium. 167 

ral inches longer than the suppository, and keeping it on tension, so 
as to occupy a central position the entire length, then melt the wax 
and cacao butter carefully, mixing therewith afterwards the opium, 
and immediately pour into the moulds and cool rapidly in ice- 
water, when they can usually be withdrawn, or should there be dif- 
ficulty, as there sometimes is, immerse for a moment in hot water and 
they can be easily withdrawn. 

When used, they are inserted into the urethra to the part affected, 
and allowed to remain till the patient is relieved, and then by means 
of the string is withdrawn. A portion of the suppository having 
melted by the warmth of the parts, produced the desired end, and 
miraculous as the result may seem, the pain was reduced from one 
hour to five minutes. 

Novel as this thing may seem, I feel that it is worth bringing to 
the notice of the Association, believing that this form of suppository 
can be used with the same good result in other diseases peculiar to 
those parts, and I have wondered whether urethritis and kindred 
inflammations might not be cured by the same means. 

I have no doubt the mode of manufacture can and will be much 
modified, should the urethral suppository receive the favorable atten- 
tion it merits. — Proceedings of the American Pharm. Assoc., 1871, 
p. 482. 

DETECTION AND ESTIMATION OF BROMIDE IN IODIDE OF 

POTASSIUM. 

By M. Lepage, Pharmacist at Gisors. 

Since the price of bromide of potassium is considerably lower than 
that of the iodide, the latter salt is often met with adulterated with 
the former. The author recommends a process for its detection, 
which is based upon the property of mercuric chloride, to precipitate 
from a mixture of iodide and bromide of potassium only the iodide, 
the mercuric bromide being soluble in water. The iodide must be 
free from chloride, carbonate and iodate. One gramme of the salt 
is then dissolved in 30 grms. pure water. On the other hand a solu- 
tion is made of one gramme corrosive sublimate in 20 cc. distilled 
water, which, by means of a burette, is gradually added to the first 
solution, until it just ceases to produce a turbidity. If the iodide is 
pure, at least 16 cc. of the mercuric solution are required for this 
purpose; if impure, the remaining solution will exceed the volume of 



168 Precautions in Dispensing Poisons. { k \v™Xmt™' 

4 cc, in proportion as the iodide has been replaced by bromide of 
potassium. 

To prove the presence of bromine in the liquid filtered from the 
mercuric iodide, it is evaporated to about 8 grms.; after cooling it is 
put into a test-tube and boiled with a few drops of perchloride of iron 
until it ceases to disengage vapors of iodine, which is recognized by 
the vapors being without effect upon starch paper. The cooled liquid 
is 'filtered and then, in a test-tube, agitated repeatedly with small 
quantities of chlorine water and bisulphide of carbon until the latter 
ceases to become colored from the dissolved bromine. 

The presence of bromine may also be demonstrated by agitating 
the concentrated filtrate from the mercuric iodide obtained as above 
with three fresh portions of ether, which dissolves from the aqueous 
solution the excess of mercuric chloride, the double iodide of mercury 
and potassium, and traces of the bromide. If the operation has been 
well performed, the liquid contains only bromide and chloride of 
potassium, from the former of which the bromine is easily separated 
by chlorine water and bisulphide of carbon. — Journ. de JPharm. et de 
(Mm., 1872, Fevr., 103—105. 



PRECAUTIONS IN DISPENSING POISONS. 
By William C. Bakes, of Philadelphia. 

Query 23. — What are the best containers, or what other precautions can be 
devised for poisonous drugs, to lessen their liability to mistakes in dispensing 
or handling them ? 

This is a topic upon which much might be written, and even then 
the conclusions arrived at might not seem satisfactory. It must be 
conceded that the ordinary methods of keeping and dispensing poisons 
are liable to much criticism. In these times when there is so much 
free trade in medicine ; when any man, however ignorant and un- 
skilled, is privileged to practice medicine, or deal in drugs, it is of 
the greatest importance that some safeguards should be thrown around 
the storage as well as dispensing of poisons. In some States, laws 
have been enacted regulating the sale of poisons. Some years since, 
the Legislature of Pennsylvania passed a law requiring that all par- 
ties selling poisons should keep a record of the date of sale, name 
and address of each purchaser, with the quantity of the article sold. 
This law is scarcely regarded, and the existence of it may not be 



ApriLi,^ 31 '} Precautions in Dispensing Poisons. 169 

known to many in the profession. State laws, however wisely framed, 
will not prevent accidental poisoning, and education is not always an 
absolute security against errors in dispensing. A temporary aliena- 
tion of the mind has often caused serious errors in compounding pre- 
scriptions, even with those well skilled in their profession. It should, 
therefore, be our aim to have all potent medicines so guarded, and 
their dispensing so regulated, that the liability to error would be 
greatly lessened, if not altogether prevented. Having given the sub- 
ject much careful consideration, I have adopted the following precau- 
tions in my own establishment : 

1. All bottles on the shelves containing such substances as tincture 
of aconite root, tincture of digitalis, Fowler's solution, tincture of 
opium, tartar emetic, bichloride of mercury, &c, are of blue glass, 
with a red caution label on the back of each bottle. 

2. Extracts of aconite, belladonna, nux vomica, opium, digitalis, 
&c, are contained in the ordinary jars properly labelled — and then 
inclosed in a tin can, also labelled with red letters painted on the tin. 

3. The powerful alkaloids as strychnia, veratria, atropia, morphia, 
and such articles as arsenic, hydrocyanic acid, &c, are kept in their 
original bottles, in a closet under lock and key, and when dispensed, 
the assistant dispensing calls another to witness that the article and 
quantity dispensed corresponds with the prescription ; a note is taken 
by whom the prescription was vised. 

This plan, strictly adhered to, furnishes an efficient safeguard, and 
is attended with so little trouble, that it may be readily adopted in 
every store. 

All my labels for poisonous drugs, liniments, and medicines for 
external applications, are printed on bright red paper — some of which 
have a sanded border. The object of this is that even in the dark, by 
the sense of touch they may be distinguished from other labels — 
whilst their color and peculiar appearance in daytime will render 
them conspicuous. 

The sanding of the labels is attended with some trouble, and I find 
it necessary to do it in the store — but nothing should be considered 
too troublesome that will guard human life from the possibility of ac- 
cidents in the dispensing of medicines. Labels may be sanded by 
covering the part to be sanded with thick elm water, and then dusting 
over it No. 1 flint sand, and allowing them to dry, 

Bottles of various colors have been used in dispensing poisonous 



170 Adulteration of Oil of Peppermint, etc. {^Tjm™ 

medicines, and preparations for external application, but the shape 
has always corresponded with those of white glass, and the distinc- 
tion has not been sufficiently marked. I have used for medicines for 
external use, a three-sided black glass bottle, which has answered an 
excellent purpose. I have improved on this by having on each side 
a number of small projections, and having the bottles of transparent 
blue glass, This will render them totally unlike any other bottle in 
use, and even in the dark they cannot be mistaken for another bottle. 
A leading firm — manufacturers of glassware — will soon be ready to 
supply these bottles to the trade, and I think they will be appreciated 
by pharmaceutists, as a valuable addition to the dispensing depart- 
ment, and secure a corresponding appreciation from the public, as an 
effectual means of protecting them from accidental poisoning. The 
contrast of the bright red label on this singular shaped bottle 
is very conspicuous, and carries with it a caution which will not fail 
to arrest attention. — Proceedings Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1871, p. 
436-438. 



ON THE ADULTERATION OF OIL OF PEPPERMINT WITH 
CASTOR OIL AND ALCOHOL. 
By E. B. Shuttleworth. 

During the last three months a large quantity of American oil of 
peppermint has been disposed of in Canada, which, the writer has 
been led to believe, is adulterated to an extent hitherto unrecorded. 
At the last meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Mr. 
W. Saunders referred to a case of adulteration of this kind which had 
been brought before his notice, in which the oil of peppermint con- 
tained 25 per cent, of castor oil.* From the following circumstances 
it would appear that the adulteration is carried much further than 
this : 

A wholesale house having purchased a small quantity of American 
oil of peppermint was led to believe that it contained an admixture 
of fixed oil. This supposition was confirmed by the fact that a little 
of the oil when dropped on filtering paper and exposed to heat, left a 
permanent greasy stain. As it was undesirable to vend an article 
which gave evidence of adulteration, the sample, amounting to 55 
pounds, was sent for distillation to the writer. The oily destillate 



*Canad. Pharm. Journ., Vol. v, No. 3, p. 110, and Proceed. Amer. Pharm. 
Assoc., 1871, p. 62. 



Am. Jodk. Pharm. ) 
April 1, 1872. j 



Cinchona Cultivation in Java, 



111 



was separated, and found to weigh 18 pounds ; it consisted of oil of 
peppermint of very good quality. The residue in the still weighed 
21 pounds, and was found to consist of castor oil. The sum of these 
weights, deducted from the original weight of the oil, represents the 
amount of alcohol present. This would, of course, become mixed 
with the watery distillate. From these data the composition of the 
oil may be centisimally represented : 

Oil of Peppermint, . . . .32-72 
Castor Oil, ..... 38-18 
Alcohol, 29-10 

100-00 

A mixture of the above ingredients, in the specified proportion, 
gave a clear and very presentable oil, strongly resembling the genuine 
article. Its density was slightly lower, being -894 at- 60° F. Its 
behavior with iodine was precisely similar to that of pure oil, and 
it dissolved perfectly in alcohol of sp. gr. -838. 

The detection of this adulteration is best effected by evaporating 
a portion of the sample from filtering paper, when the characteristic 
greasy stain, indicating the presence of fixed oil, will remain. The 
presence of alcohol is shown by agitation with an equal bulk of water, 
when a milky emulsion will be produced, and the oily layer will suffer 
a diminution of volume, which is not, however, proportionate to the 
amount of alcohol present ; a sample treated in this way only lost 
0*25 its volume. The amount of adulteration can only be ascertained 
by careful distillation with water, and subsequent agitation of the 
distillate with water, to remove traces of alcohol. In this way the 
quantity of oil of peppermint will be slightly understated. 

In the case cited by Mr. Saunders, it appears that alcohol was pre- 
sent, but escaped notice, as a mixture of 25 per cent, castor oil with 
oil of peppermint is so thick as to preclude any possibility of mistak- 
ing the mixture for genuine oil. Evaporation from a test-tube, as 
recommended, would, in this case, give no indication of the true 
quantity of the adulterant. — Canad. Pharm. Journ., March, 1872. 



CINCHONA CULTIVATION TN JAVA. 
In a very interesting report on the trade and commerce of the Isl- 
and of Java, we read that " the cinchona cultivation, under the special 
care of the Government, is increasing yearly. Besides the twelve 



Phaem 



172 Xylol— New Remedy for Small-pox. { k \*Ti\ml 

plantations in the Preanger Residency, Government is experimenting 
in the Passoeroean Residency and in Sumatra. Seeds and plants have 
also been granted to private persons on application, and several landed 
proprietors have established small plantations which promise well, and 
are likely to be enlarged. 

A quantity of cinchona bark was sent during 1870 to Holland for 
realization, and the prices ranged from 1 florin 2 cents to 1 florin 40 
cents per pound. The medical service here has also been supplied. 
The entire last year's crop was over 9000 pounds bark, and the ex- 
penses of cultivation, including salaries, etc., slightly exceeding ,£3500. 

The following is a list of the various descriptions of plants in the 
Government plantations in December, 1870 : — 

Cinchona Calisaya and O. Hasskarliana, . . 1,177,951 

O. succirubra and O. caloptera* . . 167,964 

O. officinalis, ..... 287,849 

C. lancifolia, ..... 45,777 
O. micrantha, . . . . . 785 

Total, ..... 1^680,299 
Of the Government Botanical Gardens at Buitenzorg, we are also 
told that they " are well known over the East for their extent and 
beauty as well as for their botanical value : they are under the charge 
of Dr. Scheffer. Frequent exchanges of plants occur between the 
Buitenzorg Gardens and those of many of the British colonies." — 
Pharm. Journ. and Tram., London, Feb. 24, 1872. 



XYLOL, THE NEW REMEDY FOR SMALL POX. 
By C. R. C. Tichborne, F.C.S., M.R.I.A. 

Xylol, xylene, or ethyl-benzine, as it has been respectively called, 
is one of a homologous series of hydrocarbons, of which the well- 
known benzine and toluene form the two first. These hydrocarbons 
are all formed from coaltar-naphtha. Xylol was first procured by 
Hugo Miiller, but its nitro-compound had previously been discovered 
by Warren De la Rue, in 1856. Coaltar-naphtha is submitted to 
fractional distillation until the part which boils at 141° is separated; 
this is submitted to the action of fuming sulphuric acid, which dis- 
solves the xylol and leaves the other hydrocarbons. The xylol is then 
separated by distillation from this mixture. 



* We do not know to what species this refers. — Ed. Pharm. Journ. 



A Aprin; m A 2 RM - } Adulteration of Aniline Colors, 173 

Xylol is said to have been used by Dr. Zuelzer, the Senior Physi- 
cian at the Charite* Hospital at Berlin, with great success in cases of 
small-pox. The theory of its action would appear to be that xylol is 
taken up by the blood, and acts as a disinfectant. The vapor seems 
to the writer to possess faint, and not very well marked, anaesthetic 
properties; this may be due to the presence of a small quantity of 
benzol, or the other hydrocarbons. The antiseptic properties of this 
group of compounds are well known, and thus, probably, the specific 
action of this one. The boiling point is variously stated at 139° to 
140°. The specimens examined by the writer generally commenced 
to boil at about 135° C. The specific gravity was -866. 

It is said that the purity of xylol is of importance, but unfortu- 
nately there is no very ready method by which the ordinary practi- 
tioner might detect its purity. It should be soluble in fuming sulphu- 
ric acid, but it 'is not soluble in the ordinary sulphuric acid of the 
Pharmacopoeia. 

It has a faint odor something like benzol, and an aromatic taste. 
The doses are three to five drops for children ; ten to fifteen drops for 
adults, every hour to every three hours. It is quite harmless in rea- 
sonable doses. In Berlin it is given in capsules. As it is very inso- 
luble the best method of giving it would be in an emulsion of almonds. 
When once assimilated it is rapidly oxidized in the body, this fact 
being demonstrated by the production of a peculiar odor in the urine, 
which, however, is quite distinct from xylol itself. — Med. Press and 
Circular, Lond., Feb. 28, 1872. 



ADULTERATION OF ANILINE COLORS. 
William H. Wahl, Ph. D. 
The intense tinctorial power of the aniline dyes seems to offer irre- 
sistible temptation to dishonest dealers to imitate or adulterate them 
with worthless ingredients. A sample of fuchsine (an aniline red) lately 
placed in our hands by Dr. Genth was composed entirely of sugar 
crystals saturated with the coloring matter. To any one familiar with 
the peculiar arborescent appearance of the pure fuchsine particles, the 
sugar crystals, with their rhombic prisms, would betray the imposition 
at a glance ; but without this knowledge the detection would be at- 
tended with some difficulty, since the color of both genuine and coun- 
terfeit samples is equally intense. One of the simplest methods to 



174 Soluble Qlass and its Applications. j A Aprin, i872. KM 

detect this and similar impositions is simply to digest a sample of the 
suspected substance in ether or absolute alcohol, when the coloring 
matter will be dissolved with ease, and the sugar crystals, or wood 
fibre (which is also used for dishonest purposes) will remain undis- 
solved. — Franklin Inst. Journ., March, 1872. 



SOLUBLE GLASS AND ITS APPLICATIONS. 

The recent epidemic of fires, if we may be allowed the expression, 
has in many cases called the attention of the public to this remark- 
able compound, and stimulated inquiry as to its uses and the methods 
of applying it. Although it has been known for many years, it has 
thus far failed to come into very general use, partly because the pub- 
lic have expected from it more than was reasonable, and have conse- 
quently been disappointed in practice ; and partly because the ex- 
travagant praises of some of its friends have placed it in the same 
category as quack medicines and other articles which are said to cure 
all diseases and remove all difficulties, and hence are regarded by the 
more sensible portion of the community as not being good for any- 
thing. In reality, however, it does possess the most valuable proper- 
ties, and may be used to great advantage under a great variety of 
circumstances. 

Soluble glass is simply a variety of purely alkaline glass in which 
the alkali is in excess. Ordinary window-glass is a compound of si- 
lica with potash or soda, and in some cases lime ; oxide of lead added 
to the compound of silica and potash or soda gives flint glass ; Bohe- 
hemian glass is a compound of silica, soda and lime ; and the coarse 
glass used for bottles contains much iron and some alumina, which is 
the base of clay. According to the quantity of alkali employed, the 
glass will be soluble or insoluble ; it being understood that all glass is 
soluble to a certain extent. Old window-panes that have been ex- 
posed to the elements for years, are in general so corroded that their 
surfaces are no longer perfectly transparent ; and common flint glass, 
when finely powdered, dissolves in water to such an extent that its 
presence can be detected by the least delicate re-agents. But when 
the proportion of alkali is largely imcreased, and especially when the 
compound consists of pure alkali and pure silica, we obtain a glass 
which dissolves entirely in water, and which may be applied as an in- 
combustible varnish to wooden articles, or used as a cement or as a 



^ P J rin;i8 H 72 RM '} Soluble Glass and its Applications. 175 

coating for brick and stone. Soluble glass was first brought into 
practical use by Prof. Fuchs, of Munich, in Bavaria, in the year 1823, 
and hence is frequently known as Fuchs' soluble glass. At first it 
was prepared by fusing ten parts of pearlashes, fifteen parts of pow- 
dered quartz, and one part of charcoal together, and pulverizing the 
mass, which was then added in small portions at a time to boiling 
water until the whole was dissolved. The solution was then evapo- 
rated to a jelly-like consistency, when it was ready for market. More 
recently it has been found that certain varieties of silica are soluble 
in a boiling solution of caustic soda ; and also that, when the temper- 
ature of an alkaline solution is greatly increased, which may be done 
by boiling it in a close vessel under great pressure, flints and other 
hard varieties of silica dissolve rapidly. It is in this way, we be- 
lieve, that Ransome prepares the soluble glass used in the manufac- 
ture of his famous artificial stone. It is therefore obvious, from a 
consideration of these methods, that soluble glass is readily prepared ; 
and, as the materials are comparatively cheap, there is no reason why 
it should not come into very extensive use, provided it should prove 
really valuable in the arts. 

The first notable application of soluble glass was to the theatre of 
Munich, where it was used for the purpose of preventing the recur- 
rence of a fearful disaster by fire. Before trusting to its protecting 
qualities, however, a test was made of its powers, and a small building 
coated with soluble glass was erected in one of the public squares, and 
attempts made to fire it at several points, by placing small heaps of 
light wood in contact with it and setting these heaps on fire. Of course, 
where the flames came in contact with the building, the wood of which 
it was made was charred, and to a certain extent destroyed. But in no 
case did the building itself take fire or burn ; and the test was deemed 
so satisfactory that the theatre was immediately coated in such a way 
as to be made fireproof. Since that time, it has been applied in 
many cases, and always with success whenever the application was 
made with a moderate amount of skill. That it might be used ex- 
tensively for preventing fires, and for adding to the durability of all 
wooden structures, is unquestionable ; and therefore a few hints as 
to the best methods of using it may not be out of place. These hints 
we are enabled to give more readily, since the whole subject was care- 
fully investigated by the celebrated French chemist Dumas, who has, 
in his "Traite' de Chimie applique aux Arts," detailed very fully the 



176 



On Platinum Black. 



{ Am. Jotjb. Pharm. 
\ April 1, 1872. 



results at which he arrived. He found that, although soluble glass is 
of itself a good preservative from fire, it fulfils the object better when 
it is mixed with another incombustible body in powder. Clay, whit- 
ing, calcined bones, powdered glass, etc., may all be employed for the 
purpose, though it is difficult to decide which of them is the best. 
A mixture of clay and whiting appears to be better than either used 
separately. Flint glass, and the crude soluble glass as it comes from 
the furnace, are excellent additions. The powdered soluble glass 
ought to be exposed to the air until it has attracted some moisture ; 
after which, if it be mixed with the solution and applied to any body 
whatever, it will in a short time form a coating as hard as stone, 
which, if the glass be of good quality, is unalterable by exposure, and 
resists fire admirably. When soluble glass is used for rendering wood 
fireproof or indestructible, it is always well to apply, in the first 
place, a coating of the pure glass. The pores are in this way filled 
up ; while, if we use a thick and paintlike mixture of the solution 
with some powder, the liquid does not penetrate beneath the surface, 
and much of the effect is lost. When properly prepared, soluble 
glass, after being dried by exposure to the air, suffers a change which 
renders it incapable of being washed off. The alkali not being com- 
pletely neutralized in this form of glass, it is difficult to apply oil 
paint to woodwork that has been treated with it ; but this objection 
might be remedied by treating the prepared surface, when dry, with 
a weak solution of acid. — Industrial Monthly for March, 1872. 



A NEW AND READY METHOD OF FORMING PLATINUM BLACK. 
By J. Lawrence Smith. 

All those who have employed the usual methods of forming Plati- 
num Black know that it is attended with some little trouble ; having 
considerable experience in the decomposing of the platin-chlorides of 
the alkalies by hydrogen, and by ordinary street "gas, the resultant 
products have been frequently examined, and I find that an excellent 
platinum black can be thus prepared, whether equal to the best 
formed by other processes I am not prepared to say. I prefer taking 
platin-chloride of potassium, and were it not that rubidium and cae- 
sium are too expensive, these would be even better, for their atomic 
weights are higher than that of the potassium, and consequently the 
particles of platinum are more widely separated. After the platin- 



m kmiam"'} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 177 

chloride is completely reduced, the mass is treated with water to wash 
out the chlorides of the alkalies thoroughly, the residue is dried at a 
temperature not exceeding 220° F., when it is ready for use. The 
operation can be readily conducted in a capsule of porcelain or 
platinum, the platin-chloride is introduced and covered with a circu- 
lar piece of mica, a little smaller than the wide diameter of the cap- 
sule, with a hole in the centre, through which the tube conductiug the 
gas is introduced. The capsule is then heated by any convenient 
arrangement by which a temperature not exceeding 400° or 500° F., 
is attained, at which temperature it can be maintained with a little 
management ; a small Bunsen burner with a rosette can be used. If 
the temperature be too high, the platinum-black will not be as good 
as that made at a lower temperature. Washing the platinum-black, 
after the chloride is taken out, with a solution of caustic potash or 
soda, and subsequently washing with distilled water may improve 
the product. — Amer. Chemist, Feb., 1872. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The examination of the candidates 
for the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy commenced in this Institution on 
Thursday, February 29, and was conducted in the same manner as last year 
(see Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1871, page 173), except that the Examining Com- 
mittee, appointed by the Board of Trustees, likewise changed the method from 
verbal to written queries and answers, so that but few questions were asked 
verbally. The queries adopted for the present year were as follows : 
Chemistry. Prof. Robert Bridges, M. D. Session 1871-72. 
No. 1. Give the general properties of Carbon, and name the different forms 
used in medicine and pharmacy, the nature and special properties of 
each, including the impurities which may be present in each variety 
and the mode of detection. 
No. 2. How is Oil of Vitriol prepared? State its chemical name, its compo- 
sition, its physical and chemical properties. Also its officinal prepara- 
tions and any cautions which may be necessary in their use. 
No. 3. What is the chemical name of Sal Sodse ? Give the sources from which 
it i3 derived, its composition, with its physical and chemical properties. 
No. 4. What acid of phosphorus is officinal?* Give the different processes by 
which the officinal acid is made, and explain the reactions and changes 
which take place during its formation. Give a formula for the reaction. 
No. 5. State the mode of preparing Chlorate of Potassa and give in symbols 

the rationale of its formation. 
No. 6. In what degree of oxidation is it best to detect iron ? Give the tests to 
be used and their effect, and also state in what officinal preparations 
iron cannot thus be directly detected. 
No. 7. What "Alums" are officinal? Give a general formula (in symbols) of 
their composition. 



178 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. { A a^mK* 

No. 8. What are the tests by which Phosphoric and Arsenious Acids may be 
distinguished ? 

No. 9. By what tests may Magnesium Zinc and Cadmium Salts be distinguished 
from each other ? 

No. 10. What are the antidotes for Tartar Emetic and how do they act? 
Materia Medica. Prof. John M. Maiscb. Session 1871-72. 

No. i. Give the botanical name, natural order and habitat of the plant yield- 
ing Dandelion Root ; also the variations in the sensible properties of 
the root in the different seasons, and the time when it should be col- 
lected for medicinal use. How may it be distinguished from Chickory 
Root? 

No. 2. State the characteristic physical differences of the following medicinal 
leaves : Stramonium, Hyoscyamus, Belladonna, Digitalis and Matico. 

No. 3. What is the botanical source of Guaiacum wood ? Which portion con- 
tains the resin ? How is the hitter obtained and in what manner may 
it be distinguished from other resins ? 

No. 4. Describe the so called Levant Wormseed ; its botanical origin, native 
country, physical appearance, active principle and medicinal properties. 

No. 5. Angustura and false Angustura Bark ; where and from what plants are 
they obtained ; how do they differ in physical, chemical and medicinal 
properties ? 

No. 6. State the botanical characters of the natural order Umbelliferae and 
the structure of the fruit. Name the medicinal fruits obtained from 
this order. 

No. 7. What part of the plants are the officinal Nux Vomica and Ignatius 
bean ? Describe both according to their origin, structure and relative 
proportion of active principles. 

No. 8. Where, from what plant, what part of it and how is the officinal Opium 
obtained ? How may Opium be examined — aside from a morphiometric 
assay — to detect the occasional impurities and adulteratious ? 

No. 9. What is the difference in origin, appearance and composition between 
Catechu and Gambir ; how may their peculiar tannin be increased in 
quantity, and from which principle is it formed? 

No. 10. Name the adulterations of Sulphate of Quinia, which have been occa- 
sionally practised ; and how may they severally be detected ? 

Pharmacy. Prof. Edward Parrish. Session 1871-72. 

No. 1. A vessel at 60° Fahrenheit contains 280 grains of pure water, it will hold 
260 of anot her liquid ; what is the Specific Gravity of that liquid ? State 
the specific gravity of Ammonia Water, stronger Ammonia Water, Ace- 
tic Acid, Ether, Glycerin. 

No. 2. Give the tests of purity for Chloroformum Purificatum, U. S. P. 

No. 3. Give the ingredients, proportions and doses of the following: 1. Pulvis 
Aloes et Canellae.2. Aqua Cinnamomi. 3. Infus. Picis Liq. 4. Infus. 
Gent. Comp. 5. Infus. Cinchonas Rub. 6. Tinct. Aconiti Fol. 7. Tinct. 
Aconiti Rad. 8. Acetum Scillae. 9. Tinct. Cantharidis. 10. Tinct. 
Opii Acetata. 

No. 4. Give the U. S. P. process for Fluid Extract of Wild Cherry, and state 

the reactions that occur. 
No. 5. Give an instance of, 1, an aqueous ; 2, a hydro-alcoholic ; 3, an alcoholic ; 

4, an acetic extract; and 5, of an inspissated juice. State properties 

and doses of each. 

No. 6. Give the U. S. P. process of Morphia and its Salts ; also its solubilities 
and leading tests. 

No. 7. How is Spirit of Nitrous Ether made ? What are its specific gravity 

and signs of purity ? 
No. 8. Give the U. S. P. composition of, 1, Seidliiz Powder ; 2, Purgative A ssa- 

fcetida Pills ; 3, Lady Webster Pills; 4. Plumraer's Pills ; 5, Compound 

Rhubarb Pills. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. } 
April 1, 1872. J 



* 

Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



179 



No. 9. Describe the process for preparing Oil of Cloves, its composition and 

tests of freedom from adulteration. 
No. 10. What are the coloring ingredients respectively of, 1, Tinct. Cardam. 

Comp. ; 2. Spt. Menthse piper. ; 3, Spt. Lavandulae Oomp. ; 4, Tinct. 

Aloes et Myrrhae ; 5, Tinct. Cinchonse Comp. 

Questions by the Examining Committee. Session 1871-72. 

No. 1. Give the process for Lead Plaster, and state the reactions ; also the 
officinal Plasters containing it, with their composition. 

No. 2. Give the proportions, doses and modes of preparation of Wine of Ergot, 
Tincture of Nux Vomica, American Hellebore, Kino, Infusion of Ser- 
pentaria, Yellow Cinchona, Valerian, Dandelion, Extract of Jalap and 
compound Extract of Colocynth. 

No. 3. Give the average dose of Arsenious Acid, the antidote and how pre- 
pared ; also the officinal processes for Fowler's and Donovan's Solutions, 
with their respective doses. 

No. 4. What are the advantages, to the Apothecary and Druggist, of a proper 
understanding of the subject of Specific Gravity ? And what are the 
various methods of ascertaining the Specific Gravity of various classes 
of substances ? stating the reasons for the different processes. 

No. 5. Can the Specific Gravities of all acids be taken as correct indices of 
their strength ? If there are any exceptions, state them and the reasons 
for them. 

No. 6. How would you determine whether a liquid contained Corrosive Sub- 
limate ? 

No. 7. Give the source and medicinal properties of Rhatany Root, and the 
strength of each of its officinal preparations. 

No. 8. Give the officinal process for Iodide of Lead and explain the reaction. 

No. 9. What is the officinal name of Dover's Powder? Give the formula for 
its preparation, and state the localities and plants from which its vege- 
table ingredients are obtaiued. What is the dose ? 

No. 10. State which of the following prescriptions it would be proper to dispense, 
and which improper ; aud, in the latter case, the reasons : 



R. Pulv. Antim. et Potass. 

Tart, gr. xx 

Aquae ffi. 
M. Sig. Emetic. Give at one 

dose immediately. X. Y. Z. 
B. For Mrs. Smith. 

R. Plumbi Acetat. Pulv. gr. xii. 
Opii Pulv. gr. i. 

Acaciae Pulv. 
. Syrupi Simp, aa q. s. ut 
fiat massa in pil. vi. div. 
Sig. Take one pill every three hours 
in case of hemmorrhage. 



C. For J. Smith's Infant. 
R. Cretae Praeparatae £i. 
Acaciae Pulv. gss. 
Sacchari. 
Aquae Cinnftm. 
Tinct. Opii. f^i. 
Ft. mist. Sig. Give a teaspoonful 
three times a day. 
I). 

R. Hydrarg : Bichloridi, gr. viii. 
Aquae bullient. f^i. 
Syrupi Sarsap. Comp. f^vii. 
Misce. Sig. Take a teaspoonful 
three times a day 



The following specimens were submitted to the candidates for recognition : 



Chemistry. 
Acidum muriaticum, 
Acidum sulphuricum, 
Acidum oxalicum, 
Sulphur sublimatum, 
Potassse carbonas, 
Potassae chloras, 
Sod® boras, 
Ferri subcarbonas, 
Zinci sulphas, 
Hydrarg. chlor. oorr. 



Materia Medica. 

Valeriana, 

Granati radic. cort., 

Cornus florida, 

Hyoscyamus, 

Carthamus, 

Chenopodium, 

Anisum, containing 20 
per ct. conii fruct., 

Stramonii semen, 

Guaiaci resina, 

Oleum cajuputi, adul- 
terated with ol. tere- 
binth. 



Pharmacy. 
Mist, ferri comp., 
Tinct. cubebee, 
Tinct. humuli, 
Vinum opii, 
Syr. rhei arom., 
Extr. buchu fluid, 
Extr. conii fluid, 
Extr. gentianse, 
Spir. ammon. arom., 
Ung. hydrarg. nitr., 



Examining Committee. 
Althaea, 
Podophyllum, 
Salvia, 
Cubeba, 

Tinct. rhei et sennte, 
Vin. colchici radio., 
Extr. colocynth. cp. pi v. 
Liq. potass, arsenit., 
Syr. ferri iodidi, 
Potassse nitras. 



180 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. { 



Am. Jots. Phabh 
April 1, 1872. 



1 After the examinations the following report was made to the Board of Trus- 
tees, and the gentlemen named therein were duly elected Graduates in Phar- 
macy : 

The Professors and Examining Committee report that the following-named, 
having complied with -the regulations of the College, have been examined, and 
are recommended for the degree of " Graduate in Pharmacy." The names are 
in the order of merit : 



Pennsy 



NAME. 

}'l Wallace Procter, 

2 Charles L. Mitchell, 
; 3 James B. Cherry, 
; 4 Charles B. Evans, 
■ 5 Joseph Wiley, 

6 Wm. B. Addington, 
[ 7 George D. Jones, 

8 Thomas D. MeElhenie, Ohio 

9 M. D. Richardson, 

10 John M. Harvey, 

11 Samuel 8. Lone, 

12 Albert C. Curtis, 
^3 C. O. Thiebaud, 
H Frank P. Hill. 

15 Ernest Pierpoiut, 

16 Horatio N. Fraser, 

17 Henry H. Bitler, 

18 Milton M. Buss, 

19 Henry A. Borell, 

20 William EsteH Lee, 

21 E. C. Trembley, 

22 Jefferson Oxley, 

23 Jules Murinser, 

24 Jacob R. Stephens, 

25 Lee S Harrison, 

26 Max Geiger, 

27 George S. Davison, 

28 John Stuart Frazer, 

29 Joseph Cave, 

30 George W. Knight, 

31 Louis A. Matos, 

32 Alfred II. Bolton, 

33 George B lie, 

34 Joseph H. Crawford, 

35 B. T. Fairchild, 

36 Herbert Haza»d, 

37 Samuel T. Hensel, 

38 Jn. M. Wirgman, 

39 Harry W. Wetherill, 

40 JohB H. Dawson, 

41 T. S. Richardson, 

42 W. Barton Hawkins, 

43 Samuel Stewart Ford, 

44 Samuel Lemly, Jr., 

45 Newton H. Kemmerer, 

46 Louis OHphant, 

47 Charles H. Clark, 

48 Edward E Desh, 

49 Milton W. Roth, 

«0 Atwood Yeakle, 
1 1 Hibbert P. John, 
fi2 Eugene W. Spencer, 
b?, C. S. Allen, 

54 Benjamin S. Gilbert, 

55 John H. Shrum, 

66 J. Frank Ash, 

67 Isaac Tull, 
58 Henry M. Mutchler, 
?9 Wren H. Light, 



STATE. THESIS. 

lvania. The Fruit of Magnolia tripetala. 
' Gun, Cotton and its Preparation. 

4 Yellow Amorphous Oxide of Mercury. 

' The Seeds oj Cucurbit a citndlus. 

' Gossypii Radicis Cortex. 

Virginia. Indigenous Remedies. 

Pennsylvania. Tinctvra Ferri Chloridi. 

Lycopersicum Esculentum. 
Kentucky. Lobelina. 

Delaware. Syrup of Phosphate of Iron, Quinia and Strychnia. 
Pennsylvania. Sabbatia angularis. 



Ohio. 
Indiana. 
Ohio. 
Illinois-. 
Rhode Island. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Kentucky. 
Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 

Illinois. 
Pennsylvania. 

Cuba. 

Pennsylvania. 



Connecticut. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 



New York. 
Pennsylvania, 
Michigan. 
Connecticut. 
Mississippi. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 



Michigan. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 



Kentucky. 



Bf-nzoivi 
Juglans cinerea. 
Syrupus Scillse compositus. 
Sanguinaria Canadensis. 
Cotton Seed. 
Oleum Gossypii. 
Common Garden Rhubarb. 
Suet. {Sevum, 17. S P.) 
Gn aph a h um pot ycepli a Iwm . 
Md Rosse. 
Ericaccus Plants. 
Pilulse- Hydrargyri. 
Prescriptions. 

The Variable Character of Extracts. 
Glycerin. 

Bromine and its Compounds. 

The Physician and the Pharmacist. 

Ozone., its Production and Uses. 

'The Prevention of Mistakes in the Drug Store. 

Pha.rma.ct utical Experience. 

Some Oleo-resins by Deodorized- Bemit.i. 

Aqueous Extract of Rhubarb. 

Preparations of Cinchona Bark. 

Supposiinriie Ass"foetidn: 

A Nt-w Source of Potash Supply. 

Fungi. 

The Oils of Peach Kernels. 

Gillenia Stiputacea. 

The New York Drug Law. 

Soluble Cream of Tartar. 

Tiie Curative Powers of Drugs. 

The Uses of Glycerin. 

An Improved Fluid Extract of Rhubarb. 

Adulterations. 

Hydrangea arborescens. 

Saponification and Saponification of Castor Oil. 
Pilulse Quiniie Sulphates. 

Comparative Value of Benzine and Ether in Preparing 

Oleo-resins. 
The Pharmacist and Physician. 
TAsinfecto nts. 
Artificial Congress Wafer. 
Cucurbiia citndlus. 
Sarrocenia purpurea.. 
Rhus glabrum. 
Natural Chemistry, 
Suppositories. 
Hydrate of Chloral. 
Concentration of Vir.egar. 



Robert Bridges, 
John M. Maiscit, 
Edward Parrish, 



J. Charles Shiyers, 
Wm. J. Jenks, 
Samuel S- Bunting, 
Professors. Thos. S. Wiegand, Committee. 

In addition to the above, the following were examined and passed in June, 
1871. Their names are not arranged in order of merit: 



Al Apnn 3 if72 RM 1 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 181 

Eli S. Beary, Missouri. JEsculus Hipp tea stanum. 

Stanley C. Muschamp. New Jersey. Cerasm Serotina. 

J. A. Schiedt, Pennsylvania. Difference in Filtration of Plain and folded Fillers. 

The annual commencement of the fifty-first course was held at the American 
Academy of Music on Friday evening, March 15th. The degree of Graduate 
in Pharmacy was conferred upon the 62 gentlemen named above by the Presi- 
dent of the College, Dillwyn Parrish. The valedictory address was delivered 
by Professor J. M. Maisch, and was well received. An analytical balance, 
made by Becker & Sons, New York, was then presented to the College 
by Mr. H. P. John, on behalf of the graduating class, and received by Prof. 
Bridges, President of the Board of Trustees. A committee of the Alumni 
Association distributed the numerous bouquets, books and other presents sent 
upon the stage by the friends of the graduates, after which the ceremony closed 
with music by J. W. Yost's orchestra, which had entertained the large audi- 
ence with choice selections from celebrated masters. 

At an early stage of the proceedings, the Japanese embassy, at present trav- 
elling in the United States, and having just arrived from Baltimore, "entered 
the building, and by the Committee of Arrangements were conducted to'oie 
of the proscenium boxes, where a number of bouquets were presented tojthem, 
and where they remained with their interpreters to near the close of the even- 
ing, displaying much interest in the proceedings. 

The arrangements made for this occasion were perfect, and the Committee 
deserve great credit for their successful labor. 



The Annual Meeting of the Alumni Association of the " Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy," held its regular session in the College hall, the pre- 
liminary session on Thursday, March 14th, and general session on Friday, 
March 15th. At the first session, the minutes of the last annual meeting were 
read, also the minutes of the several meetings of the Executive Board during 
the past year. A Nominating Committee was appointed to report at the next 
session. The Nominating Committee reported the following candidates to 
serve for the ensuing year : President, Chas. L. Eberle ; First Vice-President, 
A. P. Brown ; Second Vice-President, D Preston ; Recording Se :retary, Win. 
Mclntyre, 2229 Frankford Road ; Corresponding Secretary, E. Wen del ; Trea- 
surer, E. C. Jones; to fill vacancies in Executive Board, W. Procter and C. 
Parrish; Trustees Sinking Fund, E. A. Crenshaw, H. Dwyer, E. Hopper. 

C. Parrish read a paper proposing the establishment of an Alumni chair in 
the College on " Toxicology." This was referred to a committee to be appointed 
by the President of the Association. The President's annual message was 
read, and was received by the members with applause. The new officers were 
regularly installed. T. S. Wiegand presented, on behalf of the Association, 
the Alumni medal to Mr. Wallace Procter, he having been pronounced by the 
Professors and Examining Committee the first classman. Mr. Procter re- 
sponded, thanking the Association for the honor conferred upon him. f After 
the usual transaction of business the meeting adjourned. 

Clemmons Parrish, Rec. Secretary. 



College of Pharmacy of the City of New York. — The annual commence 
ment of the 42d session of this institution was held at Association Hall on 



182 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. { k l^i,mT' 

Tuesday evening, March 19th. The President, Mr. Wra. Hegeraan, addressed 
the graduating class with a few well-chosen remarks, and then conferred upon 
them the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy. The following is a list of the grad- 
uates, with the subject of their theses: P. de la Calle, Cuba, " Aguedita, a 
.Cuban Plant;" Augustus G. Caille, Germany, "Chemical Analysis for Inor* 
ganic Poisons, Creosote Phenol and Coal Tar Creosote;" George Essig, New 
York, " Chloral ;" Julia Z. Formel, Cuba, "Digitalis Purpurea;" Thomas R. 
Frost, New York, " Iron, and its Preparations Frank S. Jones, New York, 
"Spiritus iEtheris Nitrosi;" Charles Pabst, New York, "Organic Acids;" 
Charles F. Ringler, New York, " Medical Botany;" J. Henry Tucker, Balti- 
more, Md., " Review of the Chemical Testimony of the late Wharton Trial." 

The valedictory address was delivered by Prof. C. F. Chandler, after which 
the following prizes were awarded: First prize, of $100, for the most satisfac- 
tory examination, Augustus G. Caille ; chemistry, $50, J. H. Tucker; botany, 
$50, C. F. Ringler: pharmacy, $50, Frank S. Jones. Another prize of $50 
was given to Mr. Tucker by the Alumni Association for the best thesis. Mr. 
Jones also received a prize of a pharmaceutical still and condenser for the best 
examination upon weights and measures and upon specific gravity. One of 
the students, on behalf of the graduating class, then presented to the College 
a large oil painting of John Milhau, one of the founders, and lately President 
of this College. 

The College held its annual meeting on the 21st of March, and elected the 
following officers : President, Wra, Hegeman ; Vice-Presidents, Wm. Neer- 
gaard, Isaac Coddington, P. Ralluff; Treasurer, Wm. Wright, Jr.; Secretary, 
H. A. Cassebeer, Jr.; Trustees, P. W. Bedford, G. C. Close, A. C. Dung, D. 
Hays, B. L. Milhau, M. L. M. Peixotto, Chas. Rice, D. C. Robbins, A. W. 
Weismann; Delegates to the Amer. Pharm. Assoc., P. BallufF, F. Hoffmann, 
B. L. Milhau, Chas. Rice, D. C. Robbins. 

It is gratifying to learn that this College has likewise been compelled to 
secure increased accommodations for its school. A room about double the size 
of that formerly used has been secured in the University building, and will be 
fitted up for the lecture room, while the old one will be retained tor the library, 
cabinet, and the meetings of the College and Board of Trustees. 

The Executive Committee of the Apothecaries' Union, which was formed 
last year to secure for New York city a better and more just pharmaceutical 
law, has recommended its members to join the College of Pharmacy. 



Alumni Association of the New York College of Pharmacy. — At the 
annual meeting, held March 18th, President Robbins read his annual report, 
and at the subsequent election the following officers were elected : President, 
D. C. Robbins; Yice-Presidents, P. W. Bedford, Hampden Osborne, John 
Best; Treasurer, Theobald Frohwein ; Secretary, Thos. F. Main ; Executive 
Committee, B. F. Mclntyre, John A. Dunn, Chas. B. Smith, Chas. S. Plumb; 
Delegates to the American Pharmaceutical Association, Thos. F. Main. Frank 
S. Jones, Hampden Osborne, J. W. Ballard, L. M. Rice. 

The Association directed the printing of the constitution and by-laws, the 
list of members, the annual report of the President, as also the valedictory 
address of Prof. C. F. Chandler. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April 1, 1872. j 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



183 



Maryland College of Pharmacy. — At a special meeting, held Jan. 31st, the 
pharmaceutical law was again under consideration (see February number of 
this Journal, p. 85). It was amended and a committee appointed to proceed 
to Annapolis and urge its passage by the Legislature. The proposed bill is an 
improvement of the act passed March 23d, 1870, with the following principal 
modifications : it applies also to managing assistants of stores ; it provides not 
only for the examination but also registration of those becoming principals or 
managing assistants hereafter, and makes those previously registered, who 
ceased to do business, subject to all the provisions of this act before recom- 
mencing business; it recognizes diplomas of pharmaceutical colleges, if based 
upon a full apprenticeship of four years • it requires the display of the name 
and of the words " registered pharmacist" in front of every pharmacy ; the 
business of a deceased registered pharmacist may be conducted for the benefit 
of the heirs by a registered pharmacist ; the fees are $5 for each examination, 
and $1 for registration ; one-half of the fines go to the informer, the other half 
to the Maryland College of Pharmacy. 

At the stated meeting held Feb. 8th the Proceedings of the Congress of 
Colleges held in St. Louis were read and discussed. Mr. J. F. Hancock read 
an essay on pharmaceutical legislation. 

The twentieth annual commencement took place, at the New Assembly 
Rooms, on Thursday evening, March 7th. Professor Claude Baxley, M. D., 
announced the graduates, and the President conferred the degree of Graduate 
in Pharmacy upon Charles H. Doeller, Maryland [Radix zedoariw); Ferdinand 
Hassencamp, Jr., Maryland (Hyoscyamus niger); Henry A. L'Engle, Florida 
{Pharmacy and Benefit of Government Protection); N. S. Pursel, Virginia 
(Salvia officinalis)', Lewis C. Roehrle, Germany (Phytolacca decandra); Wes- 
ley W. Test, Tennessee (Gelsemium); John B. Thomas, Maryland (Simaba- 
cedron), and Charles T. Thomas, Ohio (Aqua). 

The degree of " Master in Pharmacy" was conferred upon the following grad- 
uates : Win. S. Thompson and A. P. Sharp (Class 1842), J. Faris Moore (01. 
1847), Lewis Dohme (CI. 1857), John F. Hancock (01. 1860), and Charles E. 
Dohme (CI. 1862.) 

The valedictory address was delivered by Prof. J. Faris Moore. 

The annual meeting of the Maryland College of Pharmacy was held on 
Thursday, March 14th, in the hall of the College, No. 12 West Baltimore 
street. The President, Prof. J. Faris Moore, occupied the chair, and Mr. 
Edwin Eareckson acted as Secretary. The minutes of the last general meeting 
and the meetings of the Board of Trustees were read and approved. Reports 
from the various standing committees were received and accepted. The com- 
mittee appointed to visit Annapolis in regard to the bill before the Legislature 
relating to pharmacists, made a report, which was accepted and the committee 
discharged. 

Mr. L. Dohme read an essay on experiments with sulphovinate of soda and 
its manufacture. A quantity of newly invented apparatus to be used in the 
compounding of drugs were exhibited and their use explained. 

Mr. N. Hynson Jennings made a few remarks on the manufacture of suppo- 
sitories, giving experiments to illustrate his method. 



184 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



f Am. Jock. Ppabm. 
t April 1, 1872. 



Mr. A. P. Sharp read an essay on hydrometers, exhibiting a variety of 
description and explaining their manufacture and uses. 

At the evening session the meeting was called to order by Dr. Joseph Rob- 
erts, Yice-President. An interesting exhibition of microscopes and microsco- 
pic objects of pharmaceutical interest was given by Mr. W. F. Daily, to whom, 
at the close of the exhibition, a vote of thanks was unanimously tendered. 

Dr. L. H. Steiner, State Senator of Frederick County, and formerly one of 
the professors of this College, was then introduced by the President, and 
delivered the annual address. 

The Doctor was warmly applauded and, on motion of Dr. Joseph Roberts, 
a resolution was adopted thanking him for his address, and requesting a copy 
to be published in pamphlet form. 

The meeting then, on motion, adjourned, and the members of the College, 
accompanied by a few invited guests, proceeded to the Sherwood House, corner 
of Fayette and Harrison streets, and after a half hour or so spent in pleasant 
conversation in the parlor the doors were thrown open and the company, to the 
number of fifty, were invited into the dining-room, where an entertainment 
awaited them, which for its variety, profusion and elegance reflected credit 
alike upon the Committee of Arrangements and the host, Mr. C. P. Barnard. 
While the bill of fare embraced all the delicacies of the season, no intoxicating 
liquors were upon the table. 

Among the invited guests were Rev. E. A. D airy m pie, D.D., Dr. Steiner, 
Professor Wm. P. Toury, of the^Maryland Institute, Dr. John A Conner and 
Professor Wm. Simon. After the cloth was removed the following toasts were 
proposed : 

The Republic of the United States, responded to by Dr. Joseph Roberts ; The 
State of Maryland, by Dr. L. H. Steiner; The Medical Profession, by Dr. 
Claude Baxley ; The Colleges of Pharmacy of the United States, by Prof. J. 
Paris Moore; The American Pharmaceutical Association, by Dr. A. P. Sharp; 
The Society of the Alumni, by Mr. L. H. Nice; The Ladies, the Elixir of 
Society, by Rev. Dr. Dalrymple ; Progressive Science, by Mr. Wm. F. Daily. 

The company dispersed when the wee hours were reached, all much pleased 
with this reunion. 

We are gratified to learn that the Board of Trustees of the Maryland College 
of Pharmacy have concluded to'give instruction in analytical chemistry in con- 
nection with the other branches taught in the College, and a committee has 
been appointed to make the necessary arrangements for establishing a labora- 
tory. 

The Alumni Association of the Maryland College of Pharmacy held a 
meeting on Thursday evening, March 21st, at the hall of the College, Mr. Wm. 
S. Thompson in the chair, J. Henry Hancock, Secretary. 

After the regular order of business had been gone through, Prof. J. Faris 
Moore delivered an interesting address on the advanced progress of the science 
of pharmacy, in the course of which he said : 

"The few who have striven to make your alma mater what it is are growing 
old, and will soon retire from the active duties of life, and on whom 'should the 



Ak. Jodb. Pharm. ) 
April 1,1872. J 



Minutes of the College. 



185 



mantle fall but the graduates in the school? It is for you the College of Phar- 
macy was established, and you will reap the benefit of it. Those who have 
maintained it give you a good name. The College of Pharmacy has, I think, 
wisely established two grades or titles of distinction, viz., those of Graduate 
and Master, which are open to all who are diligent in their calling and able to 
pass the requisite examinations. The first you have obtained ; let me urge you 
to study for the second. Study for yourselves, not for the examination, for 
knowledge is power, is happiness, is wealth, for the patient student will be a 
student all his life. No man can be that without acquiring knowledge useful to 
himself and his fellow-men. Endeavor to make that knowledge useful to others. 
Let me impress upon you, in the language of another, 1 that your daily life 
abounds in opportunities.' Not a drug you handle, not a poison you dispense, 
but has its history; you ought to know it." 

Mr. Charles R. Beck made some remarks on indigenous medicinal plants 
and on minerals found in the United States, suitable for the manufacture of 
chemical preparations, many of which are employed in medicine. After some 
additional remarks on Cassia Marilandica, by Prof. J. F. Moore and Louis 
Dohme, the meeting adjourned. 

The Medical Department of Columbia College, Washington, D. C, held 
its commencement at Lincoln Hall, on the evening of March 7th, when the de- 
gree of Graduate in Pharmacy was conferred upon the following gentlemen : 
Americus Davis, Francis S. Gaither, W. C. Milburn, C. L. R. Sayre, G. G. C. 
Simms and Thos. F. Sullivan. 

We believe that this is the first time that the above degree has been conferred 
in the United States by a medical institution, and refer to the editorial columns 
for some remarks upon this subject. 

The Louisville College of Pharmacy has received the following generous 
donations to its cabinet: from Messrs. W. H. Schieffelin & Co., New York, 20 
specimens, and from Messrs. McKesson & Robbins, New York, 80 specimens 
of materia medica; from Messrs. Rosengarten & Sons 69 specimens, and from 
Messrs. Power3 & Weightman 154 specimens of chemicals. The Board of 
Trustees, at their meeting of March 11th, instructed the Curator, by a unani- 
mous vote, to tender, through the "American Journal of Pharmacy," their 
cordial thanks to the above firms for their munificent gifts. 

(Signed) .J. A. McAfee, Curator. 

The Pharmaceutical Association of Allegheny County. — We have received 
a pamphlet containing the constitution, by laws and code of ethics adopted by 
this Association, which, now being definitely organized, mast exert a beneficial 
influence on the status of pharmacy in the western section of Pennsylvania. 
The list of officers for the current year was published on page 518 of our last 
volume. 



Itmules of tjp f IjilaM^ia College of ilarnMg. 

The Annual Meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held at 
the College building March 25th, 1872. 26 members present. 



186 



Minutes of the College. 



(Am. Jotjr. Pharm 
\ April!, 1872. 



In the absence of the President, William Procter, Jr., 1st Vice-President, oc- 
cupied the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and adopted. The minutes of the 
Board of Trustees were read by A. B. Taylor, Secretary of the Board, and ap- 
proved. 

The minutes of the Board inform that, at the 51st Annual Commencement, 
held at the Academy of Music on the 15th inst., the Diploma of the College 
was conferred on sixty-two graduates, three of whom passed the examination in 
June last. 

The Committee on Publication reported as follows : 

To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy ; 

The Publication Committee reports that its duties have been duly attended 
to during the past year. The plan of carrying on the work of the Committee 
under a regular organization of officers, meeting monthly and keeping minutes, 
has been a success. The labors of the Editor in keeping up the spirit of the 
Journal, and supplying it with original and selected articles, are deserving of 
mention. That officer reports, that 

" The transaction, in the College building, of all the business pertaining to the 
Journal, has worked well ; all letters, journals, etc., intended for, or relating 
to, the editorial or business portion of the Journal, being now received at the 
College Hall. 

" The Journal has been regularly issued during the past year at the begin- 
ning of every month. 

"Arrangements have been made with several of our foreign exchanges, and 
others are hoped to be perfected during the present year, whereby these ex- 
changes will be received by mail, thus avoiding all loss of time and enabling 
the Editor to always select the latest investigations for publication. 

"As directed by the Committee, the Journal has been stopped from all de- 
linquent subscribers, after repeated notifications to pay their arrearages failed 
to elicit an answer. This loss of subscribers has been more than compensated 
by new subscriptions received from all parts of the country. 

" The Editor has been informed that a number of delinquent members of the 
College receive their member's copy of the Journal, contrary to chapter viii, 
section 9, of the By-Laws, and he suggests that the Treasurer of j the College, 
by special resolution, be directed to furnish the Publication Committee, by the 
last Monday of May next, a complete list of all members who may be in arrears 
with their annual dues on that day, so that the Journal may be stopped." As 
the College now pays the Publication Committee $2.08 for each copy of the 
Journal furnished to members, it is wrong that delinquents should receive it. 

The efforts of the Business Editor have largely increased the income of the 
Journal by new subscriptions, by the collection of old debts, and especially by 
prompt attention to the advertising department, which will more fully appear 
in his special report. 

In conclusion the Committee would refer to the excellent arrangements of 
their Treasurer for the prompt and accurate conduction of the financial busi- 
ness of the Journal, and congratulate the College on the favorable statement 
his special report exhibits. William Procter, Jr., Chairman. 

Thomas S. Wiegand, Secretary. 

On motion, it was resolved that the Publication Committee are hereby 
authorized to stop the delivery of the "Journal" to all members who are in 
arrears on the 1st of June, if they deem it proper, — and that the Treasurer of 
the College be requested to furnish the Committee with a list of all who are in 
arrears at that date. 



Am. Jour.. Pharm. ) 
April 1, J872. \ 



Minutes of the College. 



T87 



The report of the Treasurer of the Publishing Committee was read and 
accepted. This report shows a very satisfactory condition of the finances of 
the Committee. 

On motion of James T. Shinn, the thanks of the College were tendered to 
the Editors, and Treasurer of the Publishing Committee, for the very success- 
ful management of the affairs of the " Journal" during the past year. 

On motion of Jas. T. Shinn, the Treasurer of the College was authorized to 
cancel $2500 of the Scrip issued by the College, at par value. 

Report of Sinking Fund Committee. 

The Sinking Fund Committee respectfully report that they have, since their 
last report, received twelve hundred and twenty-eight dollars thirty-five cents, 
which, with the balance on hand on the first day of January, 1871, enabled 
them to liquidate the remaining mortgage indebtedness to Messrs. Powers & 
Weightrnan, of twelve hundred and fifty dollars, with three months' interest, 
amounting to eighteen dollars seventy-five cents, leaving, with the amount of 
interest accruing on deposits, a balance of twenty dollars thirty-nine cents. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Thos. S. Wiegand, Chairman. 
Report of Librarian. 
The Librarian respectfully reports that, since the last annual meeting, he has 
bound the Theses up to March, 1871. and charges himself with the balance on 
hand at that time, . . . . . . . $51 53 

Since then he has received, .. . . . . 19 70 

71 23 

And expended for binders' paper and backs for volumes, . . 37 15 

Leaving a balance in his hands of, . . . . $34 08 

No other work in connection with the Library has been undertaken, as the 

Committee have been unable to meet for work connected with their duty. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Thos. S. Wiegand, Librarian. 

No report was received from the Curator. 

On motion of Dr. Robert Bridges, the Chairmen of the Committees on the 
Cabinet and Herbarium, with the Curator, were directed to report to the Board 
of Trustees the probable expense of putting the cabinet and herbarium in com- 
plete order, and that they be empowered to act in furtherance thereof. . 

On motion of Thomas S. Wiegand, it was resolved that the Trustees of the 
College take such measures as may be advisable to secure additional accom- 
modations for the laboratory of practical instruction in chemistry aud phar- 
macy. 

The resignation of J. Lewis Crew was read and accepted ; on motion, Mr. 
Crew was allowed to retain his certificate of membership. 

The annual election for Officers being ordered, Messrs. Wm. Mclntyre and 
Wm. B. Webb acting as tellers, reported the election of the following Officers : 

President, Dillwyn Parrish. 

1st Vice-President, William Procter, Jr. 

2d Vice-President, Robert Shoemaker. 

Treasurer, Samuel S. Bunting. 

Recording Secretary, Charles Bullock. 



3 88 



Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. { 



Am. Jour. Fhabx, 
April 1, 1872. 



Corresponding Secretary, Alfred B. Taylor. 

Trustees, Robert Bridges, M. D., Jos. P. Remington, T. Morris Perot, Wm. 
B. Webb, James T. Shinn, Danl. S. Jones, John M. Maisch, T. S. Wiegand. 

Publishing Committee, T. S. Wiegand, W. Procter, Jr., J. M. Maisch, Jas„ 
T. Shinn, Charles Bullock. 

Committee on Sinking Fund, Thomas S. Wiegand, T, M. Perot, James T. 
Shinn. 

Editor, John M. Maisch. 
Librarian, T. S. Wiegand. 
Curator, Jos. P. Remington. 
On motion, then adjourned. 



Charles Bullock, Secretary. 



fpimtts of % flyarmaxfutital lUctings* 

A pharmaceutical meeting was held on the afternoon of March 19th, 1872, 
Prof. Maisch presiding. 
The minutes of last meeting were read and approved. 

Messrs. Rosengarten & Sons presented samples of Cinchona Barks grown in 
the Government Gardens at Ootacamund, Presidency of Madras. They consist 
of the so-called old mossed bark of Cinch, succirubra, and of the unmossed 
bark of Cinch, condaminea (officinalis), and are such as are now sold in the 
London markets. In reply to inquiries, Mr. Rosengarten stated that with the 
exception of Calisaya Bark, which is sometimes scarce, the supply of the 
desirable kinds from South America is good. The root barks imported in for- 
mer years seem to have disappeared. The thanks of the College were presented 
Messrs. Rosengarten. 

The Chairman presented the "Year Book of Pharmacy and Transactions of 
the British Pharmaceutical Conference for 1871," and the 19th volume of the 
"Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association." 

A paper, by Allen Shryock, upon the Strength of the Officinal Tincture of 
Opium, was read and referred; also a paper, by Geo. W. Kennedy, of Potts- 
ville, Pa., upon the amount of Moisture contained in Dried Drugs. (See pages 
158 and 160 of this Journal.) 

Prof. Parrish presented, on behalf of Cramer & Small, a specimen of fixed 
oil obtained from 15 pounds of Nux Vomica, in the process for making the 
alcoholic extract ; the weight of the oil was two and a half ounces, that of the 
extract, after its separation, 18 ounces. The oil was of a dark brown color 
and very bitter in taste. Prof. Maisch remarked that he had not separated the 
oil in making this extract on a large scale, on account of its bitterness, but 
that by mixing the tincture, concentrated by evaporation to a syrupy consist- 
ence with a little water, and evaporating — as recommended some years ago, in 
some pharmaceutical journals — it may be almost completely mixed throughout 
the mass,. It was further remarked that no directions for its separation are 
given in the Pharmacopoeia. 

Prof. Parrish exhibited specimens of vaginal suppositories made of Mr. 
Brady's material, consisting of 3 p. gelatine, 7 p. glycerin and 1 p. alcohol, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. i 
April 1, 1872. J 



Editorial. 



189 



The gelatine was first heated up with a small quantity of water till dissolved, 
the glycerin and alcohol added, and evaporation continued. 

He also prepared, in presence of the members, a vial of emulsion of oil of 
turpentine by the process of J. W. Forbes, of San Francisco, published in the 
Amer. Jour. Pharm., stating that, after many years' experience with this class 
of extemporaneous preparations, he had learned a real improvement, whether 
viewed in the light of convenience or perfection in the resulting preparation ; 
he also showed emulsionized ether and chloroform made by the same process; 
in the latter, the emulsionized chloroform, owing to its greater specific gravity, 
subsides in the vial, but is completely diffused by shaking. 

Prof. Maisch raised the question, What is colts' foot root? to which reply 
was made, that such a synonym is applied to Asarum Canadense, owing to the 
imagined resemblance of the leaves of that plant to a horse's hoof. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited oil of Eucalyptus globulus, said to be used for adul- 
teration of other volatile oils ; it has a delicate odor, easily covered by berga- 
mot and more powerful perfumes. The tree is indigenous to and abounds in 
Australia, especially in the more healthful parts of that island. As a shade 
tree it is cultivated in Southern Europe ; the leaves yield six per cent of the 
oil. The price of the oil in commerce is about $1.50 to $2.00 per pound. 
Also a specimen of Gurjun Balsam, or wood oil, obtained from several 
species of Dipterocarpus, indigenous to the East Indies, which is used in 
England and Germany for the same uses as Copaiba, which it resembles in 
odor, though dark and opaque, and having a bitter taste ; at 230° to 260° it 
becomes thick and almost gelatinous — above that temperature is limpid. 

After the usual opportunity for conversation, the meeting adjourned. 

Philadelphia, March 22d, 1872 Glemmons Paerish. Registrar. 



<£&iiortal {Department. 



Pharmaceutical Degress st Medical Colleges. — The Washington, D. C.. 
Evening Star, of March 7th, 1872, contains the following paragraph : 

"The degree of doctor of pharmacy has been conferred upon our well-known 
druggist and pharmacist, Mr. D. P. Sickling, corner of Pennsylvania avenue 
and 3d street, by the faculty of Georgetown College — the first degree of the 
kind ever given by the college." 

The Georgetown College, we believe, is a medical school, and not a university 
in the true meaning of this word, as applied to scientific schools, namely, a 
school where all the arts and faculties are taught and studied. We recognize 
the correlation of medicine and pharmacy, and that the latter, as a separate 
art and science, is the offspring of the former ; but we do not acknowledge 
their identity, and look upon the conferring of pharmaceutical degrees by 
strictly medical educational institutions, which, by such a precedent, might be 
inaugurated, with the same favor with which we should regard the attempt of 
a College of Pharmacy to confer the degree of Doctor of Medicine, honoris 
eausa or otherwise. 

In another place we record the conferring of the degree of Graduate in 



190 



Editorial, 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ April 1, 1872. 



Pharmacy by the National Medical College (Medical Department of Colum- 
bian College). This institution, likewise situated in the National Capital, has, 
since 1870, connected with it a school of pharmacy, the announcement of the 
second course of lectures of which is before us. The regulations for graduation 
are substantially the same as those of the Colleges of Pharmacy within the 
United States, except that an apprenticeship of three years is required. The 
lectures on Pharmacy, which chain's held by Dr. R. H, Stabler, of Alexandria, 
Ya., appear proper and to the purpose. Of the other two branches, we are in- 
formed that the lectures on Materia Medica and Chemistry will be substantially 
the same delivered to the medical classes (Italics our own). This we consider 
radically erroneous. Our position on this question, as far^is materia medica 
is concerned, is fully expressed in the following quotation from the valedictory 
address lately delivered to the graduating class of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy: 

"The pharmacist studies materia medica with a different eye and from a dif- 
ferent standpoint as the physician. The latter looks solely to the physiologi- 
cal and therapeutic effects of the drugs prescribed by him ; the former, know- 
ing that these results can be obtained from the articles in question only when 
they possess certain physical and chemical characteristics, looks mainly to 
these, and judges by their presence or absence of the suitableness of the drug 
for use in medicine. When prescribing opium, ipecacuanha, cinchona, aloes or 
any other article of the materia medica. theoretically the physician cares not 
for the articles prescribed, but solely for the effects which the accumulated ex- 
perience of thousands of observers leads him to expect from these drugs under 
given conditions. But it is the bounden duty of the pharmacist to know that 
whatever may be prescribed is in such a state and of such composition as the 
accumulated experience of another class of observers has shown to be the nor- 
mal one, and moreover to be the one from which the reliable information of the 
effects in health and disease has been obtained. In a word, the physician stu- 
dies mainly pharmacology, that is that branch of materia medica which treats 
of the physiological and therapeutical powers and effects of drugs, even though 
he may not be able to recognize or identify the articles which he orders for his 
patients; while the pharmacist has to devote his energies mainly to pharma- 
cognosy, or that branch of materia medica which treats of the identity, proper 
composition, quality and preservation of these medicinal agents, of the detailed 
activity of which he may be ignorant, though he must know the ordinary and 
the maximum doses which cannot be exceeded unless in exceptional cases, 'the 
circumstances and conditions to be defined by the physician." 

Our views are similar in relation to chemistry, if a little more of that science 
is to be taught than the mere rudiments, if the endeavor is to teach its practi- 
cal application to pharmacy, medicine or other sciences and arts. The princi- 
ples, the fundamental ideas and theories of chemistry are the same in whatever 
relation or application it may appear ; but the times of half or three-quarters 
of a century ago have long since passed away, when it was possible for the phys- 
ician or the pharmacist to master the entire field of that science of almost 
universal applicability. Special courses have none the less become necessary 
for these two than for the professional geologist, metallurgist, botanist, physi- 
ologist, &c. 

The impetus to the special education of the pharmacist in the United States 
was given when that time-honored institution, the University of Pennsylvania, 



\ 



AM AprTi,m2 RM '} Editorial. 191 

concluded to confer, upon suitable restrictions, the title of Master in Pharmacy 
through its medical department. The pharmacists of Philadelphia objected to 
this, and in 1821 instituted the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, which in a 
few years was followed by similar institutions in New York, Baltimore and 
subsequently in other cities, whereupon the University of Pennsylvania de- 
sisted from its proposed undertaking, and has ever since been among the firm- 
est friends and supporters of the separate education of the pharmacist. 

Nor are these views peculiar to this city, or even this country. Everywhere 
throughout the civilized world, where the pharmacist is still dependent for 
his education upon medical institutions alone, he is endeavoring to free himself 
from this unjust bondage, insufficient in its practical results. These views are 
admirably expressed in the following passage of the address sent last year by 
the North German Apothecaries' Society to the American Pharmaceutical 
Association :* 

"We are all united upon the common principle, that pharmacy can thrive 
only under the guidance of pharmacists. To attain such control has been 
our aim ever since our Society was founded. Pharmacy — though it would lose 
its main support with the downfall of medicine — has elevated itself to a certain 
independence ; it has considerably aided medicine by cultivating the sciences 
of chemistry, physics, and botany; and an independent position must be con- 
ceded to it, since, like the allied professions, it is too comprehensive to be made 
subordinate to another." 



The Bogus Diploma Business. — Both houses of the Legislature have passed 
a bill annulling the charter of the Eclectic College of Pennsylvania, formerly 
situate in Haines street above Sixth ; then at northeast corner of Sixth and 
Callowhill, and lately in Pine street between Fifth and Sixth, of which Dr. 
John Buchanan is dean. Also of the American College, once at the corner of 
Eighth and Noble streets ; alias the Eclectic College of Philadelphia, situate in 
Friends' School Building, Cherry street near Fifth ; alias the Philadelphia Uni- 
versity of Medicine, latterly in Ninth street below Locust, of which the notori- 
ous Dr. William Paine has been the principal. The reason for this action was 
because these institutions have become bogus diploma shops, and peddled out 
the degree of Doctor of Medicine to barkeepers, tavern-keepers, professional 
gamblers, horse-jockeys and ignorant negro quacks, who had never studied 
medicine, and were not required to do so. In this action the Legislature has 
done exactly what was right. — Philadelphia Sunday Dispatch, March 24. 

Pharmaceutical LecxIslation in the United States. — The proposed phar- 
maceutical law for New Jersey has again been defeated. We hope that the 
friends of the measure will not despair of final success, but remember that in- 
difference shown now may be the cause of becoming burdened with such an ob- 
jectionable law as is still in existence in New York City, which, however, we 
trust will soon be repealed. The prospects seem bright in Maryland for secur- 
ing an improvement upon the Baltimore law. The modified bill approved by 
the pharmacists and druggists of Philadelphia has passed the House, and is 
pending in the Senate of Pennsylvania, before which body is also a bill taxing 
every pharmacist in the State for the support of three men, who are to con- 
stitute an examining board. The antagonism existing between the two bills 
before the Legislature of Ohio, is likely to kill both. 



* Proceedings Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1871, p. 78. 



192 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. {^SuI'mKl" 

EEVIEWS AND BIBLIO GrB APHIOAL NOTICES. 

Rapports sur les Expositions internationales de Peche de Boulogn' -sur-mer, 
Arcachon et du Havre (1866 — 1868). Par le docteur J. L. Soubeiran, secre- 
taire delegue de la Societe d'acclimatation, Professeur agrege a l'ecole de 
Pharmacie. Paris: Librairie de G. Masson. 1871. 

Report on the international expositions of fishery at Boulogne, Arcachon and 
Havre. 8vo, 187 pages. 

The first international fishery exposition was held at Amstardam in 1861, 
when most of the maritime nations of Europe displayed, besides the products, 
the various apparatus and appliances which are used by them to secure the 
numerous products of the sea. Towards the close of the same year the city of 
Boulogne decided upon a similar exposition in this important French port. The 
project was ready for execution in 1865, by which time, however, the comple- 
tion of the new museum at Bergen, Norway, offered an opportunity to hold the 
second international fishery exposition there, and necessitated the postponement 
of the one contemplated at Boulogne to the following year, when, simultane- 
ously, a similar exposition took place at Arcachon, which bore more of scientific 
character, and was mainly ichthyological At the universal exposition of Paris* 
held in 1867, a certain space was also accorded to the products of the sea and 
rivers, and in 1868 the city of Havre arranged an international maritime 
exposition, in which large quantities of commercial products of importation and 
exportation found a place beside the special maritime products and apparatus. 

The author, who had previously reported to the Societe d'acclimatation upon 
the two expositions held outside of France, now reports upon those held in that 
country, as far as they related to the subjects mentioned before. The report, 
which was first published in the "Bulletin de la societe d'acclimatation," 2 
serie, t. viii, 1871, now appears in book form, and contains, in a compact form, 
much valuable information of the various fishes which are of commercial im- 
portance, and of the pisciculture now successfully carried on in many countries. 
The work, though not designed to be exhaustive of the subject, is a valuable 
addition to the literature on these subjects. 



The Lens ; a quarter 1 !/ Journal of Microscopy and the allied Natural Sciences, 
with the Transactions of the State Microscopical Society, of Illinois. Edited 
by S. A. Briggs. Publishing- Committee : Charles Briggs, E. H. Sargent and 
Charles Adams, Chicago (177 Calumet Avenue), 1872. 8vo,64 pages. $3 
per annum. 

" The Lens" perished in the great Chicago fire before the first number was 
mailed ; the number before us is not an exact reproduction of that ill-fated one. 
While it will be mainly conducted in the interests of microscopy, valuable con- 
tributions on any branch of natural science will not be excluded. A good be- 
ginning is made in this first number by an enumeration of the flora of Chicago 
and vicinity, by H. H. Babcock. The other papers, nearly all original, relate 
to various subjects connected with microscopy. To judge from this first num- 
ber, we expect "The Lens" will fill a vacant space creditably, and we wish it 
that success which it aims to deserve by its original and selected matter, as well 
as by its well executed wood-cuts and engravings. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MAY, 1872. 



PH ARM ACO GNOSTIC AL NOTES. 
By John M. Maisch. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting held April 16th. 

Many interesting questions connected with our indigenous materia 
medica require investigation, and it is in most cases not easy to obtain 
the desirable information. The various inquiries instituted within the 
past few years, in dhTerent sections of the United States, into the 
statistics of this branch of the drug trade, have resulted in total fail- 
ures, and, except to the initiated, very little is known of the localities 
where many of the staple articles of our indigenous materia medica 
are collected for the general commerce, the information being usually 
limited to the geographical section of the country. The difficulties 
encountered in such investigations have been well pointed out by Mr. 
C Lewis Diehl, in a paper published in the Proceedings of the Ame- 
rican Pharmaceutical Association, 1870, p. 137. The knowledge we 
possess on this particular point appears merely to indicate that the 
wholesale market has now to depend on the Southern, South-western 
and Western States for a supply of drugs which were formerly sup- 
plied in sufficient quantities by the Eastern and Middle States. While 
this may undoubtedly be in part accounted for by the increased de- 
mand, it must be also to some extent due to injudicious collection, 
whereby some medicinal plants have become nearly or entirely extinct 
in certain localities where formerly they were frequently met with. 

The same cause appears to have had already similar results in some 
Western localities. In Professor Diehl's paper, cited above, we find 
the following passage, which seems to point in this direction : " For- 
merly there was a lively trade in indigenous drugs in New Albany, 

13 



194 



Pharmacognostical Notes. 



f Am. Jour. Phabm. 
t May 1, 1872. 



Ind. (gathered among a range of hills known as ' the Knobs'), but 
such is not now the case, and the drugs gathered in its neighborhood 
find their markets no farther than our city (Louisville, Ky.)" Appa- 
rently the same wasteful practice, satisfied with the results of to-day, 
without looking to the demands of the morrow, prevails among the 
drug gatherers of this country as in South and Central America, and 
it is not improbable that the time may not be far distant when a few of 
the leading drugs may require to be cultivated to insure a full and 
continuous supply of the market. 

Although many of our indigenous plants have been used in domes- 
tic and in regular practice, the use of some seems to be confined alto- 
gether to certain localities, beyond which their medicinal properties 
are unknown or not appreciated. It would be very interesting to 
obtain reliable information concerning them. 

The following notes are intended to direct attention to a few articles 
of our indigenous materia medica, nearly all of which deserve to be 
further investigated : 

Cypripedium. — The secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States directs the rhizome and rootlets of Cypripedium pubes- 
cens, Willdenow. Under the common names of ladies' slipper, and 
American valerian, two entirely distinct rhizomes, with the rootlets 
attached, are met with in commerce, both of monocotyledonous origin. 
The only species of this genus which I have met with in the neighbor- 
hood of Philadelphia is Cypripedium acaule, Aiton, the radical por- 
tion of which has not be^n observed by me among the commercial 
ladies' slipper root. The officinal species appears to grow as far south 
as Georgia, and west to Wisconsin. Gray* states that it is common 
northward and westward, and southward in the Alleghanies. Dr. 
Porcherf says it occurs near Newborn. Dr. DarlingtonJ mentions, 
twenty years ago, that it was formerly frequent in Chester County, 
Pa., and it is probable that the plant is now of rarer occurrence yet. 

Another species, which, like the one mentioned, bears flowers with 
yellow lips, is Cypripedium parviflorum, Salisbury, which appears to 
be most common west ; though usually smaller than the former, it 
attains the height of 1 to 2 feet, the two species appearing to pass 
into each other (Gray). Cypripedium candidum, Muhlenberg, and 

* Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, 
t Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests, p. 603. 
t Flora Cestriea, 3d edition, 1853, p. 316. 



%l°y U i,'i P 872 BM '} Pharmacognostical Notes. 195 

spectabile, Swartz, both with white-lipped flowers, occur mainly in the 
Alleghanies and west thereof, and it is not impossible that they may 
furnish a portion of the commercial root, while 0. arietinum, R. Brown, 
the smallest species, occurring in Canada and the northern border 
States, is probably not collected. 

For a number of years past I have been endeavoring to procure the 
four species first mentioned, with root and flowers, but have been un- 
successful. Mr. F. C. Weber, while at New Albany, Ind., last year, 
tried to aid me in my endeavors, and obtained from an old herbalist 
there the information that C. pubescens and parviflorum, both of which 
plants he described correctly, are collected there indiscriminately. At 
Mr. Weber's request, he collected one plant with the roots and the 
green fruit, the only one, he stated, he could find, which he palmed off 
as the first-named species, but which was promptly recognized by me 
as Uvularia yerfoliata^ Lin. This deception was doubtless purposely 
attempted. 

No better success attended my inquiries of dealers in indigenous 
drugs, who appear to sell these goods without questioning their iden- 
tity, relying upon the statements of the Western collectors. The 
only way to arrive at correct results is to have complete specimens of 
the different species collected, so that their roots may be compared 
with the commercial article. The writer would feel indebted to any 
reader of the "Journal" who would procure for him one or more of 
the species in question. 

Cephalanthus occidentalism Lin., Rubiacece, button-bush, or pond- 
dogwood, is a shrub 5 to 10 feet high, common throughout Canada and 
the United States in swamps and on the margin of ponds and brooks. 
The bark has been repeatedly recommended as an expectorant useful 
in consumption, but I believe has been abandoned, though it may be 
used yet as a domestic remedy. Last fall a sample of the bark, with 
a flowering branch, was received from Texas, where a gentleman 
claimed that the bark had wonderful curative properties ; of what 
character was not stated. If we ma}' judge from the slight bitter 
taste, which is destitute of acrimony, it may probably possess tonic 
properties. 

Ilex Cassine, Lin., Aquifoliacece, grows near the coast from Virgi- 
nia southward, and is known there under the names of cassena, yeo- 
pon, yupon or yaupon. It appears to have been held in high repute 



196 Pharmacognostical Notes. { k "mT<Jm™' 

by the aborigines, and to be still used to a considerable extent near 
the North Carolina coast. 

Dr. Porcher* states that the Creeks employed it, according to Elli- 
ott, at the opening of their councils sending to the sea coast for a 
supply ; they considered it one of their most powerful diuretics. The 
inhabitants of North Carolina purify brackish water by boiling in it 
cassena leaves. In North and South Carolina much use is made of 
the leaves for making tea. The leaves act as a powerful diuretic, and 
are employed in calculous, nephritic diseases, diabetes, gout and small- 
pox. The so-called black drink of the Indians, which in its effects 
resembled opium, was believed by some to have been made from these 
leaves, but by other writers is referred to various unknown roots. 

In a letter written three years ago, Mr. Chns. K. Gallagher, of 
Washington, N. C, to whom I am indebted for some of the leaves, 
states that they are used extensively along the eastern coast of that 
State, and that they are cured for use by heating in ovens with heated 
stones, and constantly stirring during the process, as practiced by the 
Indians. 

The cassena is an evergreen shrub, attaining a height of 10 to 15 
feet ; the leaves are alternate, coriaceous, short petiolate, about an 
inch long, varying in shape from roundish oval to lanceovate, obtuse 
and slightly emarginate, crenate with a minute spine inserted near the 
base of each crenature, smooth on both sides and shining above ; their 
taste is mildly astringent and tea-like, scarcely bitterish. 

It would be very interesting to ascertain whether cassena contains 
caffeina, like the so-called Paraguay tea, which is obtained from Ilex 
Paraguay ensis, Lamb.f 

Artemisia Ludoviciana, Nuttall, Oompositce, wag sent to me, two 
years ago, from Kansas, where a package of it had been received by 
an army officer from Colorado, with the statement that it would 
" make the hair grow r ," if applied in the state of infusion. The plant 
is indigenous to North America, and grows from the shores of Lakes 
Huron and Michigan south-westward to Missouri and westward to the 
Pacific Ocean. It is from 2 to 4 feet high, branched ; leaves lanceo- 
late, sessile and entire above, the lower variously toothed, canescent 
on both sides, with a dense, closely adpresspd wool ; heads small, 
ovoid, nearly sessile, crowded in dense, somewhat leafy panicles ; 

*Loc. cit., p. 431. 

f See the paper on Yaupon, by Mr. Henry M. Smith, in this number. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
May 1, 1872. / 



Lycopersicum Esculentum. — Tomato. 



197 



receptacle smooth. The odor reminds of wormwood, but is much 
weaker; the taste is similar, though but slightly bitter. 

The plant has probably tonic properties, but appears not to deserve 
a place alongside the numerous bitter aromatic tonics at the present 
time medicinally employed. 

Pycnanthemum linifolium, Pursh., Labiatce, in some places called 
Virginia thyme, was sent to me, a year or two ago, as the remedy 
successfully used by an empiric in Montgomery County, Pa., in cases 
of hydrophobia. It is hardly creditable that this plant could be of 
any value in this fearful disease, possessing, as it apparently does, 
merely somewhat stimulating and diaphoretic properties, like most 
species of this order, in consequence of the small quantity of volatile 
oil which it contains. It is smooth throughout, about 1J to 2 feet 
high, with the linear and sessile leaves J to 2 inches long, rigid, entire, 
three-nerved, often crowded in small axillary fascicles ; the branches 
are erect and form a rather dense corymb ; the flowers terminate the 
branchlets and are crowded into hemispherical heads, supported by 
imbricated ciliate bracts, which, like the awl-shaped calyx teeth, are 
rigid and sharply pointed ; corolla whitish or pinkish, dotted on the 
inside. 

Pycnanthemum incanum, Michaux, mountain mint or wild basil, is 
also called horsemint in some counties of Pennsylvania where Monarda 
punctata, Lin., does not occur, in place of which it is used. The two 
plants are*easily distinguished, the bracts of the former being linear, 
almost subulate, while those of the monarda are leaf-like, and of a 
yellow and reddish color. The medicinal properties of both are pro- 
bably identical. 



LYCOPERSICUM ESCULENTUM. — TOMATO. 
By Thomas D. McElhenie. 
Extracted from his Inaugural Essay. 

My experiments have been directed solely to the isolation of the 
organic acids contained in the fruit, the examination being undertaken 
at the suggestion of my preceptor, Mr. T. A. Lancaster, who had in an 
essay, presented in 1859, demonstrated the presence of tartaric acid, 
but expressed the opinion that citric acid would be found to exist in 
it in larger proportion, and probably in sufficient quantity to render 



198 Lycopersicum Esculentum — -Tomato. { A \ J a 7T,m2 RM ' 

it available as a commercial source of the acid. The variety on which 
I operated was the red tomato known in market as the "Tilden''; 
this is quite solid, of a medium size, and contains comparatively little 
juice. There are other inferior varieties which contain a larger amount 
of juice and have more acidity of taste, and I expect these would be 
found to contain a larger proportion of acids ; but being at the time 
unable to procure any of them I was obliged to content myself with 
an examination of the variety named. 

I have employed two processes in my examination, the first being 
mainly that given in the British Pharmacopoeia for the preparation 
of citric acid from lemon juice. 

One gallon of juice, freshly expressed from fully ripe tomatoes, 
was heated to the boiling point and strained. Keeping it at about 
200° F., powdered chalk was added until effervescence ceased. After 
cooling, the precipitate was separated by straining and filtration, and 
mixed with two pints of water. To the mixture was gradually added 
three pints of water, mixed with four fluidounces of sulphuric acid, 
some effervescence being produced, probably due to an excess of cal- 
cium carbonate. The mixture was boiled gently for half an hour and 
filtered. The filtrate, after partial evaporation, was set aside to allow 
any calcium sulphate which might be present to crystallize. After 
standing twenty-four hours the liquid was decanted — there being a 
slight sediment but no crystals — and evaporated until a slight film 
began to form on the surface, when it was again set aside. 

After standing about three weeks there was a considerable deposit 
of brown extractive matter, having a crystalline appearance, from 
numerous small crystals imbedded in it. As this extractive evi- 
dently retarded the formation of crystals, and being pressed for time, 
I continued the evaporation, at a gentle heat, until the whole was 
reduced to the consistence of an extract, which I brought with me on 
my return to the College, for further examination. 

Upon resuming operations in the laboratory of the College, I first 
made a preliminary examination of a small portion of the mass, ac- 
cording to the method directed in Will's tables, and found present 
citric, malic and oxalic acids. In order to isolate them, the mass was 
boiled with a sufficient quantity of water, and the solution filtered. 
A small quantity of inert matter was left undissolved. The filtrate 
was neutralized with calcium hydrate, and the precipitate separated 
by filtration, and reserved. 



A Min*,i?72 RM '} Lycopersicum Esculentum — Tomato. 199 

The filtrate from this was evaporated and boiled until the calcium 
citrate was precipitated, which was then washed with hot water, on 
the filter, mixed with a small quantity of pure water, and decomposed 
by dilute sulphuric acid ; the calcium sulphate was allowed to deposit, 
the liquid was filtered, concentrated and set aside. 

After three days a number of crystals were found deposited, but 
mixed with some viscid coloring matter. 

The mother liquor was decanted, and after concentration was set 
aside for further crystallization. The first crystals were dissolved in 
a small quantity of distilled water, the solution filtered, concentrated 
and set aside. After standing twenty-four hours no crystals had 
formed in either liquid. They were then mixed, concentrated and 
filtered. After standing about two weeks a small quantity of crystals 
had formed. 

These were separated and the mother liquor again concentrated, 
when a very small product was obtained. 

Owing to press of other duties I did not purify the resulting crys- 
tals. The yield was, however, very slight, being probably ten grains 
from one gallon of fresh juice, equal to about nine pounds of fruit. 

To obtain the malic acid, the filtrate left after precipitation of cal- 
cium citrate by boiling was concentrated, and calcium malate was 
separated by the addition of alcohol. Allowing it to subside, it was 
separated by filtration and the filtrate again treated with alcohol to 
separate any remaining malate. A small quantity was obtained, and 
after filtration it was mixed with the first product. This was then 
dissolved in a small quantity of hot water, the solution filtered and, 
after partial evaporation, mixed with an equal bulk of alcohol, and 
the mixture treated with dilute sulphuric acid. 

The resulting calcium sulphate was separated after it had com- 
pletely subsided, and the filtrate, containing malic acid in dilute alco- 
holic solution, was partially concentrated. After standing twenty- 
four hours, no crystals having appeared, it was further concentrated 
and set aside. 

After standing about two weeks, I found it had deposited a quan- 
tity of colored inert matter. It was again partially evaporated and 
filtered, and in a few days a quantity of crystals were obtained. 

While engaged in purifying these with animal charcoal the entire 
product was lost by the accidental breaking of the capsule containing 
the solution, so that I was unable to ascertain the exact weight of the 
purified product. It was, however, larger than that of citric acid. 



200 Lycopersicum Esculentum — Tomato. ^VaTl'mz*** 

To obtain the oxalic acid, the precipitate obtained by neutralizing 
the original solution with calcium hydrate was treated with hydro- 
chloric acid, the solution diluted, filtered and neutralized by ammonia; 
when calcium oxalate was precipitated. 

This was boiled with a solution of potassium carbonate for two 
hours, and filtered to separate calcium carbonate. The filtrate was 
then mixed with alcohol to just below the point of precipitation, and 
the mixture treated with dilute sulphuric acid. The potassium sul- 
phate being insoluble in alcohol, readily subsided, leaving oxalic acid 
in alcoholic solution. 

This was then partially evaporated and set aside. After standing 
several days a deposit of coloring and extractive matter was formed. 
This was separated, and the solution further concentrated and treated 
with animal charcoal. 

After a few days I obtained a quantity of small crystals. These 
were dissolved in a small quantity of distilled water, and again treated 
with animal charcoal and recrystallized. The yield was about equal 
to that of malic acid. 

The second process was as follows : One gallon of fresh juice was 
boiled down to the measure of two pints. This was set aside and 
occasionally observed. After it had been standing about two weeks 
I found no result except the formation of a considerable brown depo- 
sit of extractive. It was then mixed thoroughly and evaporated at a 
gentle heat to about three fluidounces. 

This was then operated on in essentially the same manner as the 
first, diluting the liquid, filtering and neutralizing with calcium hy- 
drate, and then isolating the acids from their lime salts. 

The results were similar, the yield of malic acid being rather larger. 
It has been stated tartaric acid existed in tomatoes in small quanti- 
ties. I failed to obtain it, but hope at some future time to continue 
an investigation of various small acid fruits, and repeat that of toma- 
toes with better facilities. I infer from the results obtained that the 
acids exist uncombined in the fruit. 

It is evident, however, that tomatoes are not available as a source 
•f either of the acids. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May 1, 1872. J 



Suppositoria Assafcetidce. 



201 



SUPPOSITORIA ASSAF(ETID.E. 

By Benjamin T. Fairchild. 
From the Author's Inaugural Essay. 

After speaking of the value of suppositories as medicinal prepara- 
tions, and advocating the use of cacao butter as a vehicle, without the 
addition of wax §r similar substances, the author dwells on the dif- 
ficulty of making suppositories containing assafoetida, and suggests, as 
reasons, the impurities usually present, the impossibility of obtaining 
and keeping assafoetida in the state of powder and its proximate com- 
position, particularly the presence of gum and bassorin. He pro- 
poses an extract free from the impurities and the gummy constituents, 
for which he proposes the following formula : 

1^. Assafoetida, selected tears, ^iij. 

Alcohol, sp. gr. 817 q. s. 

Reduce the assafoetida to a moderately coarse powder, which is ac- 
complished by first subjecting it to a freezing temperature , then mix 
with an equal bulk of sand and pack it moderately in a glass perco- 
lator. Pour on alcohol until it has equally permeated the mixture 
and appears through the sponge at the neck of the percolator. Then, 
having corked and covered tightly to prevent evaporation, allow it to 
macerate for several days. Displace two fluid ounces, and set this 
aside ; continue the percolation until the drug is thoroughly exhausted. 
Evaporate spontaneously the last obtained tincture until the alcohol 
has been entirely driven off. Mix the product with the percolate 
first obtained, and evaporate as before until the resulting extract 
weighs two troy ounces, or until free from alcohol. It should be kept 
in a wide-mouth, closely-stoppered vial. 

Thus obtained, the extract has a thick, semifluid consistence, a 
yellow color, and consists entirely of the resins and volatile oil. It 
possesses in a marked degree the sensible properties of the drug. 
Two-thirds of a grain represents about one grain of the pure gum 
resin. 

This extract possesses many advantages. It may be easily pre- 
served, and is of such a consistence that it can be readily manipu- 
lated, requiring simply to be mixed with the excipient. By its use 
suppositories can be quickly prepared, elegant in appearance and sat- 
isfactory in all respects. 

My attention has been called to an article in the Sept. No. Amer. 
Jour. Pharm., 1868, by Mr. J. B. Moore, in which he advocates the 



202 



Pharmaceutical Notes. 



J Am. Jour. Phaem. 
\ May 1, 1872. 



employment of liquor potassae in the manufacture of suppositories of 
assafoetida. By the use of the alkali, he saponifies the resin and 
volatile oil of the gum-resin and thus facilitates its admixture with 
the cacao butter. The use of so powerful a medicinal agent, however, 
is not necessitated. 

By the following formula I have prepared suppositories of ten 
grains each : 

3^. Ext. Assafoetidse gr. lxxx. 

Olei Theobromse ..... gv. 

M. fiant suppos. No. xii. 
Have at hand some warm water in a dish into which a small capsule 
containing the powdered cacao butter can be immersed. Remove the 
capsule frequently, in order that the cacao butter shall melt slowly. 
When it has cooled sufficiently and retains but little heat, rub up the 
extract with a small portion of it on a marble slab, mix this thor- 
oughly with the reserved portion in the capsule, and pour (constantly 
stirring) into moulds of the capacity of half a drachm each. If 
necessary, during the process, the capsule may be again immersed in 
the warm water, great care being observed to subject the mixture to 
as little heat as possible. 

If the moulds are perfectly dry and clean, and suspended in iced 
water until quite cold before pouring, the suppositories may be re- 
moved by simply pressing them at the base with the finger, and 
striking the rim of the mould on the counter. The resulting supposi- 
tories will present a beautiful polished surface. I have never found 
it necessary to lubricate the moulds in any manner. 

If care is used in the above process, the resin will be found to be 
equally and intimately suspended in each suppository. 



PHARMACEUTICAL NOTES. 
By Emil Martin. 

Red Precipitate Ointment. — The U. S. Pharmacopoeia directs lard 
ointment for making unguentum hydrargyri oxidi rubri, but having 
had frequent difficulty in preserving the beautiful reddish color of the 
ointment I was induced a few years ago to institute a series of expe- 
riments to obtain a more permanent and reliable preparation. After 
many experiments I became convinced that a compound of castor oil 
and white wax would just be what I wanted. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
May 1, 1872. j 



Mel Rosce. 



203 



The following is the formula I have adopted : 

fy. Hydrarg. Oxid. Rub. subt. pulv., 3i. 
Olei Ricini, 3vi. 
Cerae Albse, 311. 

Misce 1. a. 

This ointment will preserve its beautiful reddish color and proper 
consistence for years without change. 

Fowlers Solution. — I have altered the process of the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia for making Fowler's Solution, it being too tedious, and re- 
quiring at least from 2 to 3 hours' boiling or the heat of a water-bath. 
I would therefore submit the following mode of preparation : 

Take of arsenious acid, in pieces, and bicarbonate of potassa each 
64 grs. Immerse them into a test-tube of the capacity of 1 oz. or 
more ; add the smallest quantity of distilled water that is necessary, 
about 2 to 3 drachms, and boil the mixture over an alcohol or gas 
lamp. The carbonic acid will be evolved, and the combination of 
arsenious acid with the potassa formed immediately in less than two 
minutes. To the solution add sufficient distilled water and J oz. 
comp. spirits of lavender, to make it measure 1 pint, and filter. By 
taking 6 drachms of water, or more, I could not procure a perfect 
solution within an hour, even by using a test-tube. My opinion is 
that only a very concentrated solution of the potassa carbonate dis- 
solves the arsenious acid so quickly. 

This method will enable a skillful pharmaceutist to make a gallon 
of unfiltered Fowler's Solution in about 5 minutes, which is less time 
than many extemporaneous prescriptions require. 

Indianapolis, March 22, 1872. 



MEL ROS^E. 
By E. C. Trembly. 
From the Author's Inaugural Essay. 
My attention was first called to this subject by hearing the com- 
plaints of others, more experienced than myself, against the officinal 
preparation. Subsequently, I met with a sample that had been made 
strictly according to the standard formula, and kept in a glass stop- 
pered bottle, in a state totally unfit for use, owing to a deposit of 
saccharine matter that had gone on until the entire quantity had as- 
sumed a non-fluid condition. 



204 



Mel Eosce. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May 1, 1872. 



The subject became interesting, and I examined it with a view to 
the discovery of the source of the difficulty, and, if practicable, a 
means whereby to improve the preparation. 

My conclusions were these : — 

First, that honey, by reason of its tendency to deposit, its ever- 
varying and uncertain composition, was most likely the cause of the 
trouble. Second, that the process for the extraction and preservation 
of the medicinal virtues of the rose, affords ample room for improve- 
ment. 

To obviate the inconvenience arising from the presence of honey, I 
have prepared and used with great satisfaction a fluid extract of rose, 
to which honey is added in proper proportion, at the time when wanted 
for use. I desire to call special attention to this extract, for reasons 
given further on. 

The following is the formula which is the most satisfactory of seve- 
ral that I have tried : — 

Red Rose, No. 60, ... ^ij. 
Stronger Alcohol, .... f^v. 
Glycerin Cone, .... f^ivss. 
Diluted Alcohol, .... q. s. 

Moisten the powder with q. s. of the strong alcohol, pack it moder- 
ately in a small glass funnel, and gradually pour upon it the remain- 
der of the stronger alcohol. 

When it has disappeared from the surface, gradually pour on a 
mixture consisting of five and a half fl. oz. of diluted alcohol and a 
half fl. oz. of glycerin, and when it has passed from the surface, con- 
tinue with diluted alcohol until twelve fl. oz. of percolate have been 
obtained. 

To the first four fl. oz. add a half fl. oz. of glycerin, and set aside 
to evaporate spontaneously to two fl. oz. To the remainder add two 
fl. oz. of glycerin, and evaporate by means of a water-bath, at a tem- 
perature not exceeding 140° Fah., to such an extent that, when add- 
ed to the reserved portion and the remainder of the glycerin, the 
whole will weigh seven troy ounces. 

In the above will be noticed my deviations from the "officinal," 
which, since the result has been so very satisfactory, I consider im- 
provements. 

Strong alcohol is used as the first portion of the menstruum be- 
cause it is a better solvent for the volatile ingredient, and it evapo- 



Am. Jour. Phabm. ) 
May 1,1872. j 



Mel Rosce. 



205 



rates readily at low temperatures, thus rendering it unnecessary to 
expose that principle to more than ordinary atmospheric influences. 

The employment of glycerin in the second portion of the menstruum 
was suggested by its known solvent power over the astringent prin- 
ciples, and its addition to both portions prior to evaporation, serves to 
protect the substance from the action of the air, to prevent separation 
of the particles and adhesion to the sides and bottom of the vessels 
employed. 

To the finished product, which is free from alcohol, it serves as a 
sure preservative, and to enhance the preparation in appearance and 
taste, if not also in therapeutic value. 

It will be seen also that I have duly regarded the importance of 
limited temperature in the evaporation of the second portion, while in 
the " officinal " it is left to the mercy of the entire range of the water- 
bath. 

These restrictions, with regard to the application of heat, are per- 
fectly clear, when the delicate character of the substance and the 
enhancing effect of fragrance in an article like this are duly con- 
sidered. 

From my experience with this extract for about eight months, and 
the known power of glycerin as a protective, I feel safe in asserting 
my belief that it will remain unchanged for almost any length of time. 
The fact of its being permanent, and the facility which it affords in 
the preparation of " Mel Rosse,'' are alone sufficient to give it char- 
acter ; but they are by no means all the advantages it possesses. The 
most important are exhibited in the production of a suitable remedy, 
both for internal and external use?, to which the virtues of its consti- 
tuents are applicable. 

As an internal application to the mouth and throat, which is the 
chief use of " Mel Rosse," it may be used in full strength without in- 
convenience, and when desired weaker, may be reduced by any of the 
ordinary diluents. With water it forms a delightful and efficient 
gargle, which is not equalled by the officinal article. As an external 
application, its astringency, consistence and fragrance, render it a 
valuable and agreeable remedy. It may be applied most convenient- 
ly by means of a camel's-hair brush. For those who may still prefer 
to complete their " Mel Rosse " at once, I suggest the following : — • 
Fluid Extract of Rose, . . . . 3j. 
Pure Honey, Jiij. 

M. 



206 



Syrupus Cubebce. 



( Am. Jocr. Pha»m. 
| May 1, 1872. 



The above proportion approaches so nearly to the original that I 
use it for convenience. In this case it is very necessary to use pure 
honey, and to insure himself the apothecary should procure it in the 
comb and render it for use, as that found in the market under the 
name of " clarified honey" is of uncertain character, and generally 
contains impurities. 

I also made some experiments with the officinal formula, the results 
of which tend to show that the tendency to change and become un- 
manageable is not overcome by very careful management. 

I made lots with honey obtained from three sources, — one from 
Cuba, another from New York (wild), and a third domestic, procured 
in the comb and clarified by myself, and designated in the experi- 
ments, pure honey. With each of these varieties of honey I made 
another lot, by adding the proper proportion of the fluid extract of 
rose, and placed their, all in a warm place on the upper shelf in the 
store-room. At the end of five months those made by the officinal 
process were in the following conditions : That made with Cuba 
honey in a state of fermentation and deposition ; the other two but 
little changed, thougli apparently becoming gradually thicker. Those 
made with the fluid extract were in their normal condition. In both 
instances the sample with pure honey was much the nicest. 

The first translation of the London Dispensatory, by Nicholas Cul- 
pepper, in 1650, contains a formula for " Honey of Roses," of which 
the following is a copy verbal, et liter 'at. , in the quaint style of that 
age :— 

" Take of the best Honey clarified, ten pound, the Juyce of fresh 
red Roses one pound, put them in a pan over the fire, and when they 
begin to boyl ad four pounds of fresh red Roses, the whites being cut 
off', let it boyl till the juyce be consumed, continually stirring it and 
so keep it for your use being strained." 

It seems strange that such a formula should ever have existed, and 
still stranger is the fact that the preparation came down through 
nearly two centuries with but little change and scarcely any improve- 
ment. It is only of late years that it has been scientifically im- 
proved. . 

SYRUPUS CUBEBiE. 
By Charles L. Mitchell. 
The efficacy of cubebs as a stimulating expectorant in diseases of 
the throat and lung passages has long been known to the medical pro- 



AM May R i,mT'} Syrupus Gtibebce. 207 

fession. But there has been a want of some agreeable and palatable 
form of administering this nauseous remedy. In the form of powder 
it is too bulky, and its principal preparations, namely, the tincture, 
oleoresin and fluid extract, are all too disagreeable to suit an invalid. 
When mixed with syrups or other liquid vehicles, they form turbid, 
muddy liquids, in which their unpleasant taste is but partially dis- 
guised. Having on several occasions to prepare mixtures of fluid 
extract of cubebs with different syrups, the idea suggested itself that 
a syrup of cubebs might be made on the same plan as the syrups of 
tolu and ginger of the Pharmacopoeia, and, in a measure, obviate the 
above-named objections to its use. After several experiments, the 
following formula gave a syrup which seemed satisfactory in almost 
every respect. It was clear and bright, of a rich yellow color, and 
seemed to possess all the virtues of the cubebs without their dis- 
agreeable taste : 

Fid. Ext. Cubebs fsij. 

Carb. Magnesia ...... fgs. 

Sugar Powd. . . . , . . gxij. 

Orange Flower Water . . . . . f^ij. 

Water . . . . . ' • . . q. s. 

Ess. Oil Almonds gtt. j. 

Rub up the fid. ext. with the carb. magnesia and then add ^ij. of 
the powd. sugar in small portions. When thoroughly mixed add 
gradually first the orange flower water and then f^vij. water, con- 
stantly triturating the mixture until the sugar is dissolved. Filter 
and add q, s. water through the filter to measure f^xj., in which 
dissolve the balance of the sugar without heat. Add the oil almonds 
cut in a little alcohol, and again filter, adding, if neccessary, q. s. 
water through the filter to measure 1 pt.* 

The dose of this syrup is f^j — iv. and it may be given in even larger 
doses if desired. It may also be made by using the officinal oleo- 
resin in the proper proportion in place of the fluid extract. 

A very elegant syrup for coughs, hoarseness, &c, may be made from 
this syrup of cubebs, as follows : 

R. Syr. Cubebse. 

Syr. Pruni. Virg. aa . . - . f^ij. 

Morph. Sulphat. . . . . . gr. \. 

Dose from f. j — iv. 

* 11 fluidounces of liquid and 10 troyounces of sugar will, after solution, 
measure nearly f^xvii. The proposed syrup most likely, does not contain the 
diuretic principle, cubebic acid. — Ed. Amer. Jour. Pharm. 



208 Petroleum-Benzine in Oleo-resins. { AM k J ay t5raf M " 

ON THE USE OF PETROLEUM-BENZINE IN MAKING OLEO- 
RESINS. 
By John M. Maisch. 
Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting of April 16th. 

Petroleum benzine is an excellent solvent, and has been repeatedly 
suggested for introduction into the pharmaceutical laboratory, particu- 
larly when, in consequence of the high tax upon alcohol, the price of 
ether and the other derivatives thereof was even higher than at pre- 
sent. It is not unlikely that the so-called benzine may have been 
substituted wholly or in part for ether before experiments on this sub- 
ject were published. 

In 1866 Professor Procter* proved that cubebs, after having been 
exhausted by the solvent in question, yielded to ether over 4 per ct. 
of cubebin, waxy matter, chlorophyll, with a little pungent resin. Mr. 
H. N. Rittenhousef therefore suggested to prepare oleo-resins by em- 
ploying first ether, and finish the percolation with petroleum benzine. 
In 1867 an interesting discussion on this subject took place at the 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, % Dufc tne facts 
at that time published were very few in number. 

At the close of the last session of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy two essays were presented, both treating of this question from 
a different standpoint, without, however, exhausting it. Notwith- 
standing this, the results are sufficiently interesting to deserve notice. 
Mr. Alfred II. Bolton treated powdered capsicum, cubebs and ginger 
with petroleum benzine, spec. grav. 700, and exhausted them by the 
process of repercolation, whereby the powders were left entirely or 
almost tasteless ; three troyounces of the powders named yielded 
respectively six, four and one fluidrachms of oleo-resins. 

Mr. Milton W. Roth operated on ginger and cubebs, and observed 
that these substances, when exhausted by petroleum benzine, spec, 
grav. 686 to 710, would again yield to ether some nonvolatile matter, 
which it is to be regretted was not sufficiently examined ; the benzine 
oleo-resins of both drugs were perfectly soluble in ether, but the ethe- 
rial oleo-resins yielded precipitates on being mixed with benzine. It 
follows conclusively from these experiments, what Prof. Procter (loc. 
cit.) proved in 1866 for cubebs, that the benzine oleo-resins are not 

* American Journal of Pharmacy, 1866, 210. 

f Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1866, p. 208. 
% Proceedings, 1867, page 94. 



A Va™M872 EM '} Gleanings from the European Journals , 209 

identical with the officinal etherial oleo-resins, while Mr. Bolton, from 
the tastelessness of the residuary powder, argues or rather is inclined 
to regard the two products as representing the drugs in question. 

The absence or presence of odor and taste, however, are too unsafe 
criteria of the medicinal properties, since some decidedly active princi- 
ples, like santonin, the resins of jalap and scammony, &c, are taste- 
less or nearly so, while the experiments of Dr. Bernatzik,* Mr. F. V. 
Heydenreich,f and of E. A. Schmidt,j prove that the volatile oil of 
cubebs has no diuretic properties whatever, but acts as a carminative, 
diffusive stimulant and irritant, like most other volatile oils. 

Petroleum benzine is such an excellent solvent, and at the same 
time so low in price, that its employment in the place of ether and 
even alcohol is very desirable ; but, from all the knowledge we possess 
thus far, based upon critical experiments, the substitution of the 
liquids in question for pharmaceutical preparations must be regarded 
as inadmissible until it has been proven that the proximate principles 
not acted upon by the benzine are medicinally inert : odor and taste 
alone are insufficient to furnish this proof. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Analysis of the Leaves of Periwinkle ( Vinca minor, Lin.) — The 
leaves, which are used in France as an anti-lactagogue, contain, ac- 
cording to Stanislas Martin, tannin, extractive, bitter resin, chloro- 
phyll and wax. Bisulphide of carbon separates from the powdered 
leaves the resin, which has a very agreeable odor. — Bulletin de la 
Soc. roy. de Pharm. de Brux., 1872, Mars. 113. 

A New Acid from Aloes was obtained by Prof. Weselsky, besides 
orcine, on fusing aloes with hydrate of potassa. It crystallizes 
well and shows characteristic color reactions with ferric chloride, with 
alkalies in the presence of oxygen, and with alkaline hypochlorites 
(purple); when heated its odor resembles coumarin. Composition, 
C 9 H 10 O 3 . Fused with potassa until hydrogen is generated, orcine is 
produced. — Am. Akad. d. Wiss. Wien, 1872, No. iv. 

* Amer. Jour. Med. Sc., cvii, 534. Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1868, 194. 
t Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 1867, 337. Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1868, 42. 
X Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1870, 222. 

14 



210 Gleanings from the European Journals. ^"mJ^SS* 

Sugar in Urine. — Prof. Seegen observed that the precipitation of 
cuprous oxide from Trommer's test by small quantities of sugar is 
prevented by certain constituents of urine, while uric acid produces 
a reaction similar to that of glucose. The author filters the urine 
through good blood charcoal, which is afterwards washed with a little 
water. The charcoal retains all the uric acid, and the washings are 
used for the detection of sugar, and react with Trommer's test, if 
the urine contains only 0*01 per ct. sugar, unless it is of a high spe- 
cific gravity, which case 0*05 per ct. sugar are readily detected. 

This method is not applicable for the quantitative determination, 
since the blood charcoal retains much sugar, which cannot be ex- 
tracted by cold or hot water. — Ibid., No. v. 

Analysis of Melolontha vulgaris. — The cockchafer or May-bug 
contains, according to an analysis by Dr. Ph. Schreiner, considerable 
quantities of oxalate of lime, uric acid and urates, some leucin, sarkin 
and indistinct traces of xanthin, and melolonthin, a crystallizable 
body of the composition C 5 H 12 N 2 S0 3 . — Annal. d. Chem. u. Ph., 1872, 
March, 252—262. 

Pyro-catechin in Kino. — Prof. Fliickiger obtained from African 
and East Indian kino (from Pterocarpus erinaeeus and marsupium), 
also from butea gum, products which reacted like pyrocatechin. Wies- 
ner examined last year* sixteen similar drugs, and observed that this 
compound is probably always present therein. The powdered sub- 
stance is treated with ether, this solvent evaporated, and the residue 
dissolved in water. Dilute ferric chloride added to this solution im- 
parts a green, limewater a red color. Since kino is obtained by eva- 
poration of the juice of the plants, it is probable that pyrocatechin 
is present in the plant, and not a product formed at an elevated tem- 
perature, as has been often supposed. — Ber. d. d. chem. Ges. zu Ber- 
lin, 1872, 1—4, and 47. 

Artificial Conia. — Hugo SchifF gives some additional information")" 
on this artificial alkaloid, in the separation of which from the other 
products of decomposition he avoids the use of platinic chloride by 
repeated fractional distillation. The most important difference be- 
tween the native and the artificial alkaloids lies in the absence of all 

* Zeitschr. d. cesterr. Apoth. Vereins, 1871, 499. 
f See Amer. Journal of Pharmacy, 1871, 161. 



AM May U i,i P 872 RM '} Gleanings from the European Journals, 211 

rotating power in the latter, which shows also slight but constant dif- 
ferences in the behavior to muriatic acid, nitrate of silver and chlo- 
ride of gold ; the effects of both upon frogs, cats and dogs were found 
to be identical. The author proposes the name of paraconia for the 
artificial alkaloid. — Ibid., p. 42 — 44. 

Estimation of Fat in Milk. — A. Schukoffsky mixes 20 cc. milk, 20 
cc. ether, and 30 cc. strong alcohol, and sets the mixture aside for 24 
hours ; milk sugar crystallizes out and casein is precipitated in flocks, 
and may be readily washed upon a filter with ether and alcohol. 
From the filrate the ether is distilled off, then the alcohol evaporated 
completely in a water-bath ; the residuary liquid is now treated with 
ether, the etherial solution removed by means of a separatory funnel, 
and finally evaporated to recover the fat. 

The author claims for this method greater accuracy than can be 
attained by following Tolmatsheff's (treatment of milk with sulphate 
of magnesia), Haidlen's (with gypsum), Trommer's (with marble dust), 
or Hoppe-Seyler's method (treatment with potassa solution). — Ibid., 
75—77. 

Estimation of Glucose. — F. Jean dissolves the protoxide of copper, 
obtained by boiling the glucose with a solution of tartrate of potassa, 
and copper, in muriatic acid ; this solution is rendered strongly am- 
moniacal and mixed with a solution of nitrate of silver in ammonia. 
Metallic silver is precipitated, 5 equivalents (315) of which correspond 
with one equiv. (100) of glucose ; 100 cane sugar after conversion 
into glucose yield 316 silver. — Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., 1872, 
Mars, 206. 

Manna of the Linden-tree. — Boussingault observed, near Liebfrau- 
enberg, in 1869, upon the leaves of a linden-tree, a viscous matter 
which he found to correspond closely in composition with the manna 
of Mount Sinai, as ascertained by Berthelot:* 

Linden Manna, collected Tamarix Manna 

July 22, August 1st, 1869. of Mount SinaL 

Cane Sugar, 48-86 55-44 55 

Invert Sugar, 28-59 24-75 25 

Dextrine, 22-55 19-81 20 

—Ibid., 214—218. 



* American Journal of Pharmacy, 1862, p. 71. 



212 Gleanings from the European Journals. { AM May R i*, V m™~ 

An Egyptian Perfume, examined by Personne, was in the form of 
a cake with a rugose surface, of a chocolate color and a resinous ap- 
pearance upon the fracture, with the central portion white ; it was 
found to be composed of a mixture of fat, chalk, frankincense and 
myrrh, with a small quantity of benzoin. . Some time after the mix- 
ture has been made, a lime soap is formed, which prevents the rapid 
combustion, and keeps the mass from becoming too soft. This mass 
is well known in Egypt and very common among the fellahs ; its 
Egyptian name, which is pronounced boohhur re-bar, signifies Arabian 
or border perfume. — Ibid., 254 — 256. 

Turbid Wine of Colchicum Seeds contains, according to Vulpius, a 
large number of minute yeast cells, originating, probably, from the 
nitrogenated principles of the seeds. They will readily pass through 
the filter, but may be removed by agitating the turbid wine with finely 
powdered colchicum seeds, in the proportion of about 1000 to 1, and 
filtering immediately and repeatedly through the same filter, after 
which it will remain clear for many months. — Pharm. Centr. Halle> 
1872, No. 10. 

A Histological Description of Oondurango Bark has been furnished 
by Prof. Dr. A. Vogl. From its structure the author is inclined to 
refer it to an euphorbiaceous plant. The dichotomously branched 
laticiferous vessels have the same character as those usually met with 
in Euphorbiacece.* — Zeitschr. d. oesterr. Apoth. Ver., 1872, No. 5. 

Guaco Sold as Oondurango. — It appears that in the European 
market the stalks of Mikania Guaco, H. B. K., nat. ord. Oompositoe^ 
are sold as condurango.f — N. Jahrb. f Pharm., 1872, Feb., 68. 

Analysis of Sarracenia purpurea. — E. Schmidt found in it cellu- 
lose, gum, albumen, resin, sarracenic acid, which is coloring matter, 
yielding with alum a nice yellow lake, and which is soluble in alcohol, 
little in ether and benzine ; tannin, fat, wax, 11-43 per ct. water, and 
3*32 per ct. ashes, consisting of lime and potassa silicates, phosphates 

*The description corresponds with that variety of condurango which has 
been introduced here under the name of Mata perro, which comes from an As- 
clepiadeacea. See this Journal 1871, p. 568. 

t We have not met with this drug in our market as the now notorious cancer 
specific, although we have seen not less than five or six barks which, on the 
west coast of South America, are known by the name of condurango. — Editor 
Amer. Jodrn. Pharmacy. 



AM M J a°/i;i872 RM '} Gleanings from European Journals. 213 

and sulphates, and traces of chlorides. — N. Jahrb.f. Pharm., 1872, 
Feb., 98, from G-az. Med. de Strassbourg, vii, p. 78. 

Extract of Meat. — Dr. R. Goddefroy analyzed some La Plata ex- 
tract of meat, prepared by A. Benites & Co., Buenos Ayres, and also 
some Fray-Bentos extract. The results are as follows : 

Limits in Genuine 
La Plata. Fray-Bentos. Extracts, accord- 

ing to Liebig. 

Water, 16-92 per ct. 18-69 per ct. 16—21 per ct. 

Ashes, 10-07 " 21-14 " 18—22 

Combustible compounds, 64*00 " 6016 " 

Extractive soluble in 80 per ct. 

alcohol, 64-28 " Not estimated. 56—66 

Chloride of sodium, 2-8 " 1*99 per ct. None. 

The author recommends the La Plata as equal to the Fray-Bentos 
extract and as reliable, as long as it is analyzed by chemists like Pro- 
fessors Depaire and Jouret. — Zeitschr. d. oesterr. Apoth. Ver., 1872, 
No. 7. 

Contributions to the Knowledge of the so-called False Cinchona 
Barks. — Under this title Professor Fluckiger publishes in Neues 
Jahrbuch fur Pharmacie, 1871, Nov. and Dec, p. 291 — 302, a most 
important paper, from which we condense the following results : 

Dr. O. Hesse discovered, in 1870, in quina blanea from Payta, the 
alkaloid paytina, C 2l H 24 N 2 0+H 2 0, of which it contains 2J per cent. 
The tree from which it is obtained is supposed by Dr. Fluckiger to 
belong to the Cinchonacece, but not to the genus Cinchona; but the 
bast fibres have the same structure as those of the true cinchonas. 
The alkaloid differs by 1 equiv. of carbon from cinchonia, and the 
bark yields, when heated in a test-tube, a brown tar, not a bright red 
sublimate. 

In a copper-colored bark from the London market, provisionally 
named china cuprea, Dr. O. Hesse found 1 per ct. of quinia, besides 
a little cinchonia; the same bark was already in 1857 observed by J. 
E. Howard and found to contain quinia. Dr. Fluckiger finds the 
structure to be entirely different from cinchona, the bast fibres in par- 
ticular having large cavities of the same or even larger diameter than 
the thickness of the walls of the bast cells. The bark shows Grahe's 
reaction (bright red colored tar, when heated). 

The differences hitherto recognized between genuine and false cin- 
chona barks is obliterated by these investigations ; the two barks in 



214 The Mother Plant of Wormseed. \ A V a ™; 

question appear to form a connecting link between the barks of cin- 
chona and other botanically closely allied genera ; while one bark re- 
resembles in structure true cinchona without containing any cinchona 
alkaloid, the other bark contains two of these alkaloids but has a 
structure different from cinchona. 



THE MOTHER PLANT OF WORMSEED. 
Abstracted from a Paper by Professor Willkomm. 
By Professor Fluckiger. 

Wormseed is exclusively brought from Central Asia, and consists 
of flower-buds of a species of Artemisia, which is now for the first time 
described* by Willkomm, Professor of Botany in the University of 
Dorpat. The plant was brought there by Professor Petzholdt, who 
had spent the summer and spring of the last year in Turkestan. He 
had the plant collected there by the people gathering wormseed near 
the small town of Turkestan, about 44° north lat. and 68° east long.> 
that is to say, between the Aral Sea and the Lake Balkash ; the area 
of the plant probably extends much more eastward. Willkomm gives 
a full description and diagnosis of the Artemisia under examination 
of which we will endeavor to abstract the most important parts. 

The genus Artemisia includes a large number of species, divided by 
systematic botanists into several tribes. Seriphidium is the name of 
one of these tribes ; the species which belong to it are provided with 
hermaphrodite, homogamous florets. They are inserted on a rather 
stalk-like receptacle, not a disk, each floret being accompanied by a 
small bract. The apex of the short receptacle, however, is devoid 
both of florets and bracts. The small capitula or heads of the Seri- 
phidia exhibit only a few florets, and are arranged so as to form pan- 
iculated spikes. The florets and the bracts, as well as the involucral 
scales, show numerous glands or papillae, containing an aromatic 
resinoid substance. The bifurcation of the style becomes obvious 
only when the floret is fully developed. 

The plant from which wormseed is collected is strongly shrubby, its 
numerous yellowish stems and branches being woody in their lower 
parts, and attaining a height of from 1 to 1J feet. The branches are 
densely tufted ; the whole plant, indeed, forms a broom, or at least 

* In the Botanische Zeitung of H. von Mohl and A. de Bary, 1872, March 
1st, p. 130. 



^m?imi*i The Mother Plant of Wormseed. 215 

each stem may be compared with a little broom. The pinnate leaves 
are thickish, of a greyish green hue, although they are beset with only 
a few scattered soft hairs. In the youngest state, the leaves of short 
shoots are densely covered with grey felted hairs, whereas the fully- 
developed leaves, as well as the involucres and florets, are entirely 
naked. This is one of the most prominent characters of the plant 
under notice, and, as it is well known, of commercial wormseed. 

The author had not before him fully developed florets ; but in these 
there occurs the strange fact that the style is club-shaped, much 
shorter than the stamina, and enclosed in a very thin transparent mem- 
brane, which disappears when the style begins to be separated into 
two stigmas. Willkomm has likewise met with a similar membrane 
in Artemisia Barrelieri. 

The plant of Turkestan is very closely allied to some other Artemi- 
sia?, especially to A. Lercheana, Stechm., A. pauciflora, Stechm., — 
both figured in Gmelin's " Flora Sibirica," tab. 50 and 52, the former 
also much better in Ledebour's "Icones Florae Rossicse," tab. 488. 
Another species resembling wormseed plant is A. monogyna, Kit. ; but 
all these are covered with a dense felt of whitish hairs. As to the 
florets of the mother plant of wormseed, Willkomm thinks they can 
scarcely be distinguished from those of A. Barrelieri, Bess., which he 
had observed in Spain. But in external appearance the two last- 
named species are widely different. 

Berg, in his " Darstellung und Beschreibung der officinellen Ge- 
wachse," etc., 1863, plate xxix. c, having pointed out that the plant 
yielding wormseed was not known, had bestowed upon it the anticipa- 
tory name of A. Cina. Willkomm now maintains this name, but then 
Berg's name should be discarded, and the plant be termed Artemisia 
Cina, Willk. (Berg.) Its full diagnosis is as follows : — 

" Suffruticosa, caudice crasso tortuoso, caulibus multis basi lignosis, 
3-5 decim. longis, basi foliatis, inde a medio ramulo spermultos florife- 
ros erectopatulos paniculam scopaeformem formantes edentibus; foliis 
basilaribus inferioribusque longe petiolatis bipinnatisectis arachnoideo- 
villosulis, mediis pinnatisectis floralibusque integris glaberrimis, seg- 
ments omnium linearibus obtusis cartilagineo-mucronulatis, crassius- 
culis, margine revolutis et nervo medio crasso instructis ; foliis basil- 
aribus inferioribusque turiones foliosos incano-tomentosos, superioribus 
foiiorum fasciculos glabros ex axilla edentibus ; calathiis numerosis 
secus ramulos laxe spicato-glomeratis vel simpliciter spicatis, sessilibus 



216 



Yaupon. 



f Am. Jour. Phabm 
t May 1, 1872. 



erectis, versus anthesin 3 millim. longis oblongis, squamis glaberrimis 
circiter 12 oblongo-linearibus obtusissimis valde concavis laxe imbri- 
catis, late scarioso-marginatis, dorso vitta viridi in utraque pagina 
densissime glanduloso-papillosa notatis ; floribus 3-6 in squamarum 
summarum axilla sessilibus per paria dispositis, ovario obovato vix 
quartam corollae obconicse partem longitudine sequante. dentibus co- 
rollae obtusis triangularibus tubo quadruple brevioribus extus papillis 
resinosis crebris obsitis." 



YAUPON. 
By Henry M. Smith. 
Yaupon is the name given by the Indians to the leaves of the Ilex 
Oassine, a plant indigenous to the Southern States, but found only 
along the coast, from Florida to North Carolina. Mixed with the 
leaves of other species of the same plant, Ilex vomitoria and Ilex da- 
hoon, it formed " Cassena," the basis of their famous "black drink," 
which was used by the red men as a medicine, and as a state drink at 
some of their religious festivals. 
• Its constituents are, by analysis, as follows : 



Volatile oil, 
Wax and tar, 
Resin, 

Chlorophyll, . 
Caffein, 

Tannic acid, . 
Brown coloring matter, 
Gum, pectin, etc., 
Extractive matter, 
Extractive matter, (starch 
Nitrogenous matter, 
Woody matter, 
Moisture, 
Ash, . 



pectose, tannin, etc.) 



0.011 
0.466 
3.404 
2.491 
0.122 
2.409 
4.844 
8.244 
10.149 
15.277 
8.138 
34.854 
7.595 
3.935 

101.939 



Total, .... 
The volatile oil has a very agreeable odor, perhaps faintly resemb- 
ling that of raw tobacco, but having also a tea-like smell. The quan- 
tity obtained was too small to determine its physical characteristics, 
but it was quite soluble in water, and a very small quantity gave a 



A Yay l i P 8 H 72 RM - } Properties of the Geraniece. 217 

decided odor to a large volume of that fluid. The large quantity of 
resin is worthy of attention, as it is probably derived in large part 
from the oxidation of the volatile oil ; and it suggests that aroma and 
medicinal properties of the tea might be improved by a more careful 
preparation of the leaves. 

The amount of caffein is small, ordinary tea containing 2*5 to 6 per 
cent. Stenhouse found 0-13 per cent, in Paraguay tea, (Ilex Para- 
guayensis,) which agrees very closely with the amount found in Yau- 
pon. A trace of caffein was found in the distillate, with the volatile 
oil, proving that this alkaloid is carried off mechanically when tea or 
coffee is boiled. 

The percentage of tannic acid does not include that rendered in- 
soluble by combination with legumin, etc. 

The large amount of woody matter shows that the tea might be im- 
proved by more careful picking and manipulation of the leaves. 

Yaupon is largely used in the South as a substitute for tea, coffee, 
and other stimulants ; and it is reported to be very beneficial to in- 
ebriates who wish to cure themselves of their love of liquor. — Scientific 
American, 1872, March 30. 



NOTES ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE GERANIEiE. 
By John R. Jackson, A. L. S., 
Curator of the Museums, Kew. 

Geraniums, or more properly pelargoniums, are with us the most 
popular and best known garden plants. The order to which they be- 
long, including the tribes Oxalidece and Balsarninece, number about 
750 species. It is represented with us by the crane's bill (Geranium), 
the stork's bill (Erodium), the wood sorrel (Oxalis), and the balsam 
(Impatiens). It is, however, more particularly of the tribe Geraniece 
that we have now to speak. It is widely distributed in various parts 
of the world, the plants often assuming very different forms from those 
we are accustomed to recognize as members of the tribe amongst our 
native or cultivated garden plants. The family is certainly not valu- 
able, either in a medicinal or economic point of view, yet its charac- 
teristic properties are astringent and aromatic, many having a fragrant 
and some a musky odor. None of the British species are used in any 
way by us ; but in North America Geranium maculatum, L., known 
as the crane's bill, crowfoot, or alum root, is considered a medicinal 



218 



Pi'operties of the Geraniece. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May 1, 1872. 



plant, and is used as a powerful astringent in chronic diarrhoea, leu- 
corrhoea, etc., and as a substitute for kino, catechu, and the more ex- 
pensive remedies of a similar class. Being devoid of any unpleasant 
taste, it is well adapted for infants and delicate persons. The root is 
the part employed, and it is given either in substance or in the form 
of tincture, decoction or extract. 

The crane's bill is described in Wood and Bache's " Dispensatory," 
and is used throughout the United States, not only as an officinal 
medicine, but also as a popular domestic remedy. For administering 
to children it is usually boiled in milk. 

In South Africa, which is the headquarters of the genus Pelargonium, 
several of the species are used medicinally ; thus P. triste, Ait., has a 
tuberous, slightly astringent root, which, when dried and pulverized, 
is used in diarrhoea and dysentery ; and it has also been recommended 
as a vermifuge. These roots, in a fresh state, have been eaten by the 
natives as food. Another tuberous-rooted species is P. antidysenteri- 
cum, E. et Z.; these roots are called t'Namie by the natives of Nama- 
qualand, where the plants grow ; they are often as large as a man's 
hand, and are boiled in milk and used in dysentery. Amongst other 
medicinal Pelargonice of the Cape may be mentioned P. scutatum, 
Sweet., called by the colonists the Kaffir sorrel. It is a shrubby 
plant common in many parts of the eastern districts. The leaves are 
said to have astringent and antiseptic properties, and to be useful in 
cases of sore throat, etc. From the petals of the flowers a juice of a 
blue color can be expressed, which Burchell, the celebrated South 
African traveller, suggested might be found useful for painting. P. 
cucullatum, Ait., is also a shrubby plant, very common on the side of 
Table Mountain : " It has been recommended in the form of decoction, 
or as an enema in colic, nephritis, and suppression of urine, and is 
also an excellent emollient." It is said that this plant was formerly 
exported to Holland as Herba Althcece. P. anceps, Ait., is an herba- 
ceous plant, with small crimson flowers ; it is called Roode Rabassam 
by the natives, who use it for promoting parturition and to procure 
abortion. 

P. roseum, likewise a Cape species, is valuable on account of its 
yielding an essential oil much used in perfumery. This plant is very 
extensively cultivated in the south of France and by the rose growers 
in Turkey. The oil is obtained from the leaves of the plant, one 
hundredweight of the latter yielding by distillation about two ounces 



% J a °™;f 8 H 7 A 2 RM -} Eucalyptus Globulus in Medicine. 219 

of essential oil ; it has a smell very similar to otto of rose, and is 
much used for adulterating that valuable article; it is, moreover, said 
to be frequently adulterated itself with the oil of Andropogon, which 
is considerably cheaper, and is imported in large quantities from the 
East. 

Next to the genus Pelargonium, the most interesting, perhaps, with 
regard to its products is Monsonia or Sarcocaulon. The plants have 
mostly fleshy spiny stems, which secrete or deposit a large quantity 
of a waxy or resinous substance ; S. E Heritieri and S. Pater soni are r 
perhaps, more highly endowed with this power than any other species. 
This substance seems to be formed in the bark, and in such large 
quantities, that the stems become, to all appearance, a mere mass of 
wax, moulded to the form and shape of the stem. It is of a greenish- 
yellow color externally, in fracture very like that of gamboge but 
rather more transparent ; it burns like caoutchouc, but with a slightly 
aromatic smell. In alcohol it becomes softish and partially plastic,, 
and a similar effect is produced upon it by boiling water. It breaks 
with a short fracture, like a resin, so that it seems to possess a combina- 
tion of waxy, resinous and elastic properties. As the stems of the 
plants become old the vegetable tissues seem to be displaced by the 
formation of this substance, so that becoming a mass of inflammable 
matter, they are used by the natives for candles or torches. Some 
fine specimens of this substance are in the Kew collection. The root 
and herb of Monsonia ovata, Cav., called by the Hottentots Keita, are 
astringent, and are used by them in dysentery. — Pharm. Jour, and 
Trans., March 16, 1872. 



THE EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AND ITS USE IN MEDICINE. 

The employment of the Eucalyptus globulus in therapeutics is the 
subject of a very important memoir by Professor Gubler, in which he 
expresses an opinion that it will probably prove to be a remedy worthy 
of being ranked with the cinchona alkaloids. We take the following 
particulars from the Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie for December : 

The Eucalyptus globulus belongs to the Natural Order Myrtacece, 
which furnishes the clove {Caryophyllus aromaticus), oil of cajeput 
{Melaleuca minor), and the pimento {Eugenia Pimento). It is one of 
the noblest representatives of a genus that contains upwards of a 
hundred species. It is often gigantic in size, and is impregnated 



220 Eucalyptus Globulus in Mediciiie. {%i7?;? 8 H 7 A 2 RM ' 

throughout with an aromatic substance, which is present, however, in 
smaller proportions in the wood and the bark than in the flowers and 
the leaves. The tree is easily acclimatized in the southern provinces 
of France, Corsica, Algiers and Spain, being known in the last named 
country under the popular name of the fever tree. 

An essential oil, having the formula C 12 H 40 O, is obtained from the 
leaves by distillation, which has been named by Cloetz, who investi- 
gated its composition, eucalyptol. The results of this investigation 
have already been printed in this Journal.* Eucalyptol has an 
agreeable, fragrant, aromatic and peculiar odor, which by some has 
been compared to camphor,' by others to rose or lavender. It has an 
aromatic, warm and bitter flavor, accompanied by a slight acidity and 
freshness at the back of the throat ; when in excess, however, it pro- 
duces a burning sensation, and an increased secretion of saliva. Doses 
of from two to four grams and upwards cause a disturbance of the di- 
gestion, sometimes succeeded by a diarrhoea in which the motions, like 
the eructations, recall the smell of the eucalyptus. Large doses some- 
times cause headache, excitement and fever, with accelerated respi- 
ration, thirst, sickness and generally sleepiness; upon anaemic persons, 
however, it acts as a narcotic. The symptoms rarely last more than 
a few hours. In most cases one to two grams can be tolerated at first, 
and in all cases the patient easily becomes habituated to its use. The 
physiological action of the leaves is very similar, and it has been found 
that they can be taken by fresh patients in larger doses than the free 
essence. 

In Australia the Eucalyptus globulus is the popular remedy for 
fevers, and in Europe it has been used successfully in the treatment 
of diseases prevalent in marshy districts. M. Gubler quotes the tes- 
timony of several medical practitioners, who say that it produces 
marvellous results in cases of intermittent fevers, especially obstinate 
ones where sulphate of quinine has been used without effect. He 
also points out that in marshy districts near to eucalyptus forests in- 
termittent fevers are unknown — a result that he attributes either to 
the neutralization of the effluvia by the aromatic emanations from the 
trees, or else to the sweetening of the stagnant waters by the leaves 
and pieces of bark that fall into them, such waters, according to trav- 
ellers, being perfectly potable. Efforts are therefore being made to 

* Pharm. Jour. 3d Ser. Vol. I. p. 78. 



A Vay°vm2 RM '} Mrs. Winslows Soothing Syrup, etc. 221 

increase the number of eucalyptus plantations in the marshy and in- 
salubrious districts of Corsica and Algeria. 

The tincture, infusion and decoction of eucalyptus are used for dis- 
infecting the dressings of wounds. M. Mares has employed fresh 
young leaves as a local stimulant to small wounds slow to cicatrize. 
Dilute essence, infusion and distilled water of the leaves are used as 
astringents and haemostatics. The preparations are also used with 
success in purulent catarrhal affections of the urethra and vagina. 
The leaves, when masticated, perfume the breath, and harden spongy 
and bleeding gums. 

The presence of the 'essence of eucalyptus retards in a remarkable 
manner the development of cryptogams. According to M. Gubler, 
solution of salts of strychnia, atropia, morphia and aconitia, prepared 
for hypodermic injection with the distilled water of the leaves, re- 
mained clear for many weeks ; while others, prepared at the same 
time with pure water, became turbid with confervoid growths in a few 
days. 

The following are the pharmaceutical preparations of eucalyptus 
that have been found convenient in use : — 

1. The powdered leaves, which is the best form, and is prescribed 
in doses of four, eight, twelve and even sixteen grams a day. 

2. The infusion and decoction, which M. Gubler recommends should 
not be submitted to too much heat, in order not to drive off the es- 
sence. 

3. The distilled water of the leaves, an agreeable vehicle for stimu- 
lants. 

4. An aqueous maceration of eucalyptol, with the same properties. 

5. The aqueous extract, recommended by M. Carlotti to prevent 
the return of intermittent fever. 

6. The alcoholic extract, tincture and alcoholate. 

8. Eucalyptol, which is administered either in pills or in capsules. 
8. Inhalations of eucalyptol. — Pharm. Jour, and Trans., March 
2, 1872. 



MRS. WINSLOWS SOOTHING SYRUP— A POISON. 
By W. F. McNutt, M. D., San Francisco. 
My attention was first called to the baneful effects and the enor- 
mous consumption of this nostrum, by an article in the November, '69, 
number of the California Medical Gazette, by Dr. Murray, U. S. A. 



222 Mrs. Winslows Soothing Syrup, etc. {^T?;^*** 

Dr. Murray had been called to see a child aged six months, apparently 
in a dying condition from the effects of some narcotic poison. He 
found that this Soothing Syrup was the only medicine which had been 
administered, and of it the child had taken two teaspoonfuls within 
ten hours. There was remaining in the vial from which the two tea- 
spoonfuls had been taken, ten drachms, which yielded, on analysis by 
a skillful chemist, nearly one grain of morphia and other opium alka- 
loids to the ounce of syrup. " The specimen of Soothing Syrup an- 
alyzed was made by Curtis & Perkins, of New York, who are the only 
manufacturers." 

On the 7th of February, Mrs. W. came into my office with a child 
five months old in her arms, which, she said, was very sick ; that it 
slept constantly, and would not nurse or move for several days. The 
child was breathing heavily and its pupils were closely contracted. I 
asked if the child had been taking opium ; she replied that it had 
taken nothing but soothing syrup. She said that on the 5th, two 
days before, the child was restless and its bowels costive, and that a 
neighbor had advised her to give it a teaspoonful of soothing syrup, 
saying it was excellent to regulate the bowels. (She had previously 
given the syrup in small doses.) She administered the syrup twice 
during the day, a teaspoonful each time ; the child slept heavily all 
night, and would not nurse when roused. Not suspecting the syrup 
had anything to do with its sleeping, she gave on the 6th, at different 
times, three teaspoonfuls more. The child refused to nurse when 
roused. On the 7th she gave it another teaspoonful, before bringing 
it to my office. I told her that the child was poisoned by morphia, of 
which soothing syrup contained a large quantity. The mother was 
surprised and alarmed, and had had no idea that there was morphia 
in soothing syrup. 

I ordered brandy and coffee, the bowels to be kept open by injec- 
tions, and the child to be kept awake as much as possible. The child 
recovered, but was not able to nurse until the 10th. This is but one 
of the many instances of poison by this nostrum. 

Dr. R. S. Maxwell, my partner, was called to see a child five weeks 
old, to whom half a teaspoonful of soothing syrup had been given a 
few hours previous. The child was already past all help, and died in 
a few hours. No other medicine had been given. 

In my own case, the child five months old had taken two teaspoon- 
fuls on the 5th, three on the 6th, and one on the 7th, making six tea- 



AM Ma°y U t*m2 RM } Mrs. Winshics Soothing Syrup, etc. 223 

spoonfuls from ten o'clock on the 5th until 8 A. M. on the 7th ; con- 
sequently it got over half a grain of morphia in the space of forty-six 
hours. As susceptible as children are to the influence of opium, it 
seems almost impossible that the child could have lived. In fact, we 
know that it could not have lived, had not the tolerance of the poison 
been induced by previous doses in lesser quantities. We may add 
that there are very few children at the age of six months, who would 
not be poisoned to death, were they to take the syrup as directed, 
(namely: six months old and upwards, one teaspoonful three or four 
times a day until free from pain,) unless a tolerance of the drug be 
induced by its previous administration in small doses. The morphia 
in a teaspoonful of soothing syrup is equal to about twenty drops of 
laudanum. Here we have thousands of mothers and nurses, ignorant 
alike of the ingredients and the effects of this deadly nostrum, direct- 
ed to give a child six months old morphia equal to twenty drops of 
laudanum, while a physician would not dare to give a child of that 
age more than three drops. 

Dr. Murray, in the article already referred to, says : " I have as- 
certained that there are about one hundred thousand two-ounce bottles 
of it sold annually in this city, containing about one hundred and 
eighty thousand grains of morphia, which are given annually to the 
babies of this State." 

If the babies of this State consume two hundred thousand ounces of 
soothing syrup, it is but fair to assume that there is seventy-five times 
that amount used in the whole United States, which would make 
15,000,000 ounces of syrup, or about 14,000,000 grains of morphia. 
Setting aside the direct cost of this nostrum, it would be scarcely pos- 
sible to estimate the damages which the people of the United States 
sustain indirectly from its use. 

How much the early resort of our youth to tobacco and alcoholic 
stimulants is due to the previous use of the opium contained in this 
nostrum is probably not realized. But, that it has much to do with 
it, any one can believe, who has seen with what avidity the opium 
eater, when deprived of his opium, will fly to alcohol, ether, hashish, 
tobacco, or anything that will lull the eternal craving of the appetite 
for something, other than wholesome food. It would be also impos- 
sible to estimate the number of children it sends to the grave before 
they reach their second year. But that the administration of 
14,000,000 grains of morphia annually to the babies of the United 



224 * 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jodr. Pharm. 
1 May 1, 1872. 



States, by persons ignorant of its effects, must send its thousands, 
any reasonable person will be inclined to grant. But a still graver 
question presents itself, namely : How much of the physical disease, 
of the drunkenness, of the degradation and of the vice, and how many 
of the weakened intellects, are due to the use of the soothing syrup 
in infancy ? Probably enough to make it a wiser Legislature that will 
prohibit the manufacture of any nostrum for children which contains 
opium, than the Legislature that passes a prohibitory liquor law for 
the benefit of its adults. — Pacific Med. and Surg. Journ 1872, Apr. 



tJarictics. 



The Pharmacopoeia of 1870. — In anticipation of the approach of another 
course of instruction in the Colleges of Pharmacy and of Medicine it is 
exceedingly desirable that we should have the revised Pharmacopoeia. There 
will probably be ten schools of pharmacy in operation next winter, to say 
nothing of the still more numerous medical colleges, in every one of which the 
instructions in chemistry, materia medica and pharmacy are largely influenced 
by the national standard. Now, when it is remembered that the hundreds of 
young men who will complete their college course next spring will all have to 
unlearn some portion of their instructions, and will, in fact, almost from the 
time of their issuing from the colleges, be behind the times in regard to some of 
the officinal processes, the corrected nomenclature, and other things which 
enter into the decennial revision, we think no one can fail to recognise the 
importance of the work being put into print. It is well known that the labors 
of the Committee have been so far completed that the revised work is already 
engrossed for the printer, and, with great respect and deference to the Com- 
mittee who have spent so much labor upon it, I will close with the inquiry, 
which is heard from all quarters : When will the Pharmacopoeia be issued? 

Edward Parrish. 



Dextrin.— The Polytechnisches Journal recommends the preparation of dex- 
trin by mixing 500 parts potato starch, 1500 parts cold distilled water, and 8 
parts pure oxalic acid in a vessel on a water-bath, and heating till the mixture 
does not show the starch reaction when tested with iodine. When this point is 
reached the vessel is removed from the water-bath, and the liquid neutralized 
with pure carbonate of lime. Having stood for two days, the liquid should be 
filtered, and the filtrate evaporated on a water-bath till it becomes of a pasty 
consistency. It can then be removed with a knife and dried into a cake in a 
warm place. Two hundred and twenty parts of pure dextrin are thus obtained. 
— Scientific American, April 20, 1872. 



Am. Jour. Phabm. ) 
May 1, 1872. j" 



The Pharmacy Act. 



225 



Ether Glue. — An excellent liquid glue is made by dissolving glue in nitric 
«ther. The ether will only dissolve a certain amount of glue, consequently the 
solution cannot be made too thick. The glue thus made is about the consist- 
ency of molasses, and is doubly as tenacious as that made with hot water If 
a few bits of India rubber, cut into scraps the size of buckshot, be added, and 
the solution be allowed to stand a few days, being stirred frequently, it will be 
all the better, and will resist the dampness twice as well as glue made with 
water. — Ibid. 



Silvering of Glass — Dr. Bothe. — This lengthy paper contains several hints 
and practical receipts for the purpose of silvering glass, from which we quote 
the following particulars : Ingredients and apparatus required — Sal-Seignettfr 
(tartrate of potassa and soda), solution of that salt in water, 1 grm. to 50 of 
water; of ammonia liquida, 50 c.c; solution of nitrate of silver, 1*8; glass flask 
of 1000 c.c. cubic capacity for the reduction fluid, and a little flask for the sil- 
vering fluid. Reduction fluid — Mix with 900 c.c. of pure distilled water 90 c.c. 
of the above-mentioned solution of the Seignette salt; pour this liquid into the 
glass flask, and let it boil violently; while thus boiling add 20 c.c. of the solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver, and continue the boiling for some ten minutes longer; 
this fluid, which now contains oxytartrate of oxide of silver, can be kept for 
any length of time, and improves on keeping ; if left in the flask, which for con- 
venience should be labelled (1), the liquid has to be filtered before use through 
filtering paper. The silvering fluid is made in the following manner : Nitrate of 
silver is first dissolved in distilled water, and next ammonia added until the 
precipitate at first appearing is again dissolved ; the liquid is again filtered, and 
diluted with so much water that 1 grm. of the silver salt makes 100 c.c. of solu- 
tion. For the purpose of silvering, equal quantities by bulk of the fluids alluded 
to are first each separately filtered, and next poured together into a vessel of 
suitable size and shape, wherein the glass plate to be silvered is then placed ; 
this glass should be first scrupulously cleaned. — Chem. News, Lond., March 15, 
1872, from Bay. Ind. und Gew. Blatt. 



A. IS A. O T 

To Regulate the Practice of Pharmacy and Sale of Poisons and to 
Prevent Adulterations in Drugs and Medicinal Preparations in 
the City of Philadelphia. 

Whereas The safety of the Public is endangered by want of care in the sale 
of Poisons whether to be used as such for legitimate purposes or employed as 
medicines and dispensed on the prescriptions of Physicians; and whereas The 
power of Physicians to overcome disease depends greatly on their ability to 
obtain good and unadulterated Drugs and skilfully prepared Medicines ; and 
whereas The class of persons to which the preparation and sale of Drugs Medi- 
cines and Poisons properly belong known as Apothecaries Chemists and ^rug- 
gists or Pharmacists should possess a practical knowledge of the business and 
science of Pharmacy in all its relations; therefore 

15 



226 The Pharmacy Act. { A V a ° y u 

Section I. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met and it is hereby 
enacted by the Authority of the same That hereafter no person whatsoever shall 
open or carry on in the City of Philadelphia any Retail Drug or Chemical 
Store as the proprietor or manager thereof nor engage in the business of com- 
pounding or dispensing Medicines on prescriptions of Physicians or of selling 
at retail any Drugs Chemicals Poisons or Medicines without having obtained 
a written certificate that he is duly competent and qualified to do so from " The 
Pharmaceutical Examining Board" and having been duly registered as here- 
inafter provided. 

Section II. That there shall be established in the City of Philadelphia a 
Board to be styled The Pharmaceutical Examining Board to consist of five 
persons three of whom shall constitute a quorum who shall be appointed by the 
Mayor of the City of Philadelphia out of the most skilled and competent 
Pharmacists [at the time engaged in said business] in the said City who shall 
be and constitute the said The Pharmaceutical Examining Board as aforesaid. 
The said persons shall hold their office for three years and until their successors 
are duly appointed and qualified. They and each of them shall within ten days 
after their appointment take and subscribe an oath or affirmation before the 
Clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace for the County of Phila- 
delphia that they will faithfully and impartially perform the duties of their 
office ; and any vacancy occurring in said Board shall be filled for the unexpired 
term by the Mayor of the said City. 

Section III. That the said The Pharmaceutical Examining Board shall 
keep a Book of Registration open at some convenient place of which due 
notice shall be given by advertisement in at least two of the public newspapers 
of the City of Philadelphia in which Book shall be registered the name and 
address of every person duly qualified under this Act to conduct the retail 
Apothecary business. And it shall be the duty of all persons now conducting 
or who shall hereafter conduct the business of retail Apothecaries in said City 
to appear before said Board and be registered within thirty days after such 
notice. 

Section IV. The said Pharmaceutical Examining Board shall be entitled 
to demand and receive from each applicant for such registration and the certi- 
ficate hereinafter provided for a fee not to exceed five dollars ($5) to be applied 
to the payment of expenses arising under the provisions of this Act. 

Section V. The duty of the said The Pharmaceutical Examining Board 
shall be to examine every person who shall desire to carry on the business of a 
retail Apothecary or that of retailing Drugs Chemicals or Poisons or of com- 
pounding and dispensing Physicians' prescriptions touching his competency 
and qualification for that purpose ; and upon the said Board or a majority of 
them being satisfied of such competency and qualification they the said Board 
or a majority of them shall grant to such person a certificate of his competency 
and qualification which certificate shall entitle the holder thereof to conduct 
and carry on the business as aforesaid. 



-M^XmT'} The Pharmacy Act. 227 

Section VI. That if any person should hereafter engage in the business of 
an Apothecary or of retailing Drugs Chemicals and Poisons or of compounding 
and dispensing the prescriptions of Physicians either directly or indirectly 
without having obtained such certificate as aforesaid such person shall be liable 
to a penalty of one hundred dollars ($100) for each and every week during which 
they shall continue to carry on such business without such certificate as afore- 
said to be recovered by a suit to be brought before any Alderman or in any 
competent court in said city by the said Board or by any other person for the 
m use of the Guardians of the Poor for the City of Philadelphia to whom the 
said penalties are to be paid. 

Section VII. That the foregoing provisions of this Act shall not apply to or 
affect any person who shall have a diploma or certificate from any incorporated 
College or School of Pharmacy whose diploma or certificate is based upon a 
regular term of service in the Drug and Apothecary Business or who shall be 
engaged in the Drug and Apothecary Business prior to the passage of this Act 
except only in so far as relates to registration as provided for in Sections III 
and VI, of this Act. 

Section VIII. That no person not a Graduate in Pharmacy shall be allowed 
by the proprietor or manager of any store to compound or dispense the pre 
scriptious of Physicians [except as an aid under the immediate supervision of 
said proprietor or his qualified assistant] unless he has been at least two years 
apprenticed in a store where medicines are compounded and dispensed and has 
attended one' full course of lectures on Chemistry Materia Medica and Phar- 
macy ; and no proprietor shall leave his store in charge of any but a qualified 
assistant. Any person violating the provisions of this Section of this Act shall 
be deemed guilty of misdemeanor and on conviction thereof be liable to a 
penalty not exceeding one hundred dollars ($100). 

Section IX. A qualified assistant in the meaning of this Act shall be either 
a Graduate in Pharmacy holding a diploma or certificate of competency based 
upon a regular term of service to the Drug and Apothecary Business from an 
incorporated College or School of Pharmacy or a person holding a certificate 
of competency and qualification from The Pharmaceutical Examining Board 
appointed under this Act. 

Section X. That any person who shall knowingly wilfully or fraudulently 
falsify or adulterate or cause to be falsified or adulterated any drug or medicinal 
substance or any preparation authorized or recognized by the Pharmacopoeia 
of the United States or used or intended to be used in medical practice or 
shall mix or cause to be mixed with any such drug or medicinal substance any 
foreign or inert substance whatsoever for the purpose of destroying or weaken- 
ing its medicinal power or effect and shall wilfully knowingly or fraudulently sell 
or cause the same to be sold for medicinal purposes shall be guilty of a misde- 
meanor and upon conviction thereof shall pay a penalty not exceeding five 
hundred dollars ($500) and shall forfeit to the Commonwealth all of the articles 
so adulterated. 



228 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc 

Section XI. Nothing contained in this Act shall apply to or in any manner 
whatever interfere with the business of any practitioner of Medicine who does 
not keep open shop for the retailing dispensing or compounding of Medicines 
and Poisons nor prevent him from administering or supplying to his patients 
such articles as may seem to him fit and proper nor shall it interfere with the 
making and dealing in proprietary remedies [popularly called Patent Medi- 
cines]. 

Approved April 4th, 1872. 



fljatmacetttial Colkpss an& ^racmtions, 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The Spring course on Botany, which 
commenced on April 3d, is better attended than in previous years, the number 
of students being about 30. Every week one lecture is delivered, and an 
excursion is made weekly to a convenient place in the neighborhood of Phila- 
delphia for the collection of plants. Permission has again been granted to 
Professor Maisch and the botanical class to botanize in Fairmount Park. 



Chicago College of Pharmacy. — At the meeting held March 6th, the retir- 
ing President, Mr. E. H. Sargent, in his annual address, spoke feelingly of the 
sympathy extended by the pharmacists of this country and Europe to this Col- 
lege after the disastrous conflagration. Resolutions of thanks to all contribu- 
tors were adopted. * 

The following officers were elected : George Buck, President; Th. H. Pat- 
terson, J. W. Mill, Vice-Presidents; G. M. Hambright, Secretary; A. C. Van- 
derburgh, Treasurer ; A. E. Ebert, Corresponding Secretary; W. F. Blocki, 
Henry Biroth, N. Gray Bartlett, E. H. Sargent, J. G. Borcherdt, J. M. Hirsh, 
J. H. Mead, Thos. Whitfield, Jul. H. Wilson, Thos. N. Jamieson, Trustees. 



The Cincinnati College of Pharmacy closed its lectures about the middle 
of April. The course, we are informed, has been quite successful. 

A meeting of the College was held March 19th, at which numerous specimens 
were presented to the cabinet, and exhibited to the College by Professor Wayne 
in an interesting lecture. A unanimous vote of thanks was tendered to the 
donors, Messrs. Powers & Weightman, Browning & Bros., and Prof. Wayne. 

The report of the Committee on Certificates of Membership was received, 
and the Committee discharged. The Committees on Pharmacy Bill and on 
Bill for the Establishment of Colleges of Pharmacy were merged into a joint 
committee, with power to act in the whole matter. 



Louisville College of Pharmacy. — The first session in this institution came 
to a close on March 29th, the class numbering 26 students. 



California Pharmaceutical Society.— The regular monthly meeting was 
held on Wednesday evening, March 13th, Mr. Calvert, in the absence of the 
President, in the chair. After the usual routine of business and the election 
of new members the Committee on the New Constitution and By-Laws reported 



Am. Jour. Phatim. ) 
May 1, 1872. J 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



229 



that the printed constitution, with list of members, was still in the hands of the 
printer, awaiting the final passage of the new drug law, now before the Legis- 
lature, relating to the City and County of San Francisco, with the view of 
incorporating the same into the pamphlet. 

The new drug bill was then brought up for discussion, when, after consider- 
able debate on some minor points which were considered now irremediable, the 
proposed bill was accepted and endorsed by the Society. 

The following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Association be tendered to Messrs. Malin- 
krodt & Co., of St. Louis, for the donation of a box of chemicals received by 
the Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary read, among other correspondence, extracts 
from a letter from Prof. J. M. Maisch, requesting botanical specimens indige- 
nous to this coast, either on a basis of exchange or pecuniary remuneration, 
when, on motion, the matter was referred to the Board of Directors. 

The above mentioned drug law having since passed the Legislature and 
received the signature of the Governor, we give in the following a general 
synopsis of the Act, which provides that after the 1st of June, 1872, it shall be 
unlawful for any one unless a registered pharmaceutist or assistant pharmaceu- 
tist, to open or conduct any pharmacy or store for retailing, dispensing or com- 
pounding medicines or poisons. The persons to be registered are divided into 
four classes : graduates, licentiates, practicing and assistant practicing phar. 
maceutists — the status of each being clearly defined. The members of the 
California Pharmaceutical Society residing in San Francisco shall, during the 
month of May, and annually thereafter, elect five of the most prominent phar. 
maceutists of San Francisco to serve as a Board of Pharmacy. The duties 
and powers of this board are defined in detail by the remainder of the bill, also 
the regulating of the sale of poisons and adulterated drugs. In the main, the 
bill is analogous to the new proposed act drafted by the Conference Committee 
of the College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Societies of the City of New 
York, and made conformable to the wants of the pharmaceutists of San Fran- 
cisco. An important feature of this Act is the exemption of all pharmaceu- 
tists from jury duty. 

Wm. T. Wenzell. Cor. Sec. 

A Meeting of the Pharmacists and Druggists of Cleveland was held on 
Thursday, April 18th, at the store of Strong & Armstrong; the following 
committees were appointed to make arrangements for the twentieth annual 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, to be held in Cleveland 
in September next : 

Committee on Ways and Means. — E. M. Hessler, F. H. Hubbard, S. P. 
Churchill, L. Smithnight, J. J. Vogt, A. C. Armstrong, L. J. Merkel, W. H. 
Hartness, P. I. Spenzer, J. P. Moore, W. J. Ranny, George Ashcraft, T. Theo. 
Mueller, A. J. Townsend. 

• Committee of Arrangements.— C. S. Mackenzie, H. C. Gaylord, S. M. Strong, 
D. Meyers, L. J. Merkel, Bruce Huling, C. P. Vaupel. 

Committee on Halls. — H. C. Gaylord, Marshall Shay, A. Mayell, H. C. Bush, 
G. W. Clarke,gJ. F. Baier. 



230 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. {^'w^mT' 

Committee on Exhibitions. — L. J. Merkel, H. 0. Gaylord, A. Mayell, H 
Hensch, J. P. Moore, Z. P. Casterline. 

Committee on Hotels and Railroads. — A. C. Armstrong, C. C. Canfield, A. 
W. Bock, C. F. Fenton, A. Mayell, S. P. Churchill. 

Committee on Reception. — S. M. Strong, J. J. Vogt, 0. S. Mackenzie, C. P. 
Vaupel, G. W. Clark, Horace Benton, J. D. Keegaa, Z. P. Casterline, E. M. 
Hessler, J. Townsend. 

Committee on Entertainment. — C. C. Canfield, C. S. Mackenzie, B. M. Hes8- 
3er, A. C. Armstrong, Bruce Huling, W. H. Hartness, W. J. Field, W. H. 
Capner. 

The next meeting will be held at the store of Benton, Myers & Canfield, on 
Tuesday evening, April 30th. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Hritaix. — At the pharmaceutical meet- 
ing held March 6th, Mr. A. F. Haselden in the chair, a number of interesting 
specimens were presented to the museum, among others true Winter's bark, 
chrysophanic acid, methyl-strychnia, xylol, croton chloral-hydrate and three 
sponges in situ, Dr. Dyce Duckworth read a paper on the pharmacy of ipeca- 
cuanha, in which it is stated that the deposit in the officinal wine contains acid 
tartrate of potassa and cephaelate of emetia, and that the addition of 3 or 4 
minims of liquor potassas renders the muddiest wine or tincture bright and clear 
and of the color of old port wine ; the author proposes in their stead an ace- 
tum containing 1 oz. of ipecac and of acetic acid in the pint ; also an oxymel, 
made by Mr. Carteighe by macerating 1 oz. of ipecacuanha with the same 
quantity of acetic acid for 24 hours, then displacing with water 10 fluidounces 
and mixing with 2 lbs. clarified honey. A very interesting discussion followed 
on the assaying and composition of ipecacuanha and on medicated wines. 

A note on Cinchona caloptera* by Dr. J. B. De Vrij, was then read, from 
which it appears that this species was supposed to be Cinch, succirubra shortly 
after the introduction of the cinchonas into Java; as early as 1860 Mr. J. E. 
Howard doubted its identity with the latter species, and Dr. Miquel finally 
recognized it as a new one, and described it as Cinch. calopt<ra in Annalea 
Musei Botanici Lugduno-Batavi. In 1868 Dr. De Vrij analyzed it, and found 
only 55 per ct. of alkaloids, mostly cinchonia ; an older bark, examined since 
by Moens, yielded 0"63 quinia and 2'8 cinchonia. 

Meeting of April 3. — Mr. C..H. Wood read a paper on the metrical system 
of weights and measures into the Pharmacopoeia, in which the author advocates 
to designate the quantities of the ingredients in the various formulas, not only 
by the present weights and measures, but likewise by proportional numbers 
(parts and fluid parts). The plan was not favorably received by Messrs. Ha- 
zelden and Carteighe, who expressed themselves opposed to such a trausitional 
change, and would rather prefer the adoption of the metrical system, but 
thought that the time had not arrived for this final change. Similar views were 
held by Mr. Martindale; if the metrical system were introduced, he hoped it 
would be done without the weighing of liquids. Professor Redwood contended 



*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 172. 



% J a°y U lm2 RM i Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 231 

the plan proposed by him,* to use in all formulas only the term3 parts and 
measures, was the simpler one, equally applicable to the weights and measures 
now in use and to the metrical system, so that no further change would be 
necessary. Mr. Williams adopted the same views. Mr. Wood replied at con- 
siderable length, after which Mr. Edward Hested read a paper on the occur- 
rence of copper in cajeput oil ; six samples examined by him contained copper : 
by redistillation a colorless oil was obtained, which, in contact with copper, 
dissolved that metal and turned green. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — At the session held Dec. 6th, 1871, 
Mr. Lefort in the chair, Mr. Grassi was elected Yice-President and Mr. Bour- 
goin Annual Secretary for 1872. An interesting discussion took place on the 
Norwegian pot for cooking victuals at a temperature below 100° 0. Mr. Bau- 
drimont communicated an analysis made of an East Indian cinchona bark 
[Cinch, succzrubra), which yielded 37^ per cent, of extract and 5'45 per ct. of 
sulphates of the alkaloids, one per cent, being the quinia salt, the remainder 
quinidia and cinchonia sulphate. Mr. Marais ascribed the large yield of extract 
to the bark being young. Mr. Planchon presented to the Society wax from 
Geroxylon andicola, of New Grenada, and a root of Psychotria emetica, and 
made some remarks about different ipecacuanhas. Mr. Mehu read a paper on 
the preparation of indigotin.f Mr. Soubeiran exhibited compressed and 
desiccated bread prepared by Mouries. The same gentleman referred to the 
loss of the Chicago College of Pharmacy, sustained by the great fire, and asked 
for contributions towards reforming its collections. Mr. Guichard read a paper 
on soluble oxide of iron, which is obtained by precipitating in the presence of 
sugar, sequichloride of iron with an excess of caustic soda, the soluble com- 
pound containing soda, ferric oxide and sugar; glycerin and mannite yield 
similar compounds. 

At the meeting of January 8th, Mr. Stan. Martin presiding, Mr. Baudrimont 
spoke about his researches on sulpho-chloroform. The reaction between chlo- 
roform and sulphide of sodium is complicated and does not yield any satisfactory 
results. On acting with the same sulphide upon a cold aqueous or alcoholic 
solution of chloral, the liquid becomes hot and of a beautiful red color. The 
aqueous solution soon becomes turbid, and deposits an abundant yellow preci- 
pitate. Similar results are obtained with an alcoholic solution, which, however, 
assumes such an intense coloration that by this reaction chloral may be detected 
in a liquid containing only ^o* '^is compound stains the hands and paper, 
and the coloration is pretty persistent, although it changes even in the dark. 

The February session was held on the 7th, Mr. Martin in the chair. Mr. 
Bussy read a note by Mr. Carles on the efflorescence upon vanilla, to which he 
ascribes acid properties and the formula Cie Hs Oi ;J the iodine substitution 
compounds crystallize well. 

Mr. Roucher's essay was presented, entitled Reflections on the Relations be- 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 87. 
f See Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1872, p. 71. 

J See Gobley's investigations on Vanittin, inj Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1859, p. 130.— Stokeby's fork« 
mula for vanillic acid is C34II22O20. 



232 Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. { A V a yi;£™' 

tween Military Physicians and Pharmacists. It stated that Mr. Poggiale's 
efforts had succeeded in making the grades alike, and maintaining the equality 
of the two branches ; but lately attempts had been made, not only to subordi- 
nate pharmacy to medicine, but even to suppress the pharmaceutic service in 
the army. Mr. Poggiale, for himself and the military pharmacists, thanked 
Mr. Boudet, who had read the essay and commented upon it approvingly. 

Mr. Bussy reported on the transactions of the Academie des Sciences, and 
gave an account of the precautions adopted by Dupuy de Lome, resulting to a 
certain degree in steeriDg balloons ; also on the debates on fermentation. 

Mr. Buignet related the interesting researches on crystallized digitalin, in 
competition for the Orfila prize. 

Mr. Roucher read a long paper on distinguishing between the fibres consti- 
tuting vegetable tissues by means of the microscope, sulphuric acid and iodine. 

Mr. Marais stated that towards the end of 1871, the thermometer having 
fallen to — 22° C, and the stem of Cerasus laurocerasus being frozen, a singu- 
lar alteration was observed in its leaves, proceeding from the petiole towards 
the margin, rarely from the border towards the centre. Immediately after this 
period of cold, the leaves would still yield volatile products, but no hydrocy- 
anic acid. It would be interesting to ascertain whether the emulsin alone had 
been altered, for which purpose Messrs. Bourgoin and Gobley suggested to 
treat the bruised leaves with emulsion of sweet almonds. 

Mr. Vuaflard has prepared a tincture of cundurango, the efficacy of which 
in cancerous affections he considers exceedingly doubtful. 



Ithmtcs 0f t\t f Ijarmamtiital Heelings. 

A pharmaceutical meeting was held April 16th, 1872, President in the chair- 
The minutes of last meeting were read and approved. 

Prof. Maisch presented the report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1870. 
The Professor also read a paper styled " Pharmacognostical Notes," which 
was referred for publication. Some remarks were made upon the use of Inula 
for hydrophobia — some assert its positive cure. 

Samples of an herb were exhibited by Prof. Parrish, which is sold under the 
name of " wild tea," and used in cancerous affections. It does not appear to be 
the New Jersey tea Ceanothus Americana. It was referred to Prof. Maisch for 
examination. 

Prof. Parrish exhibited a model in plaster, handsomely gilded, of the cele- 
brated gold nugget, "The Welcome," weighing 2166 oz., value £8376, 10s., lOd. 
The original of this model is in the Kensington Museum, of London. 

Prof. Parrish exhibited a sample of coated pills, sent from Kngland, very 
handsome, but, as compared with sugar coated pills, not so soluble. 

Prof. Maisch read a paper on benzine as a solvent for Oleoresins compared 
with ether, which was referred for publication. Mr. Bullock remarked that 
some oleoresins were nearly insoluble in benzine. 

Prof. Maisch detailed the result of his experiments on Monobromated Cam- 



Am. Jour. Phakm. ) 
May 1, 1872. } 



Editorial. 



233 



phor, which he has secceeded in preparing without using hermetically sealed 
vessels, and thus doing away with the danger of explosions ; a considerable 
quantity of hydrobromic acid is likewise obtained by this process, which, by the 
old method, was mostly lost. The experiments not being completed yet, the 
results will be communicated in detail at a subsequent meeting. 

Mr. Boring exhibited a sample of purified suet, which was very handsome. 
It was made by treating the melted fat with table salt and alum, and after con- 
gelation, washing out the salts By large quantities of water ; the remelted fat 
is then benzoinated. Prof. Maisch stated that this was essentially the process 
employed by perfumers in purifying their fats for pomade. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

Clemmons Parrish, Registrar. 



(Editorial Department* 



Two Pharmaceutical Schools in One City. — We cheerfully insert the sub- 
joined letter correcting an error into which we had been unwittingly led, be- 
cause we have never seen the charter of Georgetown College, and because we 
have heard frequently of this Institution as a medical college, but, to the best 
of our remembrance, never as an university. 

"Washington, D. C, April 8th, 1872. 
Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

" Dear Sir. — Permit me to present to your attention the facts in the matter 
of conferring degrees in the School of Pharmacy of Georgetown College. 

"The School of Pharmacy is only a part of the Medical Department, inas- 
much as two Professors of the latter (viz., Materia Medica and Chemistry), are 
acting with one Professor of Pharmacy, and constitute the school. The de- 
grees are not conferred by the Medical Department of Georgetown College, but 
by the mother institution through its School of Pharmacy. The Diplomas are 
signed by the President of Georgetown College, and have the corporate seal of 
the President and Directors of Georgetown College attached. 

"A reference to a law of the Congress of the United States, passed in March, 
1815, will show that Georgetown College is an University, clothed with all the 
powers and privileges of such institutions, and therefore it has the right to con* 
fer degrees in all the arts and sciences. 

" I hope, sir, you will do us the justice to correct your error in the next issue 
of the Journal of Pharmacy. With respect, I remain, yours, 

D. P. HlCKLING, 

Professor of Pharmacy, Georgetown College.' 11 
It will be seen from this letter that our National Capital has set an example 
which, we trust, will not be followed by any other city, namely, to have two 
pharmaceutical schools in -one locality. We are earnestly advocating the proper 
education of the pharmacist, and are in favor of the multiplication of Colleges 
of Pharmacy, but not to an indefinite number, which would be fraught with re- 
sults similar to those which the medical profession throughout the country is en- 
deavoring to correct. Favoring, as we do, the education of pharmacists by phar- 
macists, it is not too much to hope that, if the necessity for a College of Phar- 



234 



Editorial, 



/Am. Jour. Pharw. 
\ May t, 1872. 



macy in the District of Columbia is felt, the pharmacists there may profit by 
the experience of their brethren in other cities, and after they shall have es- 
tablished a College, that both the Georgetown and the Columbian College may 
follow the example of the University of Pennsylvania (see page 191 of our last 
number), which has been imitated, we believe, by all the medical colleges in 
those cities where Colleges of Pharmacy have thus far been established. 

The Philadelphia Pharmacy Bill has been passed by both Houses of the 
Legislature and become a law through the signature of the Governor ; a copy 
of it will be found upon another page, and enable the reader to judge of its 
merits. In several respects we regard it as the best pharmaceutical law which 
has yet been passed in the United States, inferior only to the one which the 
Governor vetoed on February 19th (see page 136 of March number). We 
firmly adhere to the doctrine that the members of a profession are better able 
to regulate their professional affairs than others not connected with it, and we 
therefore regret that it was deemed advisable, under existiug circumstances, to 
change Section II, as originally proposed, so as to take away from the College 
of Pharmacy the duty to nominate candidates for the Examining Board, and 
vest the power to make the selection in the Mayor of the city alone, who can 
hardly be expected to know the most skilled and competent pharmacists of the 
city, from whom he is to make the appointment. 

However, Mayor Stokley appears to be impressed with the responsibility 
placed upon him by this law, and by a letter to the President of the College, 
requested that its Board of Trustees should nominate ten persons suitable, as 
the law requires, for this position. The Board, after long and patient consulta- 
tion, has performed this task, and communicated the nominations to the ap- 
pointing officer. 

The Appointment of the Pharmaceutical Examining Board of Philadel- 
phia has been made by Mayor Stokley from the nominations by the Board of 
Trustees of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and must prove eminently 
satisfactory, because party politics did not enter into consideration. The gen- 
tlemen appointed were selected with regard to their fitness for the respon- 
sible position, and are well known and highly esteemed here. We heartily 
congratulate the Mayor on his excellent choice. The following is an exact 
copy of the official letter: 

[seal.] Mayor's Office of the City of Philadelphia, 

April 24th, 1872. 

Dillwyn Parrish, Esq. : 

Dear Sir, — His Honor the Mayor directs me to write you that the following- 
named gentlemen have been selected by him as the Pharmaceutical Examining 
Board for the City of Philadelphia, viz. : James N. Marks, Charles L. Eberle, 
James T. Shinn, Edward Parrish, and Robert P^ngland, and 1 have notified 
each one this day of their appointment. 

Very respectfully. 

Wm. Culbertson, Clerk. 



Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The 
fact that the graduates of this College are scattered all over the United States, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May 1, 1872. J 



Editorial. 



235 



renders the attendance at their annual reunions usually less numerous than 
was probably anticipated. Besides those residing in and near Philadel- 
phia, few can spare the time, leaving the expense out of consideration, to be 
present every year. But every graduate might, and through the medium of 
this Association ought to, remain in communication with his Alma Mater, and 
we therefore refer with pleasure to the advertisement of its Secretary, in which 
such a plan is suggested, Perhaps, if more general reunions were contemplated, 
say decennially, they would become interesting occasions, and would probably 
attract many of the older graduates by the prospect of meeting their collegiate 
friends, and view the changes which time has wrought, not only by thinning 
their former circles, but likewise by replenishing the broken links with younger 
members of the profession ; the institution from which they obtained their 
honors would certainly receive a fair share of their attention. 

The Pharmacy Bill for Ohio failed to pass on the 19th of April, lacking 
seven votes to secure its passage. A friend of this measure very pertinently 
writes on this subject : "A short time ago, two young men took Seidlitz pow- 
ders ; one died within an hour or two, the other was barely saved ; the analysis 
by Mr. Fenneli showed arsenic. If such an accident happened to the members 
of the Legislature, perhaps they would show more interest in this movement.'' 

We have read the testimony in this case before the coroner in the Cincinnati 
newspapers, and were astonished that no question was asked about the place 
where arsenic was kept, and no investigation made of the contents of the vessels 
from which the powders were said to have been put up. From the published 
evidence, this might just as well be a case of suicide, as of criminal neglect. 

Science in the Courts. — The protracted trial of Mrs. Elizabeth Gr. Whar- 
ton on the charge of poisoning General W. S. Ketchum, which took place a 
few months ago, at Annapolis, Md., and lasted forty-three days, is fresh in the 
memory of our readers, as is also the voluminous expert testimony submitted to 
the jury. It is not our purpose to review the same, but merely to state that 
Professor Aiken's testimony furnished merely presumptive, but not conclusive, 
evidence of the presence of antimony in the stomach of the deceased, because, 
1, he did not take proper precautions against interference with his results during 
his absence ; 2, he kept no notes, but relied mainly upon his memory; 3, his 
written reports differed materially from each other; 4, he had not recently ex- 
amined the reagents employed as to their purity ; 5, he did not preserve the re- 
sults of his investigation for subsequent verification by other experts, if deemed 
necessary; 6, after destroying the organic matter by hydrochloric acid and 
chlorate of potassa, he relied solely upon the following experiments to establish 
the absence of arsenic : sulphuretted hydrogen produced a dark brownish pre- 
cipitate, which was very sparingly dissolved by ammonia ; 7, without destroy- 
ing the organic matter, the following tests only were employed to prove the 
presence of antimony ; sulphuretted hydrogen produced ajbrownish-red precipi- 
tate, which was dissolved in muriatic acid; the solution yielded with water a 
white precipitate, which turned orange red with sulphide of ammonium, and was 
soluble in nitric acid. 



236 



Editorial. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 ' May 1, 1872. 



Professor Tonry's experiments were also unsatisfactory, for various reasons. 
In this trial it took several days to contradict this expert testimony. 
The Scientific American of March 9th, p. 167, relates another instance of un- 
reliable expert testimony. 

" In a recent trademark suit, relating to the manufacture of mustard, Dr. Ogderi 
Doremus, of New York, swore thatmustard seeds contained over eleven per cent, 
of starch. To prove it, he used a solution of iodine upon mustard placed on filr 
tering paper, which paper gave, when tested, the characteristic reaction of 
iodine with starch when no mustard was present. The error in the experiment 
was pointed out by Professors Seely and Chandler. Dr. Doremus was aided by 
Dr. Austin Flint, who tried to confirm, by the use of a microscope, what Dr. 
Doremus tried to prove by the iodine test. Dr. Flint swore that he could see 
the granules of starch by the use of a high power. Professors Seely and Chan- 
dler could not see any such granules, but they did see what they thought might 
have been fragments of the exterior envelopes of the seeds. Dr. Doremus has, 
in a letter since published, affirmed the presence of starch in mustard seed (he 
says nothing of the percentage), and attempted to prove it by a test which 
would give the same results with cellulose as with starch." 

When mustard seeds are freed from their fixed oil by oil of turpentine, and 
then washed with alcohol, the residue is not colored blue by iodine. Starch 
granules have never been observed in mustard seed ; but amorphous starch was 
at one time supposed to be contained therein ; the above experiment, however, 
completely disproves this. 

The Scientific American, in commenting upon a number of similar cases, cor- 
rectly says that now the jury must make a guess as to what is right or wrong, 
and the average juryman is rather more likely to guess wrong than right in mat- 
ters of science. It concludes an article, with the above caption, as follows : 

" Now there is a plain, simple and practical remedy for this state of things. 
In all cases where there are points of law to be decided, there is an arbiter on 
the bench to perform that office. There should be an equally authoritative 
tribunal to decide on scientific points, a separate jury of experts, if may be, con- 
stituting, for the time, a scientific court, whose charge to the jury should be 
as authoritative as that of the judge. Would it not be refreshing to hear such 
a witness as the one mentioned above, who swore to finding aconite, disposed 
of in the following fashion ? : 4 It is my duty, gentlemen of the jury, as foreman 
of the scientific jury in this case, to instruct you that aconite cannot be detected 
by the process described in the testimony of the witness. However much he 
may be convinced that he did so, it is contrary to known laws of chemistry to 
suppose that he so obtained it. You are, therefore, to dismiss from your minds 
the possibility of such a result, in your deliberations of the case.' Or perhaps 
this : 

" 'The process sworn to by A will obtain arsenic from the stomach of a per- 
son poisoned by that substance. The process sworn to by B will not obtain it. 
A says that by his process he found no arsenic : B says he found it in a process 
by which he could not have found it. It remains for you to judge whether, if 
by an accurate method arsenic could not be found, the testimony of one who 
swears he found it by an impossible process proves its presence.' 

" Let such a course be pursued, and we soon should have somewhat less of 
pseudo science on the witness stand, and true scientific testimony would become 
of real value." 



AM May E M872 B ' 1 ' } Reviews arid Bibliographical Notices. 237 
REVIEWS AND BIB LIOGR APHICAL NOTICES. 

Pharmacopoea Danica. Regia audoritate edita. Haunioe. Impensis Rett- 
zelii. 1868. 8vo., 356 pages. 
The Danish Pharmacopoeia. 

In 1865, delegates from Denmark, Norway and Sweden assembled in the 
city of Stockholm, to confer about the pharmacopoeias of the three countries 
then requiring a revision. The main results of this conference consist in the 
■designation of the proportions in all formulas by parts (by weight), the adoption 
of uniform strength for all galenical, and particularly the more powerful, prepa- 
rations contained in the three pharmacopoeias, and in the selection of a uniform 
system of nomenclature ; hence the three pharmacopoeias are, in the main, 
identical with each other, and differ chiefly in the manipulations directed and 
some other minor points. A review of one pharmacopoeia applies, therefore, 
to the others, with the exceptions mentioned. 

Although the Danish pharmacopoeia was issued two years in advance of the 
Norwegian, reviewed in our February number, it will be of interest to compare the 
two with each other. 

The tables appended to the pharmacopoeia now before us are not quite as 
numerous as in the other ; those giving the strength and specific gravity o^ 
ammonia and of various acids, also the tables of solubility and of atomic 
weights have not been introduced. One of the tables compares the degrees of 
Spendrup's (temper. 11*25° C.) with those of Tralles' (temper, 15-625° C.) alco- 
holometer, the former being principally used in Denmark ; 1° Sp. =4 857 Tr. ; 
4 = 22-88 ; 8 == 47 ; 12 == 71*5 and 16° Sp. = 93-25° Tr, Morphia is not kept in 
a locked closet, but the shop bottle must be marked fff, like all other heroic 
medicines. ' : 

Tinctures are made in the proportion of 1:10 or 1:5 (by weight) either by 
maceration at 15 to 20° C. for eight days, or by digestion at 35 to 40° C. for 
three days, any loss in weight, which may have been sustained during the oper- 
tion, to be made up, before filtration, by the addition of 85 per cent, alcohol. 
Plasters are preserved in metallic boxes over burned lime, which is to be re- 
newed every three or four weeks. Dry narcotic extracts are made, as by the 
Prussian Pharmacopoeia, by adding enough powdered liquorice root, so that the 
exsiccated powder has double the weight of the extract used ; in prescriptions 
double the quantity ordered is dispensed. The Norwegian pharmacopoeia has 
the narcotic extracts only in the powder form; all contain one-fourth of their 
weight of milk sugar. Pills, if not otherwise directed by the physician, are 
made so that each contain 0-12 grm. of the articles enumerated in the prescrip- 
tion. 

All the medicated waters are distilled, one part of the drug yielding ten parts 
distillate (aqua rosse 1*3 ; aqua amygdalarum amararum concentrata contains 
0-136— 0-140 per cent, hydrocyanic acid ; the dilute bitter almond water is made 
by adding to one part of the former 19 parts of distilled water). The Norwegian 
pharmacopoeia prepares all medicated waters by agitating one part of the vola- 
tile oil with 1000 parts of the water; if, however, the physician specially orders 
distilled medicated waters, they are to be obtained by distilling from fruits or 



238 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 



Am. Jocr. Pharm 
May 1, 1872. 



seeds 20 parts, and from leaves, herbs or barks 10 parts. Unlike the latter, the 
Danish pharmacopoeia still gives processes for many chemicals, but none for the 
alkaloids or their salts. 

The processes as well as the descriptions and tests of purity are given in a. 
concise but clear language, chemical tests of identity beiDg usually omitted. 
We append a few of the complex formulas, some of which it will be noticed, 
order rather indefinite quantities of coloring material. Pharm. Norv. con- 
tains the same preparations, mostly improved by simplifying the process. 



Unguentum nervinum. 



R 



2 p. 
P- 



Herbae Majoranae minutira concisap, 
Florum Lavandula. 1 minutim conci- 
sorum, 

Fructus Lauri grosse pulverati, 
Radicis Pyrethri grosse pulverati, 

of each, 3 

Digest for twelve hours in 
Spiritus concentrati (sp. gr. 0*830), 18 
Fuse in a water bath 

Cerae flavae, 6 p. 

Sevi ovilli, 24 p. 

Axungiae Porci, 48 p. 

and continue the digestion until the al- 
cohol has evaporated, express the mass 
between hot plates, strain, and when 
nearly cold, add 

jEtherolei Rosmarini, 6 p. 

Before straining, add to the hot oint- 
ment turmeric and finely powdered indi- 
go to produce a bright green color. 

Unguentum Acetatis plumbici compositum — 
Unguentum hcemorrhoidale. 

R. 

Stigmaturn Croci pulveratorum, 1 p. 
Camphorae pulveratae, 2 p. 

Olei Hyoscyami infusi, 4 p. 

Unguenti acetatis plumbi (1 in 
M. 



10) 18 



R. 



Species fumales. 



Succini, • 60 p. 

Gummi-resinae Olibani, 120 p. 
Resinae Benzoes, 180 p. 

Bruise separately, remove the fine pow- 
der, and add 

JStherolei Cedro, 

^Etherolei Lavandulae, of each, 1 p. 
Mix. 



Tinctura Lavandula rubra. 



R. 



Corticis recentis fructus Citri minu- 
tim concisi, 3 p. 

Florum Lavandulae minutim conciso- 
rum, 36 p. 

Spiritus diluti (sp. gr. 89), 

Aqua? communis, of each, 150 p^ 

Macerate over night, and distil 150 
parts ; digest the distillate with 

Corticis Cinnamorni, Cassias, 4 p. 

Fructus Cubebae, 

Florum Caryophylli, of each, 1 p. 

Ligni Santali rubri pulverati, q. s. 

to impart a deep red color. 

Tinctura Digitalis rubra — Elixir ant asth- 
ma ticum Aaskovi. 

R. 

Foliorum Digitalis nuper grosse pul- 
veratorum, 2 p.. 

Radicis Glycyrrbizae echinatae minu- 
tim concisae, 4 p. 

Ligni Santali rubri pulverati, 1 p. 

Aquae Fceniculi, 

Spiritus diluti, of each, 10 p. 

Digest. 



Emplastrum Manus Dei. 



R. 



Emplastri oxydi plumbici, 150 pi 

J^ruginis subtillissime pulveratae, 4 p. 

Boil with frequent agitation until 

of a brown red color, then add 
Cerae flavae, 32 p. 

and, when somewhat cooled, mix 

with 

Gummi-resinae galbani pulverati, 
Gummi-resinae Ammoniaci pulverati, 
Gummi-resinae Olibani pulverati, 

of each, 4 p. 
Gummi-resinae Myrrhae pulverati, 
Resinae Mastiches pulveratae, of each, 1 p. 
and form into rolls. 



Address of Noble Young, M.D., Professor of Principles and Practice of Medi- 
cine, $c. Delivered on the Occasion of Laying the Corner Stone of the 
Building for the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Wilmington, N. C, 
Dec. 27th, 1871. 



AM May R i,i87 A 2 RM '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 239 

History of Medicine from the Earliest Ages to the Commencement of the Nine- 
teenth Century. By Robley Dunglison, M.D, LL.D., &c. Arranged and 
edited by Richard J. Dunglison, M.D. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 
1872. Small 8vo, 287 pages. Price, bound in cloth, $2.50. 

This is a posthumous work of the late distinguished Dr. Robley Dunglison, 
well known by his numerous contributions to medical science and as a success- 
ful teacher of the institutes of medicine and medical jurisprudence in the Jef- 
ferson Medical College of Philadelphia. The work was arranged and revised 
by the son of the deceased, from the manuscript lectures on this subject for- 
merly delivered at the University of Virginia at the time when Thomas Jefferson 
was Rector thereof. While it does not pretend to be exhaustive, it gives a clear 
picture of medicine, and its gradual development, in an attractive style, pre- 
senting all the principal laborers in this science, with their chief accomplish- 
ments and theories, but carefully avoiding prolixity, to which a discussion of 
these subjects is apt to lead. A chapter has been added by the editor relating 
to the medical history of America. 

The work is printed, in clear types, upon strong tinted paper, and presents a 
handsome volume, deserving a place in the library of the physician. 



Memoranda on Poisons. By the late Thomas Hawkes Tanner, M.D., F.L.S. 
Third and completely revised edition. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 
1872. 16mo, 155 pages. Price, bound in cloth, 75 cents. 

This appears to be a useful little volume, adapted particularly for the student, 
and also the practitioner of medicine. Descriptions of the poisons, symptoms 
of poisoning, post-mortem appearances, treatment and the detection of poisons, 
are treated under the different headings, the poisons being conveniently arranged 
in accordance with their chemical nature or their influence upon the animal 
economy. An attempt has been made by the editor to adopt the modern sys- 
tem of nomenclature, but has not been carried through, the so-called modern 
and older systems being promiscuously mixed. In the appendix is a table from 
Dr. Garrod's "Materia Medica," showing the proportions in which some of the 
more important drugs are contained in the officinal preparations. This table 
refers to the British Pharmacopoeia, but ought to have been altered to agree 
with our national standard ; for, although most officinal preparations approxi- 
mate in their strength as prepared by the two pharmacopoeias, they are by no- 
means alike, and the difference, for instance in tincture of aconite root, is too 
considerable to be overlooked. A pretty complete index is a valuable addition, 
enhancing the usefulness and convenience of the volume. 



Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, show- 
ing the Operations, Expenditures and Condition of the Institution for the 
Year 1870. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1871. 8vo, 494 
pages. 

The official report contains, upon the first 88 pages, the usual information 
concerning the operations of this institution during the year 1870. This is fol- 
lowed by biographical memoirs and sketches of several scientific persons: Pro- 
fessor A. D. Bache, Francis Arago, William Herschel, H. G. Magnus and 



240 



Obituary. 



J Am. Jour. Phabm. 
\ March 1872. 



Chester Dewey, and by a number of interesting lectures and essays on various 
scientific subjects. 



Dr. Rigby's Obstetric Memoranda. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. By 
Alfred Meadows, M D. Philadelphia : Lindsay & Blakiston, 1872. 16mo, 
104 pages. Trice, bound in cloth, 50 cents. 

A succinct account of the various conditions of pregnancy, natural, unnatural 
and complex labor, obstetric operations and puerperal diseases. 



Lecture on Water, delivered before the American Institute of the City of New 
York, in the Academy of Music, January 20th, 1871. By Professor C. F. 
Chandler, Ph. D. Albany, 1871. 

This interesting lecture is reprinted from the Transactions of the American 
Institute for 1870 — 71, and is illustrated by several plates. 



The Question of Quarantine ; the Nature and Prevention of Communicable 
Zymotic Diseases. By Alfred L. Carroll, M. D. New York : F. Leypoldt, 
publisher, 1872. 8vo, 21 pages. Price 50 cents. 

This pamphlet is printed from advance sheets of the " Medical Gazette," and 
contains a paper which was read befoie the Medical Library and Journal Asso- 
ciation of New York Jan. 5th, 1872. 



Chicago Relief. First Special Report of the Chicago Relief and Aid Society. 
Chicago, 1871. 8vo, 63 pages. 



First Annual Report of the Dispensary of Skin Diseases, No. 216 South Wth 
Street, Philadelphia. 1872. 8vo, 15 pages. 



OBITUARY. 

Elijah W. Sackrider, M.D., died on the 14th of April last. He had been 
in the drug business for a number of years, in Cleveland, O., and was highly 
esteemed by all who knew him ; he was connected with the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association from 1859 to 1870, and was at one time one of its vice- 
presidents. A friend writes of him : " When I think of his bright eye, 
elastic step, and youth-like eagerness in the pursuit of whatever might be the 
object of our search, ' I cannot make him dead.'" He lately visited the South, 
having been ailing for some time from a pulmonary complaint, which terminated 
his life. 



James G. Fritchev, a graduate of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, of 
the class 1868-69, was born at Mechanicsburg, Cumberland County, Pa., April 
6th, 1849, and learned the apothecary business with Mr. E. B. Garrigues, of this 
city. Shortly after he graduated, the symptoms of pulmonary consumption 
made their appearance, and the disease closed his earthly career on November 
4th, 1871, at his father's residence. The deceased was a conscientious and 
promising young man. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JUNE, 1872. 



GUN COTTON AND ITS PREPARATIONS. 
By Charles H. Mitchell. 
From an Inaugural Essay by the Author. 
A number of experiments were tried, with a view of ascertaining 
the relative proportions of cotton and acids, together with the proper 
time for maceration necessary to produce a cotton which should com- 
bine the largest yield with the highest explosive power and solubility. 
The following formula was at length adopted : 

Raw Cotton 2 parts. 

Carbonate Potassa. 1 " 

Distilled Water 100 " 

Boil for several hours, adding water to keep up the measure ; then 
wash until free from any alkali, and dry. Then take of: 

Purified Cotton 7 oz. av. 

Nitrous Acid,* s. g. 1-42 4 pts. 

Sulphuric Acid, " 1-84 4 " 

Mix the acids in a stone jar capable of holding 2 gals., and when 
cooled to about 80° Fahr., immerse the cotton in small portions at a 
time ; cover the jar and allow to stand 4 days in a moderately cool 
place (temp., 50° to 70° Fahr.). Then wash the cotton in small por- 
tions, in hot water, to remove the principal part of the acid ; pack in 
a conical glass percolator, and pour on distilled water until the wash- 
ings are not affected by sol. chloride barium. ; drain and dry. Yield, 
11 oz. av. 

This cotton is perfectly white, of a harsh, gritty fibre, very explo- 



* Nitric, saturated with nitrous acid. — Editor Amer. Jour. Pharm. 

16 



242 Gun Cotton and its Preparations. { AH jS,^!f" 

sive, leaving scarcely any ash, soluble in ether, ether fortior, acetic 
ether, glacial acetic acid, and in mixture of alcohol and ether, vary- 
ing from 1 part ether to 3 parts alcohol to pure ether itself. If a 
cotton superior to this is desired, it may be obtained by treating this 
cotton with an additional proportion of the mixed acids, washing and 
drying as before. The cotton gains about one per ct. in weight, be- 
comes perfectly soluble, and is so free from any ash as to scarcely 
scorch a sheet of white paper it may be burnt on. Both this and the 
previous gun cotton may be ignited on gunpowder without exploding 
it. The advantages claimed for this cotton over that of the U. S. P. 
are that it is perfectly soluble, very explosive, cheap, its manufacture 
is much more easy, requiring but little time and attention, and turning 
out a superior product with large yield and less cost. 

The subject of collodion next claims our attention, it being the 
most important pharmaceutical preparation of gun cotton. The appli- 
cability of gun cotton in ethereal solution to the dressing bf wounds, 
inflamed surfaces, &c, was first made known by Dr. Horace Maynard, 
of Boston. Its valuable properties soon commanded attention, and 
at once supplied a want long felt in the medical profession. No better 
formula for collodion can be found than that of the U. S. P. Using 
the cotton prepared as before mentioned, it left nothing to be desired. 

Collodion can also be made the vehicle for other medicines. Those 
remedies which are used externally, of course, can only be adminis- 
tered in this manner. Having made a number of experiments on 
this subject, I present the following formulae, several of which I think 
are new : 

Styptics. 

Styptic Collodion. 

ft. Tannin ^ij. 

Stronger Alcohol tjfjv. 

" Ether f Jxii. 

Soluble Cotton Jjj ^ij- 

Canada Balsam sjj. 

Introduce the cotton into a suitable bottle, pour on it 2 fluidounces 
of alcohol, shake well ; then add 10 fluidounces of the ether, and agitate 
frequently until dissolved. Dissolve the tannic acid in a mixture of 
the remainder of the alcohol and ether, mix with the first liquid, add 
the balsam, allow to stand until clear ; then pour off. 

Collodion with Sesquichloride of Iron. 

ft. Sesquichloride of Iron grs. iv. 

Stronger Alcohol f 5iv. 

" Ether f ^xij. 

Soluble Cotton '^j grs. iv. 



AM juSri,m2 BM } Oan Cotton and its Preparations. 243 

Into a suitable bottle introduce the cotton, pour on 2 fluidounces of 
the alcohol, and shake well ; then add the ether, and agitate fre- 
quently until dissolved. Dissolve the sesquichloride of iron in the 
balance of the alcohol ; mix with the prepared collodion. 

Anodynes. 

Collodion with Aconite. 

R. Pulv. Aconite Root Sij. 

Ether fgvj. 

Soluble Cotion grs. iv. 

Stronger Alcohol q. s. 

Mix the ether with 2 fluidounces of alcohol, moisten the aconite 
with 1 fluidounce of this, pack in a percolator and percolate with the 
balance, pouring on q. s. alcohol to recover 8 fluidounces, in^which 
dissolve the cotton. 

Collodion with Belladonna. 

Powdered Belladonna Root 

Ether f gyj. 

Alcohol q. s. 

Gun Cotton grs. iv. 

Mix the ether with 2 fluidounces of alcohol, moisten the belladonna 
with 1 fluidounce of this, pack in a percolator and percolate with the 
balance, pouring on q. s. alcohol to recover 8 fluidounces, in which 
dissolve the cotton. 

Antiseptics and Disinfectants. 

Collodion with Carbolic Acid. 

R. Carbolic Acid ^j. 

Ether f Jvj. 

Stronger Alcohol f ^ij. 

Gun Cotton grs. iv. 

Dissolve the gun cotton in the ether and alcohol mixed, and therx 
add the carbolic acid. ^ 

Collodion with Sulphocarbolate of Zinc. 

Sulphocarbolate of Zinc gj. 

Ether f |vj. 

Stronger Alcohol f Jij. 

Gun Cotton ajj grs. iv. 

Introduce the cotton into a suitable bottle, add 1 fluidounce alcohol,, 
shake well ; add the ether, and agitate frequently until dissolved. 
Dissolve the zinc salt in the balance of the alcohol, and mix with the? 
prepared collodion. 

Collodion with Thymol. 

R. Thymol zj. 

Ether f 

Stronger Alcohol f'gijt. 

Gun Cotton rjjj girs. iv.. 



244 Gun Cotton and its Preparations. { A j™?v§?£*" 

Dissolve the cotton in a mixture of ether with part of the alcohol, 
dissolve the thymol in the balance of the alcohol, and mix. 

Stimulants in Cutaneous Diseases. 

Collodion with Iodide of Mercury. 

R. Mercuric Iodide gj. 

Potassium Iodide ^ss. 

Alcohol f £iv. 

Ether f giv. 

Gun Cotton gj grs. iv. 

Triturate the iodides together in a mortar, add the alcohol boiling, 
and rub until they are completely dissolved. Then add the gun cot- 
ton, lastly the ether, and agitate frequently until the cotton is all 
dissolved. 

Stimulants'and Rubefacients. 

Collodion with Arnica. 

R. Pulv. Arnica ^iv. 

Ether f ^xij. 

Stronger Alcohol q. s. 

Gun Cotton 3;ij grs. viij. 

Mix the ether with 4 fluidounces alcohol. Moisten the arnica with 
q. s. of this, pack in a percolator and pour on the balance, following 
with alcohol until 16 fluidounces of tincture have been recovered ; to 
this add the cotton, and agitate frequently until dissolved. 

Collodion with Capsicum. 

R. Grd. Capsicum %W. 

Ether f ^xij. 

Stronger Alcohol q. s. 

Gun Cotton 100 grs. 

Proceed as in collodion with arnica, recovering 16 fluidounces of 
tincture, in which dissolve the gun cotton. 

Collodion with Mezereon. 

R. Grd. Mezereon ^iv. 

Ether f 'J xi j- 

Alcohol q. s. 

Gun Cotton 128 grs. 

Mix the ether with 4 fluidounces of strong alcohol, and in this 
allow the mezereon to macerate one week. Drain, pack tightly in a 
conical percolator, pour on the separated liquid, and follow with 
enough alcohol to recover 16 fluidounces of tincture, in which dissolve 
the cotton. 

Collodion with Savin. 

R. Powd. Savin Leaves | %\v. 

Ether f ^xij. 

Alcohol q. s. 

Gun Cotton ., grs. 128. 

Proceed in same manner as collodion with capsicum. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
June 1, 1872. j 



Citrate of Iron and Bismuth. 



245 



Collodion with Black Pepper. 

R. Grd. Blk. Pepper ^iv. 

Ether f ^xij. 

Alcohol q. 8. 

Gun Cotton 128 grs. 

Proceed in same manner as in collodion with capsicum. 

Vesicants. 

Collodion with Cantharides. 

R. Powd. Cantharides Jfiv. 

Ether f Jxij. 

Stronger Alcohol q. s. 

Gun Cotton 80 grs. 



Moisten the cantharides with a small portion of the ether, and pack 
in a conical percolator. Then pour on the balance of the ether, mixed 
with 4 fluidounces alcohol, and follow with enough alcohol to recover 
16 fluidounces, in which dissolve the gun cotton. 

These collodions can be used as substitutes for many of the officinal 
plasters, having the advantage of occupying a small bulk, ready adapt- 
ability to any surface, and powerful therapeutic action. 

I have endeavored, as far as possible, to give some practical infor- 
mation on a branch of pharmacy of which comparatively little is 
known. The subject is, I think, an important one, since gun cotton 
and collodion occupy a high position in both medicine and the useful 
arts, and to its elaboration and useful application too much study can- 
not be devoted. 



CITRATE OF IRON AND BISMUTH. 
A New Remedy for Dyspepsia, &c. 
By Charles Rice. 

Although I call this preparation new, it has been in use for several 
years in the public hospitals and dispensaries of this city, and also in 
private practice, and has acquired the reputation of being one of the 
most prompt and valuable remedies at present known for gastric dis- 
turbances, depending upon an abnormal or defective digestion gene- 
rally, and particularly so for the gastric intolerance of consumptive 
patients. Its action is often so prompt that one full dose has in many 
instances afforded immediate relief. 

Being requested some years ago to devise a liquid preparation con- 
taining bismuth and iron (at that time intended for use in some other 
complaints), I finally, after various trials, adopted the following for- 
mula, which I have followed ever since : 



246 Iodide and Bromide of Potassium. { A » Ju iTi, f 8 H 7 r • 

Take of citrate of bismuth, ammonio-citrate of iron, each 320 grs.; 
water of ammonia, water, each a sufficient quantity. 

With 4 oz. of water rub the citrate of bismuth into a smooth paste ; 
gradually add water of ammonia until solution has taken place, being 
very careful not to have an excess of ammonia. Now add the ammo- 
nio-citrate of iron and some more water ; dissolve, filter, and wash 
the filter with enough water to make the solution measure 1 pint. 

This solution, if intended to be long kept, may be partly made up 
with glycerin, although I cannot speak from experience whether it is 
so well borne by the stomach. A more useful addition, however, is 
good sherry wine, of which there may be used 10 fl. oz. (or perhaps 
more), in place of so much water. 

The above solution is prescribed under the name of Liquor Ferri 
et Bismuthi Citratis, and contains in 1 fluid-drachm 2| grains each of 
citrate of bismuth and ammonio-citrate of iron. The dose is from 1 
to 2 fluid-drachms, half an hour before meals, or — when required — 
after meals. 

It is, of course, no true double salt, chemically speaking, but only 
a mixture of ammonio-citrate of bismuth and ammonio citrate of iron ; 
and, although a true double salt containing those elements might 
perhaps be prepared, I doubt whether it could have any better effects. 

The solution may also be prepared of a concentrated state, and 
spread upon plates of glass to dry, yielding exceedingly handsome 
scales of a golden-brown color, which must be protected from the 
light, and 5 grains of which are equal to 1 fluid- drachm of the 
solution. 

New York, May 5th, 1872. 



IODIDE AND BROMIDE OF POTASSIUM. 
By Chas. D. Chase. 

The object of this note, as will be seen, is simply to call the atten- 
tion of dispensers to the fact that most of the iodide and bromide of 
potassium found in the market, instead of being neutral, are alkaline 
in their reactions, and to illustrate the importance of this fact being 
generally known, the following is given. 

The following prescription was prepared, with results as given 
below : 



A junTi R ;i P 872 RM '} Iodide and Bromide of Potassium. 247 

ly. Morph. Sulph., gr. iv. 

Aquae Cinnam., ^ij. 

Potass. Bromid., Siij. 

Syr. Tolut., 3iss. 

Elix. Calisayse, 3'iv. M. 

The morph. sulph. was weighed and introduced into a four-ounce 
vial, the potass, bromid. weighed and rubbed in a mortar with the 
aqua cinnam. until entirely dissolved, and the solution poured over 
the morph. sulph. contained in the vial. The morph. sulph. refusing 
to dissolve after shaking, the vial was set aside and the preparation 
begun anew. 

This time the morph. sulph. was dissolved in the elix. calisayae, the 
potass, bromid. in the aqua cinnam., and the two solutions mixed. 

A precipitate immediately followed, which, upon the addition of 
the syr. tolut., and after shaking, slowly arose to the surface of the 
mixture. 

The preparation not being entirely satisfactory, a few experiments 
were made with the view of ascertaining the cause of precipitation. 
To be assured that the fault was not with the aqua cinnam. (which had 
been made by distillation from the bark), the prescribed quantity each 
of morph. sulph. and potass, bromid. was dissolved separately in dis- 
tilled water, and the two solutions mixed. 

The same result was obtained as when aqua cinnam. was used as 
the solvent. 

An examination was next made of the morph. sulph. (Powers & 
Weightman's), which proved to be pure sulphate of morphia. The 
chances for the potass, brom. to prove perfectly faultless now looked 
rather "slim." A solution of the suspected salt (also bearing P. & 
W.'s label) was made in distilled water, and tested with litmus and 
turmeric paper. The solution gave with both papers a decided alka- 
line reaction, which fact solved the mystery of the precipitation ; for, 
as is well known, the alkalies and their carbonates precipitate mor- 
phia from solutions of its salts ; and when the morph. sulph. solution 
came in contact with the free alkali (potassa) contained in the potass, 
bromid. solution, the precipitate must inevitably have taken place. 

Several samples each of iodide and bromide of potassium were 
tested with turmeric paper, and in every instance the same alkaline 
reaction was observed. 

The foregoing serves to show how serious accidents might occur by 



248 New P)-ocess for Detecting Bromide, etc. { A jiS^jS?* 

dispensing the salts of morphia (or other alkaloids) with iodide or 
bromide of potassium which gives an alkaline reaction ; for if pre- 
scribed with syrup, as in the above prescription, the precipitated mor- 
phia will rise to the surface of the mixture, and, should it not be 
" shaken before taken," the patient will be liable to take all, or nearly 
all, the morphine in the mixture at a single dose. 

It is therefore advisable for the dispenser, whenever a morphia salt 
is prescribed with iodide or bromide of potassium in solution, to first 
dissolve the latter, test the solution with turmeric or red litmus paper, 
and if alkaline neutralize with dilute muriatic acid before adding the 
morphia salt ; and a bottle of the acid mentioned and the necessary 
test paper should be placed convenient to the prescription counter, for 
this if for no other purpose.* 

With a small proportion of morphia salt the precipitate is often not 
observed until after standing a short time. 

St. Louis, April 18th, 1872. 



ON A NEW PROCESS FOR DETECTING BROMIDE IN IODIDE 
OF POTASSIUM.! 
By Edm. Van Melckebeke, D. Sc. 

The proposed process is based upon the property of a saturated 
solution of one salt to dissolve another one, provided the two salts do 
not produce a precipitate with each other. If to a saturated solution 
of bromide of potassium a small quantity of pure iodide of potassium 
is added, it will completely dissolve ; but if it was contaminated with 
bromide of potassium, this impurity will remain undissolved. The 
quantity of iodide dissolved in this case is much smaller than that 
soluble in the same volume of water at the same temperature. This 
solubility has a limit which cannot be exceeded without precipitating 
bromide, caused by the isomorphism of the two salts, and by the great 
difference in their solubility. 

It is known that a mixture of salts which are not isomorphous, dis- 
solves always to a greater extent in water than either salt alone under 

* Commercial iodide of potassium is usually crystallized from alkaline solu- 
tions in order to obtain it in opaque cubes ; recrystallization or granulation 
from water will effectually remove any adhering alkaline carbonate. — Editor 
Amer. Jour. Pharm. 

f Condensed from a paper read before the Societe de Pharmacie d'Anvers, 
and communicated by the author. 



A "jtn7i, mT'} New Process for Detecting Bromide, etc. 249 

the same conditions. Isomorphous salts behave differently. Von 
Hauer* proved by interesting researches that, the physical conditions 
being identical, a given weight of a solution of mixed isomorphous 
salts contains the same quantity of solid matter which is contained in 
a like weight of a saturated solution of the most soluble salt. 

100 parts of water dissolve, at 16° C, 140*10 p. iodide of potas- 
sium. The author found that the same quantity of water dissolves, 
at the same temperature, 63-39 p. bromide of potassium. At this 
temperature all the following experiments have been made. 

When an excess of a mixture of bromide and iodide of potassium 
is treated with water, 100 p. of it dissolve 140 p. of the mixture, and 
the analysis of the dissolved portion proves it to be solely iodide of 
potassium. Von Hauer's proposition may, for this case, be rendered 
as follows : If a mixture of bromide and iodide of potassium is treated 
with water, the latter salt alone is dissolved, if its quantity is suffi- 
cient to saturate the water. 

It might be supposed that 100 p. of water saturated with bromide 
would dissolve 140-10 — 63-39 = 76*71 iodide of potassium ; such 
is, however, not the case. Only 13*15 p. of iodide are taken up, and 
if more is added, bromide of potassium is precipitated. If double the 
weight of KBr, soluble in 100 water (2 x 63-39 == 126*78), is deducted 
from the weight of KI soluble in the same quantity (140*10), the 
resulting figure (13*32) closely approaches 13-15 found by experi- 
ment, and represents the maximum solubility of KI in 100 water 
saturated with KBr, which is equal to about 10 parts of the former 
salt in 100 of the saturated solution. 

If pure iodide and bromide of potassium be dissolved separately to 
saturation in water, the temperature falls 21° and 15° C. This fall 
in the temperature must be taken into consideration in making the 
saturated solution of KBr, and in adding thereto the iodide, particu- 
larly if larger quantities are operated upon. The bromide of potas- 
sium is, therefore, dissolved in warm distilled water, the solution is 
allowed to cool, and after crystallization decanted or filtered. 

To 10 c. c. of this solution 10 drops of distilled water are added in 
a test-tube, and afterwards, in small quantities, under repeated agita- 
tion, 1 gram, of the suspected iodide in coarse powder. If free from 
bromide, it will dissolve almost instantly, while this impurity, if pres- 
ent, will remain undissolved. 

* Journal fur Praktische Chemie, vols, xcviii and ciii. 



250 Constituents of Ericaceous Plants. 

The addition of water is not indispensable, if the iodide is intro- 
duced carefully little by little and the liquid well agitated. If these 
precautions are not observed, the iodide dissolving rapidly, will locally 
precipitate some bromide, and render the result doubtful. If 10 drops 
of water are previously added to the 10 c.c. of the saturated solution 
this inconvenience is avoided. 

The water added will scarcely dissolve any bromide of potassium. 
In making the experiment before the Pharmaceutical Society of Ant- 
werp, a small fragment of bromide was mixed with 1 grm. of iodide of 
potassium, and remained unaltered for at least twenty minutes after 
the gradual addition and solution of the iodide. 

The author recommends this perhaps more empirical than scientific 
process, not with the view to supersede the more exact though more 
tedious ones, but rather as a quick and practical method to detect the 
falsification of iodide with bromide of potassium, as well as its substi- 
tution by the latter salt. 



ON SOME CONSTITUENTS OF ERICACEOUS PLANTS. 
By Jefferson Oxlet. 
From the Author's Inaugural Essay. 
Of this order Uva ursi and Chimaphila umbellata have, upon ex- 
amination, been found to contain arbutin, urson and ericolin. Think- 
ing it of some interest to know if these principles are alike common 
to other plants of the same order, Graultheria procumbens and Epi- 
gcea repens were submitted to examination. 

From two pounds of Graultheria, as usually found in market, after 
removing the larger stems, the remaining leaves and smaller stems 
weighed one pound and six ounces, showing a loss of 31 per cent. 
Garbling one pound and a half of Epigcea repens in the same man- 
ner, one pound of leaves and small stems remained, indicating a loss 
of 33 per cent. 

Reduced to a convenient powder they were digested with water 
during several hours, strained and expressed, and a second time sub- 
mitted to like treatment. Upon drying the residue, the Gaultheria 
weighed twelve ounces, a loss of 45 per cent. Epigaia repens weighed 
ten and a half ounces, a loss of about 34 per cent. 

The infusions were treated with neutral acetate of lead, the fil- 
trates with subacetate of lead, and filtered. The resulting solutions 
were almost free from color, being a light yellow. The lead was re- 



Am. Jock. Phakm . 
June 1, 1872. 



A "j£j™i, w£ K '} Constituents of Ericaceous Plants. 251 

moved with sulphuretted hydrogen, the solutions filtered and heated 
to remove excess of hydrosulphuric acid. After concentrating and 
treating with ammonia to neutralize the acetic acid present, then with 
animal charcoal, and washing with cold water, the filtrates were re- 
duced by heat, and set aside to evaporate spontaneously. After 
several days, crystals not appearing, a portion was separated and 
treated with alcohol, leaving a large per cent, of insoluble extractive 
matter. The alcoholic solutions were allowed to evaporate to a 
syrupy consistency, but without the formation of crystals. 

At this point the extract of Epigcea repens was of a deep reddish- 
brown color, very much resembling liquorice in odor and taste. On 
adding sulphuric acid to a dilute solution of this extract, no precipi- 
tate was produced indicating the absence of glycyrrhizin. 

The extracts were dissolved in water, treated with animal charcoal, 
washed, and the filtrates set aside to evaporate, but failed to yield 
crystals. The charcoal used in the latter case was digested with al- 
cohol. The alcoholic solutions in each case had a slight color ; that 
from Epigcea repens light yellowish-brown, from Graultheria light 
green. Upon evaporation these solutions yielded a small crop of 
crystals. 

The evaporation was continued for several days, with the hope of 
a large yield ; upon examination the crystalline structure was found 
in a great measure lost. The yield was too small to apply the various 
tests for arbutin. Jungmann's test* was applied. A dilute aqueous 
solution rendered alkaline with ammonia, produced, on the addition 
of phosphomolybdic acid, a blue color. 

A portion of the reserved aqueous extract was submitted to like 
treatment, producing the blue reaction due to arbutin ; the formation 
of crystals and the reaction with phosphomolybdic acid warrant the 
conclusion that arbutin is present in each of the plants under consid- 
eration. However, it seems present in a much smaller proportion 
than in Uva ursi or Chimaphila umbellata, and separated with much 
more difficulty. 

The above extracts were dissolved in a dilute solution of sulphuric 
acid and distilled, the distillates possessing a peculiar and rather 
agreeable odor, indicating the presence of a volatile principle lib- 
erated by the action of the acid. The distillates possessed an acid 
reaction, due, no doubt, to the acetic acid present in the lead salt 



* American Journal of Pharmacy, 1871, p. 207. 



252 



Constituents of Ericaceous Plants. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ June i, 1872. 



used in the early part of the process. Neutralized with bicarbonate 
soda and redistilled, the odor remained intact, and the distillates 
possessed a slight acid reaction. Neutralizing the residue with ni- 
tric acid, treating with sesqui salts of iron, produced in each a red 
color, which was removed upon the addition of a strong acid. Nitrate 
of silver and protonitrate of mercury gave precipitates which, by heat, 
liberated the metals in the case of Epigcea repens, but not so in that 
of G-aultheria. With a mixture of alcohol and sulphuric added, each 
gave an odor characteristic of acetic ether, indicating acetic acid* 
The reaction with the solution from Epigcea repens indicated the 
probable presence of formic acid. 

An infusion of Uva ursi was also distilled in the presence of sul- 
phuric acid. The odor of the distillate was found, on comparison, to 
be quite similar to those referred to, that from G-aultheria varying 
somewhat, perhaps owing to the volatile oil. 

A portion of the dried leaves remaining from the infusions was 
treated by percolation with alcohol; the resulting tinctures were of a, 
deep green color, that from G-aultheria possessing a beautiful emerald 
hue. Allowing the tinctures to evaporate spontaneously, the residue 
was put upon a filter and washed with alcohol to remove the chloro- 
phyll : that from Epigaia repens parted with this coloring matter 
more readily than Gaultheria ; urson was not obtained in a pure state, 
but sufficiently so to be sublimed in a test tube. The action of reagents 
could not be brought to bear upon the principles isolated, owing to 
the presence of chlorophyll, but as far as examined they agree with 
urson. 

A portion of the precipitates obtained by treating the infusions 
with acetate of lead was freed from lead. The presence of tannin in 
the solution was indicated by the production of precipitates with so- 
lutions of gelatine, salts of iron (black), tin, mercury, copper, silver 
(a liberation of the metal by heat), and by the deep red color with al- 
kalies. After freeing the solution from tannin by gelatine, several 
reagents indicated the presence of gallic acid. After evaporating a 
portion of the solution with some sand to dryness, and subliming in 
Mohr's benzoic acid apparatus, pyrogallic acid was not obtained ; 
therefore gallic acid is not present, but a principle having similar 
reactions. Trommer's test gave reactions indicating grape sugar. 

A concentrated infusion of the leaves was precipitated by alcohol, 
and the dried precipitate was found to contain gum. 



A ju J n°e R i, m 2 RM } On the Baric of Juglans Cinerea. 253 

The stems and the leaves of Gaultheria and Epigcea, when dis- 
tilled with water, did not yield chimaphilin, discovered by Mr. Sam- 
uel Fairbank.* In the distillate from the stems of Chimaphila um- 
bellata orange red crystals of chimaphilin were obtained, and the 
yellow aqueous distillate yielded more of the same crystals when 
agitated with ether. 

Among the organic constituents of Gaultheria and Epigcea have 
been found, by this examination, arbutin, urson, ericolin, tannic acid, 
and a principle analogous to gallic acid, formic acid (in Epigcea), 
grape sugar, gum and coloring matter. 



ON THE BARK OF JUGLANS CINEREA. 
By Charles 0. Thiebaud. 
From the Author's Inaugural Essay. 
A quantity of the fresh bark was gathered, carefully dried and 
powdered. From a portion of this a decoction was made, and the 
following reactions observed. No precipitate occurred after acidula- 
tion with nitric acid by iodo-hydrargyrate of potassium, thus proving 
the absence of an alkaloid. Dilute solutions were reddened upon the 
addition of an alkali. The vapor arising from both the decoction 
and aqueous extract gave acid indication to moistened litmus, the 
vapor from the extract turning it a decided cherry-red color. A por- 
tion of the powdered bark, moistened with water slightly acidulated 
with sulphuric acid, and introduced into a retort, gave a straw colored 
distillate with a faint fusel oil odor, acid to litmus and reddened by 
alkalies. This being made slightly alkaline by ammonia and set 
aside in a drying closet, after evaporation to dryness yielded a small 
quantity of slightly yellowish prismatic crystals, scarcely soluble in 
alcohol, and with acid reaction. The bark distilled with pure water 
gave a distillate with acid reaction, but deposited no crystals upon 
evaporation. The distillate obtained by treating the bark with water 
rendered slightly alkaline by carbonate of soda was neutral to test 
paper. These experiments prove a volatile acid to be present in the 
bark. 

The decoction was treated by acetate of lead, the precipitate sus- 
pended in water, freed from lead by saturation with hydrosulphuric 
acid and filtration ; the solution evaporated to dryness on a water- 



*See Journal of the Maryland College of Pharmacy, March, 1860. 



254 On the Bark q/Juglans Cinerea. { A %iTiJs^ 

bath, exhausted by alcohol, and the alcoholic solution evaporated in 
the drying closet to a resin-like extract. This was redissolved in 
alcohol, and set aside in a cool place. After a few days small acicu- 
lar crystals were found floating on the liquid. These crystals were 
in small quantity, colorless, and colored litmus red. 

The filtrate was freed from lead by hydrosulphuric acid, and evap- 
orated to dryness on a water-bath ; the residue, exhausted by alcohol 
and evaporated, yielded a bitter extract like mass, soluble in both 
alcohol and water. 

These results not proving satisfactory by the isolation of an acid 
in quantity sufficient for further examination, the peculiar solvent 
properties of true benzole were brought into requisition. 

A portion of the freshly dried and powdered bark was macerated 
in this menstruum for four days. The benzole, which at first was 
colorless, after separation from the refuse matters by expression and 
filtration T was of a decided bright yellow color. This was set aside 
and allowed to evaporate spontaneously. After the evaporation had 
been carried on until the residue ceased to lose weight, the capsule- 
was found to contain a thick oily substance, and the sides were cov- 
ered by short acicular crystals of a bright orange-yellow color. These 
exhibit decided acid properties to litmus, are soluble in alcohol and 
ether, but scarcely so in water. They volatilize without fusing^ 
in solution are reddened by ammonia, and are turned pale violet by 
potassa, afterwards becoming red. The oily residue remaining after 
the evaporation of the benzole, was exhausted with alcohol, and the 
alcoholic solution by spontaneous evaporation yielded crystals similar 
in form, size and reaction to those deposited on the side of the cap- 
sule. The residue insoluble in alcohol was taken up by ether, allowed 
to evaporate spontaneously to a syrupy consistence, and spread on 
bibulous paper; thin tabular crystals were obtained which were colorless^ 
acid to litmus, insoluble in water, scarcely so in alcohol, but readily 
taken up by ether, which solution was not precipitated by chloride of 
calcium and not affected in color by ammonia or potassa. They are 
fusible, but being farther heated partly volatilize, leaving behind a 
charred mass, which burns without residue. The crystals when fused 
are changed to a dark red liquid, which when treated by ether be- 
comes decolorized. 

Chrysophanic acid is soluble in benzole, and since from juglans, by 
the use of the same solvent, a product is obtained which exhibits some* 



A ju J n°e D l;] P 8 H 72 EM } Crystalline Principle of Barbadoes Aloes. 255 

of the characteristics of the former, we may regard the two acids as 
closely related. The proper name of this constituent would be jug- 
landic acid. 

Solution of sulphate and tincture chloride of iron produced dense dark 
colored precipitates, but other tests did not prove the presence of 
tannin. 

The decoction affords precipitates, and hence is incompatible with 
the sesqui- and proto-salts of iron, bichromate of potassium, sulphate of 
copper, acetate of lead, and nitrate of silver. No effect is produced by 
yellow and red prussiates of potassium, tannin and antimonial salts. 

The bark contains bitter extractive, a large amount of oily matter, 
juglandic acid (which appears to be related to chrysophanic acid), an 
acid crystallizing in tabular colorless crystals, a volatile acid, and no 
tannin. The ashes were found to contain a considerable percentage 
of potassium, with traces of sodium, calcium and aluminium. 



NOTE ON CRYSTALLINE PRINCIPLE OF BARBADOES ALOES.* 
By William A. Tilden, D.Sc. London, 
Demonstrator of Practical Chemistry to Pharmaceutical Society, G.B. 

This substance was examined some years ago by Dr. Stenhouse, 
who analyzed it and a bromo-derivative. 

After several unsuccessful trials, I have obtained from it a ehloro- 
substitute, corresponding to the brominated body already known. It 
is only necessary to treat the aloin with excess of chlorine in the 
presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid. This is most conveniently 
done by the method adopted by Stenhouse in preparing the chlori- 
nated derivatives of orcin. 

Some powdered potassic chlorate was introduced into a quantity of 
ordinary fuming hydrochloric acid. The crystallized aloin to be oper- 
ated upon was dissolved in another portion of the same acid, and the 
solution so obtained, when quite cold, was poured gradually and with 
constant agitation into the mixture of hydrochloric acid and chlorate. 
After each addition of the aloTn, a red coloration was produced, but 
this instantly disappeared, the solution assuming a clear orange color, 
and depositing in a few minutes a copious crop of yellow granules, 
V the quantities of which increased by standing for a few hours. It 
was then filtered oft", washed with a little water, and crystallized from 

* Reprint from the Journal of the Chemical Society, March, 1872. Com- 
municated by the author. 



256 Crystalline P)-inciple of Barbadoes Aloes. { AM juneT, 



Pharm. 

1872, 



warm rectified spirit. The tufts of bright yellow prisms which were 
deposited in a few hours were collected and dried by exposure to dry 
air. They bear, without change of color or general appearance, a 
temperature of 120° C, and even much higher. At 120° they lost 
weight in one experiment to the extent of 10*86, in another 10*04 per 
cent. 

•237 gram gave by boiling with nitric acid and nitrate of silver 
•216 of chloride of silver, corresponding to 22*52 per cent, of chlo- 
rine. 

The formula C 17 B 15 C1 3 7 3H 2 requires 10*99 per cent of water, and 
21*66 per cent, of chlorine. 

The proportion of chlorine found being thus a little too high, the 
substance was recrystallized and carefully washed. This time it was 
dried at 120° previous to analysis. 

I. -247 gram gave *251 chloride of silver. 
II. -1835 gram, by combustion with a mixture of lead chromate and 
potassic dichromate, -062 H 2 and -304 C0 2 . 

Theory. Experiment. 

f A N f A --\ 

I. II. 

C 17 204 46*62 — 45*17 

H 15 15 3-42 — 3*70 

Cl 3 106*5 24-34 25-13 — 

7 . . . 112 — — 

Again, therefore, the chlorine is rather above, and the carbon be- 
low the theoretical numbers, although they are sufficiently near to 
leave no doubt as to the identity of the body. I think it probable, 
therefore, that notwithstanding that the crystals are to all appear- 
ance clean, and when dissolved in water give no trace of turbidity 
with nitrate of silver, they are contaminated with a small quantity 
of another similar body, containing a higher percentage of chlorine. 

This chloraloi'n is more soluble in water than the corresponding 
compound containing bromine, and differs from the original aloin in 
its comparative stability. Thus, although very soluble in aqueous 
ammonia, it will crystallize out but little altered when the ammonia 
is allowed to evaporate, and it may be dissolved in ordinary nitric 
acid (sp. gr. 1*37), without change of color. 

The aloin from which this body is derived, when acted upon by 
nitric acid, yields, besides oxalic and picric acids, rather more than 



A jun°e R i',i87 A 2 EM '} Gleanings from the European Journals* 257 

30 per cent, of its weight of chrysammic acid ; and in fact I find it a 
more convenient source of chrysammic acid than crude aloes. But 
the chlorinated compound, boiled with nitric acid and nitrate of sil- 
ver, furnishes oxalic and picric acids only, without a trace of either 
aloetic or chrysammic acid. 

In most of the reactions of aloin and its chloro- and bromo-deriva- 
tives, there is such a marked parallel with those of the orcins, that I 
think it worth while to submit them to a further examination. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Non-existence of Igasuria. — This alkaloid, discovered by Desnoix, 
and of which Schutzenberger claimed to have obtained several modi- 
fications, is now stated to be identical with brucia. Jorgensen found 
that the igasuria exhibited by Menier at the last Paris Exposition, 
when treated with periodide of potassium, yielded an iodine compound 
identical in composition and behavior with the body obtained from 
brucia under the same conditions. — Wittsteins Vierteljahres Schr. y 
1872, 275. 

Reactions of Quinia and Morphia. — Prof. Fliickiger finds the prac- 
tical limit of the reaction of chlorine water and ammonia upon quinia 
(green coloration) to be aqueous solutions containing about 5 ^\q alka- 
loid. The brown coloration produced by the same reagents with mor- 
phia is visible in solutions of uf 6 -Q alkaloid, while the iodic acid reac- 
tion is observed in solutions ten times weaker. The coloration pro- 
duced with morphia dissolved in 500 to 200 or less water will hide 
the green color of thalleiochin ; but if the solution contains TJ f ul} mor- 
phia and only 3^ quinia, the green coloration only will be visible. 
In a mixture of quinia and morphia,- the reactions of either alkaloid 
with chlorine and ammonia may be produced, depending mainly upon 
the amount of morphia contained in the solution. — iV". Jahrb. f. 
Pharm., 1872, March, 136—143. 

Yield of Opium Plantations. — Jul. Schrader planted 32 square 
rods with poppy, and raised 3749 capsules (117 to the square rod), 
from which he obtained 9f oz. well dried opium, containing 11 per ct. 
morphia; each capsule, therefore, yielded 1J grain opium. One (Ger- 
man) acre would yield, accordingly, 112J oz. opium, the value of 

17 



258 Gleanings from the European Journals. {^SSftfSSP 

which may be regarded as profit, since the seeds will cover the ex- 
penses for labor and manure. To prove that the seeds do not suffer 
by the preparation of the opium, the author selected 160 scarified 
and the same number of unscarified capsules, of about uniform size, and 
obtained from each lot nearly 15 oz. seeds, which yielded in each case 
almost 6 oz. of fixed oil by warm expression. — Ibid., 163. 

The Asserted Presence of Table Salt in Extract of Meat* is dis- 
cussed by Prof. Liebig, who refers to his researches published 24 
years ago,f when he proved that the meat juice of all animals is rich 
in potassium, that it contains chloride of potassium, but only traces 
of chloride of sodium. After the salts of inosic acid have been pre- 
cipitated by the addition of alcohol, the further addition of about 
five volumes of alcohol will cause a separation of the liquid into two 
layers, the lowest of which (about one-twentieth of the upper one) is 
syrupy, and will yield in the cold prisms of pure chloride of potas- 
sium, containing not a trace of chloride of sodium. This is the more 
remarkable, since the meat juice is not free from sodium, which must 
be combined with another acid. — Zeitschr. d. ocsterr. Apoth. Yer., 
1872, No. 10. 

Distribution of Atropia in the Leaves and Moot of Belladonna. — To 
determine this J. Lefort exhausts 100 grm. of the fine powder with 
alcohol of 86°, evaporates the alcohol, and adds water to obtain after 
filtration 50 c.c. solution, to which a slight excess of iodo-hydrargy- 
rate of potassium is added ; the precipitate is collected upon a weighed 
filter, washed, and dried by the aid of hot air. It contains 33-25 
atropia. 

The leaves were collected from plants cultivated near Paris, in 
May, before flowering, and in August, when the berries began to 
ripen. 1000 parts of dry material yielded, by four analyses, in May, 
0-418, 0-405, 0-421 and 0*392, and in August, 0-457, 0-443, 0-467 
and 0-482 atropia. By assaying leaves from cultivated and wild 
plants, collected at the same season, the former yielded 0-470 and 
0-485, the latter, 0-459 and 0-477 alkaloid. The author concludes, 
therefore, that the leaves collected from wild and cultivated plants 
are equally reliable if collected during the season of flowering and 
fructification. 



* Amer. Journ. Pharmacy, 1872, p. 213. 

f Aimalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, Ixii, 257. 



.Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June 1, 1872. 



} Gleanings from the European Journals. 259 



The root (when collected?) was found to contain, when 2 to 3 years 
old, 0-4718 and 0-4886, when 7 to 8 years old, 0-2541 and 0-3126 
alkaloid. Belladonna root collected in Germany (Hesse-Darmstadt) 
yielded 0-492, against 0*478 alkaloid obtained from the French root. 

For medicinal use, the author regards the leaves as preferable to 
the root, they varying less in their strength. — Journ. de Pharm. et 
de Chim., 1872, April, May. 

Anhydrous Protoxide of Iron is obtained by G. Tissandier by pass- 
ing carbonic acid gas over very fine iron wire, rolled up spirally into 
bundles and heated to a bright redness in a porcelain tube. It is 
black, shining, of a crystalline aspect, magnetic, unaltered in the air, 
soluble in muriatic and nitric acids, but insoluble in warm sulphuric 
acid.— Ibid., 379—381. 

Detection of Arsenic and Sulphurous Acid in Hydrochloric Acid. 
— Hager puts a little hydrochloric acid, diluted, if necessary, with an 
equal volume of water, in a long test-tube, adds a little pure zinc, 
and closes the tube with a loosely fitting cock, to which two strips of 
parchment paper are attached, previously moistened on one side (the 
outside) with solution of nitrate of silver and of acetate of lead. If 
arsenious acid is present, the former only will be blackened ; if sul- 
phurous acid is likewise present, both papers will turn black in the 
current of the escaping gas. A second experiment becomes then 
necessary in a tube similarly arranged. The sulphurous acid is first 
oxidized by permanganate of potassa until the liquid acquires a yel- 
low or brownish tint, or until a faint smell of chlorine is perceptible. 
After the addition of zinc, the arseniuretted hydrogen contained in 
the gas evolved will blacken the silver paper only, without affecting 
the lead paper. — Pharmac. Centralhalle, 1872, No. 11. 

Oil of Turpentine an Antidote to Phosphorus. — This was first recom- 
mended by Personne. H. Kohler and Schimpf confirm his results by 
experiments with 25 animals. Pure oil of turpentine dissolves phos- 
phorus and separates it unaltered on cooling. But when the oil con- 
tains oxygen, a crystalline mass resembling spermaceti is produced, 
while any excess of phosphorus is rapidly converted into the red modi- 
fication. The white mass may be purified, by recrystallization from 
alcohol, has an acid reaction, rapidly softens in contact with air, ac- 
quires a terebinthinate odor, and then contains phosphoric acid. This 
terebintho-phosphorous acid dissolves in alcohol, ether, petroleum-ben- 



260 



Monobromated Camphor, 



{Am. Jour, Pharm. 
June 1, 1872. 



zine, benzol and alkalies ; it forms with the earths and metallic oxides 
insoluble salts, the baryta salt having the formula C 20 H 15 PO 2 Ba. Rab- 
bits and dogs bear as much as 0*3 grm. of terebintho- phosphorous- 
acid, in alcoholic solution, without any toxical effect ; the urine ac- 
quires a camphoraceous odor, and the distillate reduces silver salts. 

It has not been ascertained yet whether pure oil of turpentine (free 
from oxygen) is an antidote to phosphorus. — Ibid,, No. 16, from Berh 
Klin. Woclienschr. 

Tannin containing Iron has been met with by Dr. H. Hager. It 
had been mixed with 0*8 per ct. oxalic acid, which prevented the ink 
color from appearing when dissolved in pure water ; when, however, 
the water contained an alkali, the blue-black coloration was at once- 
produced. — Ibid., No. 18. 

Prejjaration of Saffranin. — This dye stuff, which has been used for 
some time as a substitute for safflower for dyeing cotton and silk, is 
prepared by heating a mixture of 2 parts nitrite of anilin and 1 part 
arsenic acid, for 5 minutes, to between 80 and 120° C. The mass is 
poured into boiling water, and the solution neutralized with chalky 
when it acquires a beautiful red color. It is then carefully passed 
through a woollen filter, and the filtrate precipitated by dissolving 
table salt in it, when, after some time, saffranin is deposited and may 
be collected on a filter. 

The nitrite of anilin is made by passing washed nitrous acid, ob- 
tained from starch and nitric acid, into a mixture of oily anilin, water 
and salt, the process being completed when the light brown color has 
changed to a deep chestnut-brown. After washing several times with 
water, the product is sufficiently pure for the above purpose. — lbid.> 
from Muster zeitung. 



NOTE RELATIVE TO THE MONOBROMATED CAMPHOR. 
By William A. Hammond, M.D. 

Several months since, a statement* was made in The Doctor to the 
effect that a Belgian physician had for more than ten years past made 
use of the monobromated camphor in delirium tremens and analogous 
nervous diseases. Desiring to test its value in such affections, I re- 
quested Dr. Neergaard to obtain a quantity of the preparation for 

* American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 84. 



a ju™^5?£"-} Monobromated Camphor. 201 

my experiments. Prof. Maisch, of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy, very kindly undertook to manufacture it, and, overcoming the 
great difficulties of the process, succeeded in obtaining it in beautiful 
crystals free from the slightest yellow tinge. 

My experience with the monobromated camphor, though thus far 
limited, is eminently satisfactory. I have employed it in two cases 
of infantile convulsions due to the irritation of teething, with the ef- 
fect in each instance of preventing the further occurrence of parox- 
ysms which, previously to its administration, had been very frequent. 
In each case a grain was given every hour, rubbed up with a little 
mucilage of acacia. Three doses were sufficient in one, and two in 
the other case. The children were aged respectively fifteen and 
eighteen months. 

In a very obstinate case of hysteria occurring in a young married 
lady, in the form of paroxysms of weeping and laughing, alternating 
with epileptiform and choreiform convulsions, I gave the monobro- 
mated camphor in doses of four grains every hour. The iufluence 
was distinctly perceived after two doses were taken, but ten were ne- 
cessary to entirely break up the attack. This was a very favorable 
result, as all previous seizures had lasted for from five to eleven days, 
uninfluenced by medication or moral suasion. 

I have also employed it with excellent effect in several cases of 
headache occurring in women and young girls, and due to mental ex- 
citement and excessive study. One dose of four grains was gener- 
ally sufficient to cut short the attack. In two cases, three doses at 
intervals of half an hour were necessary. 

In wakefulness, the result as it so generally is of cerebral hypere- 
mia, the monobromated camphor appears to be greatly inferior to the 
bromide of calcium or even the other bromides. But it is apparently 
indicated in delirium tremens. I have not yet had the opportunity 
of trying it in this disease, but I should not hesitate in a case of the 
affection to administer it in doses of five grains every hour or half- 
hour, with the confident expectation that sedation and sleep would re- 
sult. 

The monobromated camphor may be given in the form of pill, with 
conserve of roses as the excipient, or as a mixture with mucilage of 
gum arabic and syrup. The dose for adults ranges from two to five 
grains. — New' York Medical Journal, May, 1872. 



Disinfectants. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t June 1, 1872. 



DISINFECTANTS. 

A commission appointed by the French Academy to investigate the 
relative merits of various disinfectants for use in hospitals where con- 
tagious diseases are treated, have made the following report as the 
result of their experiments : 

Hyponitrous Acid. — The members of the commission agree that 
the first place among agents for attacking and destroying infectious 
germs must be accorded to hyponitrous acid. Extraordinary precau- 
tions must, of course, be observed in making use of this dangerous 
gas ; the doors and windows must be carefully sealed with gummed 
paper when disinfecting a room containing 40 or 50 cubic yards. The 
materials are taken in the following proportions : 2 quarts of water, 
3J pounds of ordinary commercial nitric acid, and J pound of copper 
turnings or filings. A stoneware vessel is employed, holding two or 
three gallons. The exit doors are carefully pasted up, and the room 
left closed for 48 hours. The person opening the room at the expi- 
ration of the time should be protected in some way from breathing 
the gas, by a suitable respirator. 

Carbolic Acid. — This is cheaper, more easily used, less dangerous, 
and has proved equally efficacious. It is best employed mixed with 
sand or sawdust — one pound of acid to three pounds of an indifferent 
substance. The mixture, placed in earthen vessels, was used for the 
same purpose as the hyponitrous acid. Carbolic acid, diluted with 
15 or 20 parts by weight of water, was found useful for daily sprink- 
ling of the floor and bed-clothes. 

An interesting case is mentioned in the report where neither chlo- 
rine nor hypochlorous acid was able to destroy or render odorless the 
gases given off from the corpses in the Paris Morgue during the heat 
of summer. The object was attained by dissolving a quart of liquid 
carbolic acid in 500 gallons of fresh water, contained in the reservoir 
and used to sprinkle the bodies. Putrefaction was entirely stopped. 

Devergie found that water containing only one to four thousand 
part of its weight of carbolic acid sufficed to disinfect a dead house, 
even in the hottest weather, when six to eight corpses were in it. 

For fumigating linen, mattresses and other bedding with chlo- 
rine, Regnault's latest method was used, namely : One pound of 
chlorinated lime (bleaching powder) is sewn up in a strong bag of 
sail cloth, holding about a quart, and put in an earthen pot contain- 



^jTOeiSra™} The Tallow Tree and its Uses. 263 

ing a quart of common muriatic acid (sp. gr. 1-15) and three quarts 
of water. As soon as the acid comes in contact with the chloride of 
lime the room is closed, and the things exposed to the action of 
chlorine gas for 24 hours ; the room is then aired for 48 hours. Ten 
such earthen pots give off 500 litres of chlorine, sufficient to disinfect 
from 20 to 25, more or less, dirty mattresses. — Scientific American, 
May 18, 1872. ' 



THE TALLOW TREE AND ITS USES. 
By D. J. Macgowan, M.D. 

The botanical characters of this member of the Muphorbiacece are 
too well known to require description ; but hitherto no accurate ac- 
count has been published of its various uses. Although it has become 
a common tree in some parts of India and America, its value is appre- 
ciated only in China, where alone its products are properly elaborated. 
Analytical chemistry shows animal tallow to consist of two proximate 
principles — stearine and elaine. Now, what renders the fruit of this 
tree peculiarly interesting is the fact that both these principles exist 
in it separately in nearly a pure state. Nor is the tree prized 
merely for the stearine and elaine it yields, though these products 
constitute its chief value ; its leaves are employed as a black dye ; its 
wood is hard and durable, and may be easily used for the blocks in 
printing Chinese books and various other articles ; and, finally, the 
refuse of the nut serves for fuel and manure. 

The Stillingia Sebifera or tallow tree is chiefly cultivated in the 
provinces of Kiang-se, Kiang-nau and Chih-kiang. In some districts 
near Hang-chau the inhabitants defray all their taxes with its pro- 
duce. It grows alike on low alluvial plains and on granite hills, on 
rich moulds on the margin of canals, and on the sandy sea beach. The 
sandy estuary of Hang chau yields little else. Some of the trees at 
this place are known to be several hundred years old, and, though 
prostrated, still send forth branches and bear fruit. Some are made 
to fall over rivulets, forming serviceable bridges. They are seldom 
planted where anything else can conveniently be cultivated, but gen- 
erally in detached places, corners about houses, roads, canals, fields, 
etc. 

In winter, when the nuts are ripe, they are cut off with the twigs 
by a sharp bill hook attached to the extremity of a long pole, which 



264 1 he Tallow Tree and its Uses. { A j;i°™;5S"* 

is held in the hand and pushed upwards against the twigs, removing 
at the same time such as are fruitless. 

The harvesting accomplished, the capsules are taken and gently 
pounded in a mortar to loosen the seeds from their shells, from which 
they are separated by sifting. To facilitate the separation of the 
white sebaceous matter enveloping the seeds, they are steamed in tubs 
having convex, open wicker bottoms, and placed over caldrons of 
boiling water. When thoroughly heated they are mashed in the mor- 
tar and then transferred to bamboo sieves,, kept at a uniform temper- 
ature over hot ashes. 

As a single operation does not suffice to deprive them of all their 
tallow, the steaming and sifting is therefore repeated. The article 
thus procured becomes a solid mass on falling through the sieve, and, 
to purify it, is melted and then formed into cakes for the press. 
These receive their form from bamboo hoops, a foot in diameter and 
three inches deep, which are laid on the ground over a little straw. 
On being filled with the hot liquid, the ends of the straw underneath 
are drawn up and spread over the top, and, when of sufficient con- 
sistence, are placed with their rings in the press. This apparatus, 
which is of the rudest description, is constructed of two large beams 
placed horizontally so as to form a trough capable of containing about 
fifty of the rings, with their sebaceous cakes. At one end it is closed 
and at the other adapted for receiving wedges, which are successively 
driven into it by ponderous sledge hammers wielded by athletic men. 

The tallow oozes in a melted state into a receptacle where it cools. 
It is again melted and poured into tubs smeared with mud to prevent 
adhering. It is now marketable in masses of about eighty pounds 
each, hard, brittle, white and opaque, tasteless, and without the odor 
of animal tallow. Under high pressure it scarcely stains bibulous 
paper ; it melts at 104° Fah. It may be regarded as nearly pure 
stearine ; the slight difference is doubtless owing to the admixture of 
oil expressed from the seed in the process just described. The seeds 
yield about eight per cent, of tallow, which sells for about five cents 
per pound. 

The process for pressing the oil, which is carried on at the same 
time, remains to be noticed. It is contained in the kernel of the nut ; 
the sebaceous matter which lies between the shell and the husk having 
been removed in the manner described, the kernel and the husk cov- 
ering it are ground between two stones, which are heated to prevent 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
June 1, 1872. J 



Crystallized Digitaline. 



265 



clogging from the sebaceous matter still adhering. The mass is then 
placed in a winnowing machine precisely like those in use in western 
countries. The chaff being separated, the white oleaginous kernels 
are exposed, and, after being steamed, are placed in a mill to be 
mashed. 

This machine is formed of a circular stone groove twelve feet in 
diameter, tapering at the edge, and is made to revolve perpendicularly 
by an ox harnessed to the outer end of its axle, the receiver turning 
in a pivot in the centre of the machine. Under this ponderous weight 
the seeds are reduced to a mealy state, steamed in tubs, formed into 
cakes and pressed by wedges in the manner before described, the 
process of mashing, steaming and pressing being likewise repeated 
with the kernels. 

The kernels yield about thirty per cent of oil. It is called tsing- 
yu, and sells for nbout three cents per pound. It answers well for 
lamps, though inferior for this purpose to some other vegetable oils 
in use. It is also employed for various purposes in the arts, and has 
a place in the Chinese pharmacopoeia because of its quality of chang- 
ing gray hair to black, and other imaginary virtues. The husk 
which envelopes the kernels and the shell which encloses them, and 
their sebaceous covering, are used to feed the furnaces ; scarcely any 
other fuel is necessary for this purpose. The residuary tallow cakes 
are also employed for fuel ; a small quantity of it remains ignited a 
whole day. It is in great demand for chafing dishes during the cold 
season. 

Finally, the cakes which remain after the oil has been pressed out 
are much valued as a manure, particularly for tobacco fields, the soil 
of which is rapidly impoverished by that plant. — Scientific American, 
May 4th, 1872. • 



CRYSTALLIZED DTGITALINE* 
By M. Nativelle. 

The process adopted by the author for obtaining crystallized digita- 
line, a magnificent specimen of which accompanied the memoir, con- 
sists, in the first place, in exhausting the digitalis in 50f alcohol, in- 

* Extracted from the Report by M. Buignet, on behalf of the Commission, 
recommending the award of the Orfila prize (6000 francs) to the Author, 
t The British Pharmacopoeia orders rectified spirit. 



266 



Crystallized Digitaline. 



i Am. Jour. Phaem 
t June 1, 1872. * 



stead of water, as ordered in the French Codex. He found that while 
the product obtained by an aqueous maceration contained chiefly an 
amorphous principle, soluble in all proportions in water, which he pro- 
posed to call digitaleine, the residue, usually rejected as useless and 
completely exhausted, contained nearly all the active crystallizable 
principle, together with another very bitter principle, approaching it 
in its properties, but not crystallizable. The alcoholic tincture so 
prepared was distilled, and the residue of the distillation concentrated 
to a weight equal to that of the digitalis originally used. Here the 
author introduces a modification based upon what is generally observed 
where several principles exist simultaneously in the same plant, that 
these exercise towards each other a particular influence, which deter- 
mines or favors their reciprocal solution in the same liquid. This 
faculty, however, is manifested chiefly in a concentrated solution, be- 
ing weakened or completely annulled when the solution is diluted. 
Thus, a concentrated solution of opium may contain, not only the 
principles dissolved directly by the water, but also more or less resin 
carried into solution by the influence of those principles, and which 
separates when the solution is diluted by a certain proportion of water* 
So with digitalis, in the concentrated solution that represents the pro- 
duct of evaporation after the alcohol is driven off, is found in solution, 
not only the principles directly soluble in water, like digitaleine, but 
other principles, such as digitaline and digitine, which, insoluble in 
themselves, are kept in solution by the influence of the preceding in 
a concentrated solution. If, however, this solution be diluted by three 
times its weight of water, a gradually augmenting viscous deposit is 
formed, which represents nearly the whole of the digitaline, accom- 
panied, it is true, by digitine and coloring matter, but freed from the 
digitaleine and other soluble principles — according to the author the 
chief obstacles to crystallization. 

In order to extract from the viscous deposit the two crystallizable 
principles that it contains, it is to be dried in the open air, upon folds 
of filtering paper, and afterwards treated with twice its weight of boil- 
ing proof spirit. The filtered solution, left in a cool place, is quickly 
covered on the surface with crystals, which also form on the side of 
the vessel. This gaes on for eight or nine days before the liquor is 
completely exhausted. The crystals are then separated, and after 
washing with weak alcohol are nearly completely colorless. The digi- 
taline is then separated from the digitine by successive treatment of 



Chloralum and Preparations, etc. 267 

the crystals with chloroform, evaporating the chloroform, treating the 
deposit with eight times its weight of boiling 90 per cent, alcohol, add- 
ing a little washed animal charcoal, filtering and leaving to cool in a 
partially stoppered flask. The pure digitaline is then deposited in 
fine white and shining needles, grouped around the same axis. By 
this means, the two principles are effectually separated. The part 
dissolved is intensely bitter, giving a wonderfully intense emerald 
green coloration with hydrochloric acid, and having such a powerful 
physiological action that a quarter of a milligram is sufficient to pro- 
duce the ordinary effects of digitalis. On the contrary, the part 
undissolved by the chloroform is tasteless, giving no coloration with 
hydrochloric acid, and exercises no appreciable action upon the 
organism. 

In order to verify the results described in the memoir, the commis- 
sion followed the process step by step, and succeeded in obtaining a 
product identical with the specimen accompanying the memoir. They 
also undertook a series of physiological experiments, the result of 
which led them to the conclusion that the new medicament appeared 
to produce effects identical with the other preparations of digitalis, 
particularly the digitaline of MM. Homolle and Quevenne, but incom- 
parably more energetic, while, from the definite nature of the com- 
pound, more constant results follow its use. — Pharm. Journ., Lond.> 
April 27, 1872. 



CHLORALUM AND PREPARATIONS OP CHLORALUM AS DIS- 
INFECTANTS. 

By Prof. A. Fleck. 

The Central Chemical Institution, established last year in Dresden 
for the protection of the public health, of which Prof. Fleck is the 
director, received, amongst other things, the disinfectants introduced 
by the Chloralum Company in London, in order that a thorough 
investigation of the composition and real value of these products 
might be made. The ostentation with which the Chloralum Company 
commenced, and still carries on, its operations, points either to the 
especial excellence of the disinfectants recommended, or to a great 
mistake. The suspicion against the Chloralum Company in this last 
respect was augmented by many external appearances which accom- 
panied the undertaking. Those newspapers and journals of Ger- 



\ 



268 



Cliloralurn and Preparations, etc. 



5 Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ June 1, 1872. 



many, which enjoy the greatest circulation, have become the debating 
forum of the Chloralum Company, so that it seems to be high time 
that an impartial judge, such as the Central Chemical Institution, 
founded, as it is, under the auspices of the State, should pronounce 
unreserved judgment on the Chloralum Industry and its products. 

The Chloralum Company recommends — 1. Chloralum as the safest 
disinfectant, as free from smell, and not poisonous ; and as adapted 
for the disinfection of urinals and drains, stables, slaughterhouses, 
street kennels, and horse dung, for internal and external use in affec- 
tions of the throat, diphtheria, scarlet fever, small-pox, &c. 

As Prof. Fleck states in the 2d, 1871, No. 4, the liquid contents 
of a clean labelled vessel weighing 637*9, half a litre in volume, and 
15 sgr. (Is. 6d.) in price, were used for the chemical investigation. 
This fluid contains : 



82-32 


per cent. 


water. 


0-15 


u 


chloride of lead. 


0-10 


it 


chloride of copper. 


13-90 


a 


chloride of aluminium. 


0-42 


a 


chloride of iron. 


3-11 


it 


chloride of calcium with gypsum 


100-00 


a 





2. Chloralum powder is recommended as an absorbent of organic 
impurities, as an antiseptic and astringent when combined with 
wheaten flour, and as a disinfectant for railway carriages, ships? 
privies, stables, drains, &c. 

A tin canister, also very handsomely labelled, containing a white 
powder of 370 gr. in weight, and 5 sgr. (6d.) in price, was taken to 
experiment upon. It contained — 

0*72 per cent, chloride of arsenic. 



0-55 


4 chloride of lead. 


0-37 


4 chloride of copper. 


52-43 


4 chloride of aluminium. 


1-55 4 


4 chloride of iron. 


11-51 4 


4 chloride of calcium. 


0-72 4 


4 gypsum. 


32-15 * 


4 alumina and silicious earth. 



100-00 



A jun ei;m2 EM '} Ghloralum and Preparations, etc. 269 

3. Chloralum wool and wadding recommended as a styptic and 
antiseptic for fresh or suppurating wounds and cancerous tumors, also 
as a disinfectant for coffins and corpses. A neatly labelled bag, of 
waterproof material, containing 352 gr. of dried wadding, which had 
been soaked in 173 g. solid chloralum, or 9-80 g. fluid chloralum, price 
20 sgr. (2s.) was taken for experimenting upon. 

These analytical results leave no doubt as to the nature and the 
mode of making the preparations of chloralum, and as to their real 
value. 

The manufacture is as follows : An alumina containing lime (limy 
clay) and a small proportion of iron is steeped in ordinary strong 
muriatic acid, and dissolved as far as possible. The concentrated 
fluid, cleared from the alumina that remains undissolved, is drawn off 
and sold in bottles as Chloralum (the name is to be ascribed to its con- 
taining chloride of aluminium). The sediment remaining is evapo- 
rated, together with the fluid remaining in it, and then dried ; this 
yields the Chloralum powder. Cotton or wadding is dipped into the 
chloralum itself, saturated with it, pressed out, dried, and becomes 
Chloralum wool and wadding. 

The arsenic, lead and copper contained in the preparations are to 
be ascribed to the impurity of the solvent employed, muriatic acid, 
and to the apparatus in which the alumina is dissolved. 

The real value of the contents of a bottle of chloralum, which is 
sold at 15 sgr. (Is. 6d.), is not to be computed as above 2 sgr. (rather 
more than two pence). The value of the chloralum powder, which is 
sold in tin canisters at 5 sgr. (6d.), cannot be placed higher than 
1 sgr (rather more than 1 d.), seeing that it is but dried sediment. 
The chloralum wadding, which is sold for 20 sgr. (2s.) is only worth 
J sgr. (rather more than a half-penny), at the utmost. A solution of 
10 g. of sulphate of alumina in 1 lb. of spring water would be a per- 
fect substitute for the above preparations, all the component parts of 
which, excepting the chloride of aluminium, are to be regarded as im- 
purities or poisons, and this solution would not exceed 1 sgr. in value 
(rather more than one penny). 

To test the value of chloralum as a disinfectant similar quantities 
of sewage were treated with chloride of lime, alum, green vitriol, 
chloralum, quicklime and chloride of magnesium, and the clarified 
solution was tested for its contents of organic impurities (putridity), 
by means of an alkaline solution of silver. The effective value of 



270 Analysis of Commercial Samples of Iodine. {^uS&wS?** 

this disinfectant and purifier may be gathered from the following, 
figures : 

Chloride of lime. Disinfectant. 100*0 per ct. organic matter 

Quicklime. " 84-6 " " 

Alum. " 80-4 " " 

Green vitriol. " 76*7 " u 

Chloralum. « 74-0 " " 

Chloride of magnesium. " 57*4 " " 

Thus the disinfecting and purifying powers of chloralum stand be- 
low those of alum, or sulphate of alumina and copperas (protosul- 
phate of iron), which further recommend themselves by their much 
greater cheapness. 

To sum up the argument, concerning the value and composition of 
the preparation of chloralum : 1. The preparations of chloralum have 
nothing in common with the similarly sounding chloral hydrate, and 
are, in point of fact, mixtures of chloride of aluminium. 2. The pre- 
parations of chloralum contain chlorine combinations of lead, copper 
and arsenic, which renders their employment not free from danger, 
and which would render their employment as a medicine or as an 
astringent for open or suppurating wounds dangerous. 3. The price 
of the preparations of chloralum bears no relation either to their 
nature or their effect. Considering that the liquid chloralum yields 
a clear profit of at least 700 per cent., and the wadding 400 per cent., 
the limits of honest trading may be considered as overstepped. 4. 
The result of these experiments is that chloralum and the prepara- 
tions made from the same must be classed amongst the worthless 
arcana, and in the interest of the public health, as well as in the ma- 
terial interests of the public, a most decided warning must be given 
against the purchase of the same. — Chemical Review, Lond., March, 
1872, from Industrie Zeitung. 



ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL SAMPLES OF IODINE. 
By Prof. J. A. Wanklyn. 
Owing to the high price of iodine and its numerons applications in 
the chemical arts, its analysis is very important, and at the same time 
frequently very difficult. 

The process is to dissolve a known weight of the sample in a solu- 
tion of sulphurous acid, and to precipitate the iodine by means of a 



AM Tunei 5 T872 RM '} Analysis of Commercial Samples of Iodine. 271 

solution of the nitrate of silver in presence of an excess of ammonia 
to keep chloride of silver from being thrown down. All this is ex- 
ceedingly simple in theory, but it requires a number of minute precau- 
tions for its successful execution. 

1. Weighing. — Iodine cannot be weighed in an open capsule, since 
it evaporates so rapidly that the loss of weight would be appreciable. 
A quantity is therefore placed in a small tube closed at one end and 
capable of being stoppered with a cork at the other. This is then 
carefully weighed. The tube is then rapidly opened, and a portion 
of the contents shaken into the solution of sulphurous acid. The 
cork is then quickly re-inserted and the tube re-weighed. The differ- 
ence between the first and second weighing shows the quantity of the 
sample actually taken for analysis. 

2. Determination. — Prepare beforehand a large glass capable of 
holding a litre. Pour into it 40 cubic centimetres of a solution of sul- 
phurous acid, concentrated and recently prepared. When the iodine 
has been thrown in, it is stirred with a glass rod till entirely dissolved. 
Should there remain an appreciable residue of insoluble matter, it be- 
comes needful to filcer the solution. This is performed by means of a 
funnel fitting into a flat-bottomed phial. The funnel should be cov- 
ered with a plate of glass during this process, which, however, is not 
generally necessary. Pour into the glass at least half a litre of boil- 
ing distilled water. Then add ammonia in excess, and lastly a solu- 
tion of the nitrate of silver. Iodide of silver is formed, and falls 
down as a yellowish precipitate, whilst chloride of silver remains in 
solution. The precipitate, on stirring, collects at the bottom of the 
glass when the liquid is hot enough. The beaker is then covered 
over with a plate of glass and set aside for half an hour. The pre- 
cipitate is then washed by decantation, with abundance of hot water, 
the liquid being allowed to pass through a small filter of the best 
Swedish paper, without folds. It is then thrown upon the filter, and 
collected as far as possible at the bottom. When the precipitate is 
perfectly washed, i. e., when a drop of the liquid, on being tested with 
hydrochloric acid, is found to contain no silver, the filter is taken out 
of the funnel and carefully dried at 110° C. Before weighing it is 
necessary to fuse the precipitate, but it is also necessary to avoid 
heating it in contact with the carbon of the filter, which might reduce 
an appreciable quantity of silver. When the filter, therefore, is dry, 
it is laid on a sheet of glazed paper, the precipitate of iodide of silver 



272 Analysis of Commercial Samples of Iodine. { A j U n°e D i," im*" 

is detached with a small platinum spatula, and the paper carefully 
scraped. Still a little iodide of silver remains on the lower part of 
the filter. This portion is cut out with scissors, and ignited in a small 
porcelain capsule of about 12 millimetres diameter, the weight of 
which must previously be carefully determined. When the filter is , 
burnt and the ash is perfectly white, the iodide of silver is thrown 
into the capsule and heated till it begins to fuse. It is then cooled 
and weighed. The excess of weight gives the iodide of silver, of which 
54 per cent, is iodine. 

Determination of Chlorine. — The mother liquor, decanted from the 
iodide of silver, contains all the chlorine held in solution by the am- 
monia. It is mixed with pure nitric acid in excess, filtered and 
weighed in the usual manner. 

Ash. — Weigh out about five grammes of the sample of iodine by 
means of the tube, as described above. Put it in a small porcelain 
capsule and volatilize it by exposure to a moderate heat. The residue 
is then weighed. It is generally very small, and consists of silica^ 
alumina and traces of alkaline chlorides. 

Moisture. — This may amount to 20 per cent., and even upwards.. 
It is generally determined as difference, as the moisture cannot be 
driven off by heat without at the same time volatilizing the iodine also. 
The following method may be adopted, which, though not absolutely 
accurate, is useful as a check. Weigh out 1 gramme of the iodine,, 
and put it in a glass tube of narrow bore, graduated to tenths of cubic 
centimetres. Pour into the tube 20 cubic centimetres of the bisul- 
phide of carbon, which will of course occupy 200 of the divisions. 
Shake the tube until all the iodine is dissolved, keeping the aperture 
closed with the finger. Then let it stand two or three hours, well 
corked. The water present in the sample separates out and floats 
above the bisulphide of carbon as a slightly yellow liquid. If it oc- 
cupies the space between two divisions of the tube it is 1-10 of a cubic 
centimetre in bulk, and weighs consequently 1 decigramme. The 
iodine therefore in this case, if exactly 1 gramme was operated upon, 
contains 10 per cent, of water. A fair average sample of commercial 
iodine contains about : — 

Iodine, 88-61 

Chlorine, ...... 0*52 

Ash, 0-72 

Water, 1045 

loo¥u 



Am. Jour. Pharm.I 
June 1, 1872. j 



Caniharidal Plaster. 



273 



An inferior sample, on the other hand, may contain: — 

Iodine, . . . . . 76-21 

Chlorine, 0-88 

Ash . . . . . . 1-11 

Water, 21-80 



100-00 

— American Chemist, April, 1872, from Mech. Mag. 



PREPARATION OP A VERY ACTIVE CANTHARIDAL PLASTER, 
By Professor Dr. G. Dragendorff. 

Apothecaries frequently complain that some cantharides do not fur- 
nish an active blistering plaster ; that the same furnish, even when 
treated with acetic ether, an extract so poor in cantharidin, that with 
its aid no good Drouott's blistering tissue can be produced. In most 
cases the opinion is expressed that the flies contain too small a per- 
centage of cantharidin. My experience teaches me to discredit the 
latter opinion. It is possible to obtain good preparations even from 
such apparently poor cantharides, it being only necessary to thor- 
oughly extract the cantharidin they contain. 

A few observations show how poorly this is commonly accomplished. 
According to my experience the amount of cantharidin in Spanish flies 
varies from 0-27 to 0-5 per cent. The coating of a vesicating tissue 
20 c. m. long and twelve wide requires about 25 grm. plaster sub- 
stance, containing usually about 6 grm. powdered Spanish flies, fur- 
nishing at least 0-016 cantharidin. 0-00002 grm. cantharidin suffice 
for a blistering surface of a square centimetre, or 0*0048 grm. for 
240 square centimetres, or less than one-third of the smallest quan- 
tity that may be considered present in the plaster. Mechanical 
causes may partly be found to be the ones that prevent a thorough 
action of the plaster. A plaster of poor adhesiveness, not being in 
close contact with the epidermis, does not act because that close con- 
tact is wanting, which is necessary for the absorption of the canthari- 
din. It is also a mistake of several pharmacopoeias to permit the use 
of coarsely-powdered cantharides, the quantity of cantharidin in which 
is not uniformly distributed in the plaster, even if the powder is heated 
for a long time with the oil. 

Other causes, unnoticed heretofore, also weigh heavily in this di- 
rection. The cantharidin is present in the Spanish flies in several 

18 



274 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t June 1,1872. 



different combinations, in which it is firmly held. This we may see, 
as mentioned already in my u Contributions to Toxicological Chemis- 
try," in the difficult behavior of flies .towards various solvents. Can- 
tharides with about 8 per cent, of cantharidin yield to water, even 
after repeated boiling with fresh portions of the same, only about half 
of their cantharidin, while the remainder is only yielded to potassa 
lye. In the same manner, alcohol, chloroform, and ether, dissolve 
only oO per cent, of the blistering substance. If all the cantharidin 
is to be extracted, bases like potassa or soda must be employed, which 
form easily soluble salts with the cantharidin. Together with Masing, 
I demonstrated years ago that the salts thus formed are energetic blis- 
tering agents. During the past two years, reference has occasionally 
been made to our observation, especially by Delpech and Guichard,, 
recommending the cantharidates of soda and potassa as vesicants. 

Without alluding to this further, I would say that by the aid of 
soda or potassa the entire amount of cantharidin contained in the 
flies may be rendered active. The finely-powdered flies are mixed to 
a paste with diluted alkaline lye of about 1-1 sp. gr., heated in water 
bath for 25 to 30 minutes, when sufficient muriatic acid is added, to 
have a trifling surplus of the same, and the whole mass is dried rap- 
idly in the water-bath. The residue, which we may call " prepared 
cantha rides," is powdered anew and employed for the preparation of 
the plaster, or for the extract with acetic ether for use upon tissue. 
The small quantity of potassium or sodium chloride present, is in no 
case injurious. The cantharidin is now present in the mixture in a 
free state. In a drug store in this city, where my proposition has 
been followed, no complaints have been made about the preparation. 

Even for the preparation of the pure catharidin, the above men- 
tioned process is worthy of attention. As I mentioned before, ether, 
alcohol, etc., dissolve from the cantharides, not " prepared," only a 
fraction of the cantharidin present. — Pharmacist and Chemical Rec- 
ord, April, 1872. 

iJarictics, 

Qundurango by its Friends. — Through the kindness of Dr. John S. Perkins, 
of this city, we have been put in possession of some very interesting letters 
from persons whose names appear on Bliss, Keene <fc Co's certificates. The 
letters (five in number) do not seem to be very commendatory of the drug. 
Two of them from medical men deny ever giving any testimonials of its virtue 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June. 1,1872. J 



Varieties. 



275 



whatever. Yice-P resident Colfax says he always declines to sign certificates 
of any kind, but says that a private letter of his once gotinto print and was ex- 
tensively published. The remaining two from persons outside of the profession 
do not give evidence of any remarkable cures. In fact both state that in the 
cases observed by them no cure has been effected, but they think some benefit 
has been derived from the use of Cundurango. The proprietors of Cundurango 
seem to have followed in the steps of all quack medicine venders, and secured 
certificates no matter by what means. One of the physicians alluded to, Dr. 
Fitch, of Chicago, says : '* I have never authorized the use of my name in the 
connection you speak of (Cundurango), and from this fact alone I am satisfied 
that the whole thing is a money making scheme and I may say a humbug." — 
Buffalo Medical and Surgical Journal, April, 1872. 

New Use for Paraffin — Dr. Vohl announces that, mixed with benzole or 
Canada balsam, paraffin affords a much superior glazing for frescoes than solu- 
ble glass. By covering the interior of wine casks with a film of pure white 
paraffin poured in melted, he has effectually prevented the spoiling of wine, or 
its evaporation through the wood. — Journal Franklin Institute, Feb., 1872. 

Value of Salt. — This substance is remarkable as constituting the only mineral 
eaten by man. Not only does it afford an indispensable and wholesome con- 
diment for our tables, but it forms an essential constituent of the blood, and 
supplies to the human system the loss sustained by saline secretions. Its 
antiseptic properties are invaluable ; but although it preserves, it ultimately 
changes and deteriorates the quality of the food to which it is applied, render- 
ing the same innutritious and indigestible ; for salt, notwithstanding its being 
a strong stimulant to the animal fibre, is not convertible into nutriment This 
is the cause why sailors who subsist long upon salted provisions are subject to 
the sea-scurvy. Its medicinal qualities are also remarkable. While all other 
saline preparations tend to cool, this but heats the body, and engenders thirst. 
Some years ago a medical man wrote a brochure in which he condemned the 
use of salt, attributing to it all the diseases to which flesh is heir. The poor 
fellow eventually committed su ! cide. Only lately a book has appeared in which 
the writer, who is a physician, recommends salt as a sure antidote to the con- 
tagion of small-pox. Doctors will of course disagree; but as Variola is ac- 
knowledged to arise from a diseased or poisoned condition of the blood, the 
due use of salt may possibly form a safe and effective specific. Salt is not 
only an agreeable condiment, but also an indispensable requisite. When mod- 
erately used it acts as a gentle stimulant to the stomach, and gives a piquancy 
and relish to our food. In Africa the high caste children suck rock-salt as if 
it were sugar, although the poorer classes of natives cannot so indulge their 
palates. Hence the expression in vogue among them, " He eats salt with his 
victuals," signifying that the person alluded to is an opulent man. In those 
countries where mineral salt is not procurable, and where the inhabitants are 
far removed from the sea, a kind of saline powder is prepared from certain vege- 
table products to serve in its stead. Indeed, so highly is salt valued in some 
places — such as Prester John's country—that from its very scarcity it is em- 
ployed as a substitute for money.— Good Health, February, 1872, from Food 
Journal 



276 



Varieties. 



/Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
t June X, 1872. 



Meat Extracts. — Dr. P. M tiller, in an essay on meat extracts, considers that 
they are neither directly nor indirectly food, for they do not contain albuminoid 
matter, neither do the nitrogenous principles which they contain arrest disas- 
similation, that is, they do not prevent the waste of the organic matter which 
composes the body. In small doses, these extracts are useful by the stimulant 
action of the potassa salts, which promote digestion and circulation; in strong 
doses — too large quantity at once — these substances may have a very injurious 
effect. Medical men should bear in mind that, if given alone, these extracts 
(and the same applies to beef tea) are no nutriment, and only tend to keep the 
convalescents weak and not only ill fed, but not at all fed. — Good Health, April, 
1872. 



Extemporaneous Ink. — The following recipe will give black ink of good color 
and permanency : — Take of tannic and gallic acids each 20 grains, dissolve in 
2 fluid ounces of water , take also of crystallized sulphate of iron and of the 
dried sulphate (sulphas ferri exsiccatum) , of each 15 grains, and dissolve these 
separately in a similar quantity of water (best distilled) ; mix the two solutions 
and add of mucilage (mucilago gummi arabici) 2^ fluid drachms, of oil of, 
cloves 2 drops. Although this ink is by no means cheap, it is preferable to 
every other, and is a very fine black and quite permanent. — Chem. News, Jan. 
26, 1872. 

Effect of Severe Gold upon Cast-iron. — H. Cock. — The author relates that 
the cast-iron framework of a 12-horse horizontal high pressure steam engine, 
employed at the printing-works of MM. Renou and Maulde (Paris), after hav- 
ing been exposed for some hours to a temperature of — °15 during the night of 
December 8 to 9 last, suddenly snapped to pieces in three different places 
when the engiue driver attempted to start the engine very cautiously and at a 
slow speed on the morning of December 9 last. — Chemical News, Jan. 26, 
1872, from Les Mondes, Jan. 11, 1872. 

Decomposition of the Soluble Sulphurets by Water.— Dr. H. Koibe. — The 
eminent savant first refers at length to the extensive thermo chemical re- 
searches of Thomsen, and then describes a series of researches made with the 
view of elucidating, under varying conditions, the behavior of the soluble sul- 
phurets with water. The chief result of the author's researches is that when 
the soluble sulphurets become dissolved in water they undergo a partial de- 
composition, due to the fact that the metals of these sulphurets have an equally 
strong affinity for the oxygen of the water as for the sulphur, and, as a conse- 
quence thereof, these sulphurets (as mono-sulphurets) undergo a partial decom- 
position into sulphydrate of the metal and hydrated oxide of the metal when 
only a small quantity of water is present, but with a large quantity of water 
this decomposition will proceed further. — Chem. News, Jan. 26, 1872, from 
Joum.f. Prakt. Chem., 1871, No. 19. 



Poisonous Effects of Zinc Utensils. — The Union Medical calls attention to 
a new source of danger, caused by the substitution of zinc for tin in the manu- 



Am Jour. Pharm. \ 
June 1, 1872. / 



Varieties. 



277 



facture of pots and pans by travelling tinmen. Zinc sheet can be had at sev- 
enty centimes the kilogramme, while tin costs three or four francs, so that it is 
often substituted in the making of kitchen utensils. The fraud cannot be de- 
tected hy the eye, but a little vinegar boiled in the vessel will immediately cor- 
rode the surface and, if done in the process of cookery, will give rise to symp- 
toms of poison.— Med. Press and Circular. Jan. 10, 1872. 

Preparation of Pare Metallic Silver, — Dr. Grager. — The author dissolves the 
alloy of silver in nitric acid, taking care to use as small a quantity as possible ; 
the solution is then transferred to a larged-sized porcelain basin, and gradually 
neutralized with previously lixiviated chalk free from chlorine. The neutral- 
ized liquid is next boiled, and chalk again added to it, while boiling, until the 
fluid has become colorless (in order to test more accurately, a drop of the liquid 
is poured on a piece of white filtering paper, and next to that drop is placed 
one of a solution of ferrocyanide of potassium ; as long as the well-known red 
coloration, copper reaction, hereby ensues, chalk is added). The fluid is next 
filtered, to separate the carbonate of copper, and the filtrate (a solution of 
nitrate of silver and nitrate of lime) is again boiled, and either further treated 
with carbonate of lime or, better still, with carbonate of soda ; the bright yel- 
low colored precipitate thereby ensuing, a mixture of carbonate of silver and 
carbonate of lime, is washed, dried and ignited, leaving a greyish white mass of 
metallic silver mixed with carbonate of lime; this mixture is treated with dilute 
hydrochloric acid, washed with distilled water, and then fusel along with borax, 
yielding pure silver. The bright green-colored carbonate of copper can be 
used as a pigment for painting purposes. — Chem. News, March 8, 1872, from 
Dingler's Polyl. Journ., Jan. 

Observations Bearing upon M. BoussingaulVs Communication on a Saccha- 
rine Substance met ivith on the Leaves of a Lime Tree* — Dr. P. Harting. — The 
author first briefly refers to the communication just named, and then relates 
that some years ago he had an opportunity to observe a similar phenomenon 
in his garden at Utrecht (Kingdom of the Netherlands); in this instance the 
author found along with the saccharine excretion a number of insects, Aphis, 
tilice, on the tree, and some of these insects were seen quite filled with the 
saccharine juice, which, on being submitted to chemical analysis, was found to 
consist essentially of cane sugar. The reading of this paper, wherein the 
author states that, in his opinion, the secretion of this saccharine juice is due 
to the punctures made by the insects alluded to in the leaves of the lime tree, 
gave rise— First, to an observation of M. Boussingault, who says that Dr. 
Harting's opinion just alluded to is that generally accepted, but did not hold 
good in the instance referred to by him ; he also states that the leaves of lime 
trees contain a rather large amount of cane sugar. Secondly, Colonel Follie 
states that the phenomenon alluded to is every year observed on the lime trees 
planted on the Esplanada at Metz, the abnormal secretion of sacchariue matter 
being so strong that drops of it are continually falling from the trees, which lose 
heir foliage very early in autumn. — Chem. News, March 8, 1872, from Compt. 
rend., Feb. 12. 

*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 211. 



278 



Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. { 

Ititmta of \\}t fjprmarrotital Meetings, 



Am. Joub. Pharm. 
June 1, 1872. 



A pharmaceutical meeting was held May 20th, 1872, President in the chair. 

An interesting feature of the meeting was the presence of Samuel F. Troth, 
on the 50th anniversary of his election to membership to the College. On be- 
half of some of his friends, the Chairman on this occasion presented him with 
a copy of the last edition of the United States Dispensatory, and Dr. Jos. 
Thomas' Biographical Dictionary, in two volumes, as a testimonial to his long 
and untiring devotion to the interests of the College. On the title-page was 
the following inscription: 

1822 — 1872. Presented to Saml. F. Troth by a number of his fellow-members 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, as a testimonial of their esteem 
and appreciation of the valuable services rendered by him to the institu- 
tion during the past half century. 
Friend Troth exhibited his original certificate of membership, in a good state 

of preservation, and, in acknowledgement of the gift, stated that he had served 

the College to the best of his ability for 45 years; during the last five years, 

from impaired health, he had been obliged to retire from active service. 

Mr. Bullock exhibited the result of drying a film of gelatine on a sheet of 

glass; in contracting it was found to raise a film of the glass with it. Mr. 

Procter had noticed this in a test-tube with glue, though not on so extended a 

scale. 

Prof. Maisch presented to the College a number of specimens of cundurango, 
sent through Dr. Ruscheuberger, U. S. N., by Dr. J. M. Foltz. Surgeon Gen. 
eral U. S. Navy, for the College cabinet. They were collected in the province 
of Loja, Ecuador, by Passed Assistant Surgeon Joseph G. Ayres, of the Navy, 
by official direction, and forwarded with a report to the bureau of medicine and 
surgery in the Navy Department ; a description of the several specimens has 
been prepared and will probably be published. The specimens comprise pieces 
of stems, fruit, &c, of the following seven varieties : Cundurango de tumbo 
grande, de Tumbo chico (Bejuco Pachon), de Paloma, de Platano, de casca- 
rilla. Saragosa and bianco. Prof. Procter raised the question whether cun- 
durango was the same as guaco, which has been sold in European markets as 
cundurango, and whether any authentic case of cure from the use of this remedy 
is known. Prof. Maisch stated that he had never seen guaco sold as cundu- 
rango in our market, nor had he read of the cure of a case of cancer in any of 
the medical or pharmaceutical journals, and stated that none of the physicians 
whose names were mentioned in connection with its successful use when first 
introduced now claimed anything for it; some publicly declare they had nothing 
to do with the publication of their names as recommending it. (See page 274.) 

Mr. Bullock proposed a vote of thanks to Dr. Foltz for his valuable dona- 
tion, and the Registrar was directed to forward to him through Dr. Ruschen- 
berger this expression of the meeting. 

Mr. Remington spoke of an adulteration of iodine which recently came under 
his notice. Upon examination this sample was found to contain about 25 per 
cent, of sawdust Mr. R. stated that the adulteration was very easily detected 
by close examination, or by one accustomed to handling the article. It was 



A Vnri,i872 M \ Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 279 

suggested by members that the sawdust may have become mixed with the 
iodine through breakage, the iodine having been packed in it for transportation. 
The adulterant seems almost the last that would suggest itself, on account of 
its lightness. The result of further investigation will be interesting to the pro- 
fession at large. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a fine sample of round cardamom (Ammomum car- 
damomumi), very rare in this market. 

The Professor also exhibited crabs' eyes, which were enclosed in a small bag 
in an original package of cantharides. The question arose as to the cause of 
this, and as crabs' eyes are thought to be about as expensive as cantharides it 
is doubtful whether this can be called an intentional fraud. 

A curious specimen of colchicum was also shown, cut in transverse slices, 
externally white, internally quite dark in color. 

The Professor also exhibited to the College a fine sample of Chinese blis- 
tering: fly (Mylabris Cichorii), said to contain one-third more cantharidin than 
Spanish fly of European commerce. These flies differ from the Ganlhans 
Vesicatoria in some particulars, and are devoid of the peculiar green lustre on 
the wings. Some discussion ensued as to the principle, cantharidin, and its 
development in the fly, as being connected with the genital organs of the female 
fly, and being present only at a certain stage in its life. The Chinese fly is im- 
ported into the London market at about half the price of the officinal fly. 

Prof. Procter spoke of Gantharis atrata, which is not a Mylabris, and 
which he has had for some time. 

This being the last meeting until the autumn. Prof. Maisch mentioned that 
the British and North British Societies had also held their last pharmaceutical 
meeting of the season. After pleasant conversation, the meeting adjourned, to 
meet on the third Tuesday in October. 

CLEMMONS PARRISH, Begktrar. 



The Massachusetts College of Pharmacy held the commencement of its 
Sixth Session, at Horticultural Hall, May 22d, when the following gentlemen 
received the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy: Edward C. Boyden [Assays 
of Ten Samples of Syrup of Iodide of Iron), John D. Knowlton (Black Pep- 
per, with Assays of Commercial Samples), Edgar L. Patch (Pill and Powder 
Making), Charles E. Tappan (Examination of Commercial Ginger and its Pow- 
der), James T. Wright (Cream of Tartar and, its Adulterations), Nahum Wash- 
burn, Jr. (Assays of Ten Samples of Commercial Compound, Tincture of Cin- 
chona). The valedictory address was delivered by Professor James F. Bab- 
cock. 



The New York College of Pharmacy has instituted a course in botany, 
under the superintendence of Mr. P. V. Le Roy, Secretary of the Torrey 
Botauical Club. The excursions take place every two weeks. 

Wm. Manlius Smith, Ph. D., has been selected to fill the chair of Practical 
Pharmacy, made vacant by the resignation of Dr. E. R. Squibb. 



280 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. {*ZjRm£P 

Maryland College of Pharmacy. — At the meeting held May 9th the Com- 
mittee on Unofficinal Formulas was ordered to report at the next monthly meet- 
ing. Great anxiety was expressed for the publication of this report, the former 
edition (now out of print) having served an excellent purpose in arranging and 
rendering uniform the numerous local formulas used in Baltimore. 

Mr. Wm. 8. Thompson read an essay on the practice of pharmacy fifty years 
ago, comparing it with that of the present day, and giving many practical hints 
and numerous suggestions. The paper will come up for discussion at the next 
meeting. 

Mr. J. F. Hancock exhibited various medicated waters, among them the dis- 
tilled waters of peach leaves, orange peel, mint, &c. He contended that dis- 
tilled medicated waters are generally superior to those made from the volatile 
oils with magnesia ; if prepared with the oils these should be agitated with 
warm distilled water in preference to using magnesia. Thus made, medicated 
waters possess a fine flavor, are transparent and quite suitable for solvents. 
The subject elicited an animated discussion. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — The last pharmaceutical meet- 
ing of the season was held May 1st, the President in the chair. Among the 
donations made to the library and museum were specimens of Ki-temboga or 
copper-tree bark, from Meraecylon grandis, Melastomacece, a native of Java' 
possessing astringent properties and, according to Dr. De Yrij, probably useful 
in tanning; the popular name is derived from the copper color of the bark* 
Also the essential oil of Gaultheria punctata* of Chavica (Piper) betle, and of 
Eucalyptus globulus, the oils of the pericarp and of the kernel of the cashew 
nut, &c. 

Dr. Tilden stated that he had found the specimen of so-called crystallized 
bisulphite of magnesia, about which a paper had been read by Mr. Archbold, 
to be the ordinary sulphite containing six molecules of water of crystallization. 
He thought it highly improbable that any such compound could be produced 
in the solid form. 

Mr. Williams stated that bisulphite of lime, being soluble in water, may be 
used as a test to determine whether salts are sulphites or bisulphites A solu- 
tion of chloride of calcium is added to the solution of the bisulphite to be 
tested ; if a precipitate occurs (which may be sulphite, sulphate or carbonate)* 
the whole is thrown on a filter, and the filtrate precipitated by lime water, which 
neutralizes the excess of sulphurous acid, and from the amount of sulphite thus 
produced, the percentage of bisulphite originally present in the sample can be 
easily calculated. 

Mr. Greenish then read a paper entitled " Pharmacy in Austria." An ani- 
mated discussion followed the reading of this sketch, in which the present con- 
dition and future prospects of German and Austrian pharmacy were compared 
with those of Great Britain. 



The North British Branch of the Pharmaceutical Society held its fifth 

* See Amor. Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 72. 



^j^w?*! Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 281 

end last scientific meeting for the season on Thursday, April 18th, Mr. Baildon, 
President, in the chair. 

Mr. John Gibson read a paper, illustrated by specimens and drawings, on 
"The Natural History and Commerce of Sponges." 

Messrs. McFarlane and Co., of Edinburgh, presented to the museum several 
specimens of various kinds of sponges, adhering to pieces of rock, which had 
recently been procured from Smyrna. 

The President then delivered his valedictory address. 

At the annual meeting held April 19th Mr. H. C. Baildon was elected Presi- 
dent, and Mr. Win. Gilmour Vice-President. After the election of the Council 
and other officers, Mr. Mackay was requested to continue to act as honorary 
Secretary. The meeting then adjourned. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — At the meeting held March 6th, Mr. 
Stan. Martin presiding, Mr. Boudet reported on the transactions of the Acad- 
emie de Medicine. The subject of tannate of quinia occasioned some discus- 
sion. Mr. Roucher regards it as possessing rather less activity than the sulph- 
ate, but to possess certain advantages in special cases. Mr. Regnault stated 
Jthat by precipitating acetate of quinia with tannin, a turbid liquid is obtained 
which will pass through the filters, so that it is impossible to wash the newly 
formed compound, which is very soluble in acetic acid, and which separates 
completely on the addition of a little sulphuric acid or even of sulphate of soda. 
The tannate of quinia, freed from sulphuric acid, is nearly insoluble in water, 
but soluble in alcohol. The speaker also believes that the morphia in wine of 
opium is not precipitated by the little tannin contained in the cinnamon and 
cloves, as believed by Mr. Delioux de Savignac, for which reason he had pro- 
posed to substitute these aromatics by sugar, also to replace opium by its 
extract. (See, also, below, the account of the meeting of the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Antwerp). 

Mr. Limousin read a paper on sulphovinate of soda, describing the mode of 
preparing it, and reporting on some advantages it possesses over other saline 
purgatives, among which may be mentioned its more pleasant and cooling taste, 
and that it does not produce subsequent constipation, nor calculi in the bladder* 
like magnesia salts. 

A paper, by Mr. Cauvet, on the distinctive characters of French and Asiatic 
rhubarbs, refers mainly to the well known differences in the direction of the red 
medullary rays, and the greater prominence of the brown cambium zone in the 
former. 

Mr. E. Bourgoin proposes to test oil of bitter almonds with an equal weight 
of caustic potassa; the pure oil changes merely to a yellowish color ; in the 
presence of nitro-benzole a yellowish red color is produced, which rapidly 
changes to green ; on the addition of water, the mixture separates into two 
layers, the lower of which is yellow, the upper one green changing to red in the 
course of a day.* 

At the meeting held April 3d, Mr. Boudet reported on the essay by Mr. Le- 
fort on the distribution of atropia in belladonna f Some discussion took place 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1857, p. 544. 
( See page 258 of this Journal. 



282 



Editorial. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ June 1, 1872. 



on the proposed legislation relative to medical and pharmaceutical legislation. 

Mr. Roucher stated that, under certain circumstances, Japan wax has two 
fusing points, and that beeswax does not show this phenomenon. He likewise 
exhibited the results of his investigations on digitaline and digitine. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Antwerp. — At the meeting held March 10th, 
the President, Mr. De Bruyne, in the chair, and Mr. Van Pelt, Secretary, an 
essay, by Mr. Eg. Daenen, on the preparation of Sydenham's Laudanum, was 
read, in which the author stated that the precipitate occurring in this prepara- 
tion contains morphia and is caused by the tannin of the cinnamon. Chinese 
cinnamon and cassia lignea contain a larger proportion of tannin and yield a 
more voluminous precipitate than Ceylon cinnamon. By substituting the cin- 
namon and the cloves by a corresponding quantity of their volatile oils, a lauda" 
niim is obtained possessing all the essential properties of this medicine without 
the inconveniences. The author likewise advocates the employment of an 
opium or its extract, of a definite morphia strength. 

A paper by Messrs. H. Vande Yelde and Edm. Van Melckebeke was read, 
treating of the different processes that have been proposed for making Blaud's 
Pills, and suggesting the following formula: 180 grm. sulphate of iron and 110* 
grm. bicarbonate of soda are powdered, and added to a heated mixture of 15 
grm. water and 5 grm. glycerin. When the disengagement of carbonic acid 
has ceased, remove from the fire, add 35 grm. honey, and incorporate afterwards 
25 grm. gum Arabic and 2 grm. tragacanth, previously mixed: make into pills 
weighing 25 centigrm. each.* 

The Austrian Apothecaries' Association contemplates publishing a hand, 
book of pharmaceutical chemistry, the author of which is Dr. Godeffroy, the 
chemist of the Association. The work, which is completed in manuscript, aims 
to treat exhaustively of all chemicals of importance in pharmacy, their mode 
of preparation, purification and examination. 



iffMtorial Department. 

Our Journal appears this month for the fourth time with the edges trimmed 
—an innovation which it was proposed to have commenced with the beginning 
of the volume. During these four mouths we have had many approving com 
ments on the course adopted, while but three complaints have been made con- 
cerning it, and all three based upon the supposition that so much had been 
clipped off as to leave less margin in the bound volumes than heretofore. We 
take occasion to refer those of our readers who may have a similar impression, 
to page 42 of last year's volume, where information was given that the printed 
matter of each page has been widened and lengthened, while the size of the 
paper remaining as before, less margin is left in the fourth series of our Jour- 
nal, which is now trimmed as close to the edges as possible. 

*For other formulas lor the same pills, see American Journal of Pharmacy, 1871, pa^en 307 
373, 471. 



Am. Jour. Pfukm. \ 
June 1, 1872. j 



Editorial. 



283 



Pharmaceutical Legislation. — The Baltimore Pharmacy Act. approved 
March 23, 1870, has been repealed by the Legislature of Maryland, and in its 
place another law has been enacted and approved April I. 1872, to prevent 
incompetent persons from conducting business as pharmacists or vending, at 
retail, drugs, medicines and chemicals for medicinal use in the city of Balti- 
more. The new law is an improvement on the old one. 

On the 22d of May, Governor Hoffman signed the new Pharmacy law apply- 
ing to the city of New York, and the famous Irving bill, with its costly commis- 
sioners, is now dead and buried. According to the new law the members of 
the College of Pharmacy of the city of New York elect the Board of Pharmacy, 
which is to be composed of five competent poarmacists, three of whom shall 
be graduates in medicine and two graduates in pharmacy. It is probable that 
the College has among its members more than the sufficient number of grad- 
uates in medicine, qualified according to this law, to act as examiners, so that 
it can establish the standard of acquirements, and hereafter becomes respon- 
sible for the qualification of the pharmacists in the city of New York. 

Thus we have, beside the State of Rhode Island, now four large cities of the 
United States for which pharmaceutical laws have been enacted, namely, New 
York, Philadelphia. Baltimore and San Francisco. Other cities and States 
will probably soon follow. 



The Philadelphia Pharmaceutical Examining Board has organized by the 
election of Mr. James N. Marks as President and James T. Shinn as Secre- 
tary. The office of the Board is at 723 Arch street, where the registration of 
those engaged in the business was commenced on May 20th. We understand 
that the Board also receives now applications by clerks for examination and 
certificates of competency, the examination to commence towards the latter 
part of June, after the registration of the pharmacists in business has been ac- 
complished. 



The Chicago College Fund. — The Committee in Great Britain having the 
matter in charge announced that the list of contributors would be closed on 
the 30th of April last. Up to April 12th the cash received amounted to £450, 
and the value of the books and specimens to at least £100. It was proposed 
to expend about one half the cash in the purchase of other useful English 
books on pharmacy, chemistry, materia medica and botany, and the balance 
in apparatus and specimens for the illustration of lectures. A collection of 
various French works has been made through Dr. J. Leon Soubeiran, and will 
be sent with the donation from Great Britain. 

The North German Apothecaries' Society has shipped to the Chicago Col- 
lege about 250 volumes of the following scientific journals : Archiv der Pharma- 
cie, Buchner's Repertorium der Pharmacie, Buchner's Neues Repertorium der 
Pharmacie, Jahrbuch fur Praktische Pharmacie and Journal fiir praktische 
Chemie. 



A Victim of the Diploma Swindle. — We copy the following from the Phar- 
maceutical Journal and Transactions of May 11th, which shows that the revok- 



284 



Editorial, 



JAm. Jour. Phasm. 
( June 1, 1872. 



ing of the charters of the two bogus doctor factories by the Pennsylvania Leg- 
islature is hailed in Europe with the same satisfaction as in this country. 

" On Tuesday, May 7th, an appeal was argued in the Court of Exchequer 
on behalf of Thomas Andrews, of Shrewsbury, against a conviction of the 
magistrates of that town for improperly using the letters M. D. after his name 
in accounts rendered. The appellant produced a diploma of the University of 
Philadelphia, United States, of the year 1870, but did not appear even to have 
visited the place or been examined before a qualified tribunal. 

"Their Lordships were all of the opinion that the conviction should be af- 
firmed, and dismissed the appeal with costs. 

41 Baron Martin expressed his satisfaction that measures were being takej. 
by the Legislatures in America to suppress this issue of spurious degrees by 
the University of Philadelphia." 

Protection Against Accidental Poisoning. — The College of Physicians of 
Philadelphia adopted the subjoined preamble and resolution, and have com- 
municated the same to the American Medical Association, lately in session in 
this city, by which body they have likewise been adopted. They have also 
been communicated to several pharmaceutical societies with the request to 
consider them : 

11 Whereas cases of accidental poisoning and of the internal administration 
of medicines intended only for external use are so frequent ; and — 

" Whereas every possible safeguard should be employed to prevent such ac- 
cidents ; therefore 

" Resolved, That it is recommended to all druggisis to place all external 
remedies in bottles not only colored, so as to appeal to the eye, but also rough 
upon one side, so that by the sense of touch no mistake shall be possible, even 
in the dark ; and that all bottles containing poisons should not only be labelled 
1 poison,' but also with another label indicating the most efficient and conve- 
nient antidote." 



The Exhibition at the Twenty-third Annual Meeting of the American 
Medical Association has been quite successful and surpassed the expectation 
of most members. Five large rooms in the hall of the College of Physicians, of 
Philadelphia, were filled with philosophical, obstetrical and surgical instru- 
ments and apparatus, anatomical and pathological specimens and models, books, 
medicinal plants, crude drugs, chemical and pharmaceutical preparations and 
apparatus. The Committee on exhibition and the subcommittees deserve 
great credit for their exertions. 

Quack medicines were, of course, excluded ; but in order to exclude also the 
numerous elixirs and similar preparations of an order closely related to quack- 
ery, a resolution had been adopted prohibiting the exhibition of all unofficinal 
preparations, unless made by a formula published in some scientific journal, or 
by a process fully made known. 

If these exhibitions, in connection with the annual meetings of the American 
Medical Association, are continued, we expect that the members will feel the 
interest increasing, and derive a benefit similar to that experienced by the 
members of the American Pharmaceutical Association from the exhibitions at 
their annual meetings. 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 285 
REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Tables of Mortality, forming part of the Vital Statistics of the United States, 
Ninth Census, 1870. Washington, D. 0., 1872. 4to, 423 pages. 

We have been favored by Mr. Francis A. Walker, Superintendent of the 
Census Office, Department of the Interior, with a copy of the advance sheets 
of the above-named tables, which are nine in number. These returns of mor 
tality, made under the act of 1850, are not assumed to include the entire body 
of deaths occurring during the census year ; but the tables are valuable, distrib- 
uting as they do nearly half a million (492,263) of deaths, according to disease, 
age, sex, nativity, race, color and occupation, as well as the month in which the 
deaths occurred. A discussion of the bearings of this subject is promised for 
the final publication, and will doubtless be extremely interesting to the statis- 
tician. We now remark that there has been reported for the year 1870 only 
one death for 78'33 inhabitants (total number of inhabitants, 38,555,983). Of 
the number reported 260,673 were males, and 231,500 were females. Of 2*4 
deaths of males and of 2'47 deaths of females, one child under 5 years was car- 
ried off. The deaths by poison numbered 2351 males (1410 by alcohol, 31 by 
lead, and 910 by other poisons not specified) and 599 females (249 by alcohol, 2 
by lead, and 349 by other poisons). The poisons " not specified " must include 
suicides, murders, fatal mistakes and accidents by poison. Their proportion 
to the entire number of reported deaths of the respective sexes was, therefore, 
0*349 per ct. among the males and 0*1502 among the females. 

We cannot ascertain the mortality of apothecaries and druggists, since table 
viii recognizes only the following occupations : agriculturists, clergymen, labor- 
ers, lawyers, merchants and clerks, mill and factory operatives, all other me- 
chanics, physicians and teachers. 



The Physiological and Therapeutical Action of the Bromide of Potassium and 
Bromide of Ammonium. In two parts. By Edward H. Clarke, M. D., and 
Eobert Amory, M. D. Boston : James Campbell. 1872. 12mo, 178 pages. 
Price, $1.50. 

The work consists of two monographs, supplementary to each other, Part I 
treating of the "Therapeutical Action of Bromide of Potassium and its Kin- 
dred Salts," while Part II has the " Physiological Action of Bromides of Pot- 
assium and Ammonium" for its subject. The latter, written by Dr. Amory 
and published in the Transactions of the Massachusetts Medical Society a few 
years ago, was received with such favor that another edition became necessary. 
The propositions of this essay are stated as follows : 

A. Bromide of potassium is absorbed readily by any portion of the healthy 
mucous membrane with which it is placed in contact. 

B. It is largely and mainly eliminated with the urine ; during the first day 
the largest portion passes out of the system, less during the second day, and 
so on until there is none left in the system. 

C. The skin assists in the elimination of this drug from the system on the 
second as well as on the first day. 

D. The loss of reflex action is due to the diminution of blood in the periphery 
of the nerves, and also of the central nervous system, this last occurring after 
the first. 



286 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { A jui ™; 

E. The action of bromide of potassium on the nervous system may be ex- 
plained by its action on the capillary, arterial or central circulation. 

The experiments from which these propositions have been deduced are briefly 
but clearly related. 

Part I, written by Professor Clarke, occupies 103 pages, the greater part of 
the volume before us. The subject is discussed under the following headings: 
Absorption, Elimination, Action while in the System ; The Continued Dose - 
Action of the Toxic Dose ; Special Applications of the Continued Dose ; Epi- 
lepsy ; Hysteria ; Antagonism of Bromide of Potassium and Strychnia ; which 
chapter is followed by a brief account of the other alkaline bromides. 

The medical literature in both essays has been extensively consulted, criti- 
cally examined, and carefully compared with the experiments and observations 
of the authors; thus many interesting facts have been established which must 
prove very valuable to the medical practitioner. 

The chemistry, as a general rule, is correctly given ; in a few instances only 
have we observed statements which can scarcely be considered as sufficiently 
exact. Thus, on page 112, the following passage occurs: ''The bromide of 
sodium closely resembles in appearance, taste, solubility and physiological 
action, the bromide of potassium, bromide of ammonium and bromide of 
lithium." The italicized words are the portion to which we take exception as 
regards exactness. On page 123 it is stated that 44 the stronger acids with dif- 
ficulty liberate the bromine at an ordinary temperature." Bromine is liberated 
in the form of hydrobromic acid 

A physical law which is so frequently disregarded by physicians in ordering 
medicines shares here no better fate on p. 101. One ounce bromide of potassium 
was dissolved hi three (fluid ?) ounces of water, and half an (fluid ?) ounce given 
as a dose ; the solution will measure over 3i fluidounces, and the dose contain 
about 65 grains of the salt, whereas the author regards the salt as occupying 
no space, and states the dose as eighty grains, a difference of about 23 per ct. 
over the correct quantity. 



First Annual Report of the Alumni Association of the College of Pharmacy of 
the City of New York. Containing, also, the Valedictory Address delivered 
by Professor C. F. Chandler, and the Address of the President of the Soci- 
ety, D. C. Bobbins, Esq. New York: Croker & Teller, Printers. 1872. 
8vo, 39 pages. 

The valedictory address of Professor Chandler is an excellent "farewell" to- 
the graduates ; it discusses several important questions relating to pharmacists 
and pays a deserved tribute to the creation in New York of the famous (?}; 
Irving bill, which, happily, is now a thing of the past, in the following passage : 

How much could our College do with the money which is now being expended 
on the Commission of Pharmacy! Last year the pharmacists paid $11,880, 
while the city paid $8000 more, or about $20,000 in all, to find out whether the 
apothecaries were competent for their business. This year the 300 still to be 
examined are expected to pay about $5000, and the city $11,000 more, or $17,- 
000 in all. Nearly $38,000 in two years to find out whether the apothecaries 
know their business, but not a cent to instruct them. The College works faith- 
fully in its modest way r with„ a few hundred dollars a year for its expenses, 
while the Legislature taxes the apothecaries and the city enough in two years 



AM jun™, w£ M '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 287 

to provide the College with a permanent building; assesses nearly $38,000 for 
what the College will gladly do gratuitously. 

The annual address of the President of the Alumni Association likewise 
possesses a lasting value. It reviews the history of the New York College of 
Pharmacy as an educational institution, and discusses briefly the past, the pre- 
sent and the future of the pharmaceutical profession in the United States. We 
extract from it the following statistical information, which we think will be 
interesting to our readers : 

In Prussia, the government considers one apothecary's store to be quite suf- 
ficient for 7500 population, while throughout our whole Union the average 
everywhere is about one to eveiy 2500 souls, a proportion which appears to 
prevail without much regard to locality or circumstances ; thus, with about one 
million population within the city of New York, we have over 400 apothecaries. 
In the whole Union, with about forty millions, we have a little less than 13.000 
druggists and pharmacists, and we find that the more restricted the range of 
the pursuit the greater number of persons are engaged in it, in proportion to 
the population ; consequently the rewards within our cities for the pursuit of 
one of our most responsible professions, requiring extensive education as well 
as culture and close application, are quite inadequate. 

Gmelin-KrauVs Handbuch der Chemie. Anorganische Chemie in drei Banden. 
Sechste umgearbeitete Auflage. Heidelberg: Carl Winter's Universitats 
buchhandlung. 1871.. 

We have noticed the appearance and spoke of the merits of this new edition 
in our January number, and now have upon our table the third and fourth num" 
bers of the third volume, revised by Dr. S. M. Jorgensen, of Copenhagen, 
which contain the elements thallium, lead and part of iron. 

Formulas for some Elixirs and Medicated Wines, adopted by the Louisville 
Oollege of Pharmacy, January 16'fo, 1872. Chicago: J. J. Spalding & Co., 
Printers. 1872. 8vo, 9 pages. 

These formulas were reported by Professor Diehl at the request of the Com- 
mittee on Unofficinal Formulas of the Louisville College of Pharmacy. Their 
adoption by the College named is a step in the right direction, calculated to 
replace by " home made" preparations the semi nostrums of others. It is to 
be regretted that there are so many physicians, even in the larger cities, who — 
unthinkingly — rather rely on the assertions of distant and near manufacturers 
than upon the experience and knowledge of their accomplished pharmacists 
who, honestly and without claiming a proprietaryship, impart their experience, 
and freely acknowledge that they cannot prepare — what nobody else can do — 
a bitter wine of iron, or an elixir of quinia containing gr. j to f^j, which do not 
possess a bitter taste. Under the pretence of "elegant pharmacy," innume- 
rable preparations have been introduced to and are used by the thoughtless and 
unwary physician. Any measure calculated to correct this abuse must be wel- 
comed by the conscientious pharmacist. Some of the formulas proposed may, 
perhaps, not be the best that can be devised, but they will furnish pleasant 
preparations of known definite strength, and as such should be preferred by 
the conscientious physician to preparations the processes for which are kept 
secret. 



288 



Obituary. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm- 
t June 1, 1872. 



Transactions of the Twenty-first Anniversary Meeting of the Illinois State 
Medical Society, held at Peoria May 16th, 1871. Chicago : Fergus Printing 
Co. 1872. 

The original edition was burned during the Chicago fire. The present con. 
tains only such reports of which copies had been preserved by their authors. 



Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Surgeons of the Massachusetts Charitable 
Eye and Ear Infirmary. February, 1872. Boston : James Campbell, Pub- 
lisher. 8vo, 28 pages. 

The pamphlet contains, besides the statistical accounts usually found in such 
publications, also an essay, by Dr. B. Jay Jeffries, on breaking up attachments 
of the iris to the crystalline lens or posterior synechia?. 

Amnesic and Ataxic Aphasia with Agraphia and Temporary Right Hemiplegia, 
the Result of Embolism of the Left Middle Cerebral Artery. By T. M. H. 
Cross, M. D., &c. Louisville, 1872. 

An interesting case, reprinted from the "American Practitioner" for April. 

Eighth Annual Report of the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy. Containing, also, the Valedictory Address delivered to the 
Graduating Class of 1872 by John M. Maisch, Professor of Materia Medica 
and Botany; and the Prospectus of the Ensuing Course of Lectures in the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. Philadelphia, 1872. 8vo, 49 pages. 

In addition to the contents of this pamphlet, as indicated by the title, it 
contains the Proceedings of the Association at its eighth annual meeting, 
together with the usual documents, a report of the Superintendent of the La- 
boratory, list of members, &c. 



OBITUARY. 

Professor Hugo Von Mohl, the celebrated botanist, died suddenly of apo- 
plexy April 1st, on the morning of which day he was found dead in his bed. 
His death is a severe loss to the University of Tubingen, where the deceased 
has labored since 1835 as professor of botany and director of the botanical 
garden. Von Mohl was born at Stuttgart, April 8th, 1805, and had therefore 
nearly completed his 67th year. The investigations of the deceased were 
mainly in the field of vegetable physiology. 

George Robert Gray, F. R. S. — We regret to have to record the death, on 
Monday, May 6th, of George Robert Gray, F. R. S„, Assistant Keeper of the 
Department of Natural History at the British Museum. Mr. Gray was the 
youngest son of Samuel Frederick Gray, author of the well known " Supplement 
to the Pharmacopoeia." The deceased gentleman was himself the author of 
some highly esteemed works on various branches of natural history. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JULY, 1872. 



COTTON ROOT. 
By Professor E. S. Wayne. 
Read before the Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. 

The root of the cotton plant (Gossypium herhaceum) has for some 
time past been accredited with possessing the properties of an em- 
menagogue, parturient and abortive, and said to promote uterine con- 
tractions with as much efficiency and more safety than ergot. 

As yet no analysis has been made of the root to determine its prox- 
imate principles, and to ascertain whether it contains any of the prin- 
ciples found j in ergot, such as propylamin, or alkaloids such as er- 
gotina and ecbolia, found in that substance by Wenzell. 

The fluid extract of cotton root is a preparation largely used in the 
West, and highly spoken of as above by some practitioners. It is 
very prone to deposit a peculiar red precipitate a short time after it 
is made ; and the frequent complaints made respecting this has in- 
duced me to make some investigations as to the cause and nature of 
the deposit, and, at the same time, of some of the proximate prin- 
ciples existing in the root, or, more properly speaking, of the bark of 
the root. 

For this purpose one pound of the root bark, in suitable powder, 
w T as exhausted with alcohol of 76° ; the resulting percolate was of a 
pale amber color. This was distilled to separate any resin present 
in it. After distilling off the alcohol, there was left in the still a 
dark red aqueous solution of extractive, &c, and a dark red resinous 
mass. 

The resinous mass was removed and reduced to a coarse powder, 
and washed with water as long as anything was taken up by it, then 

19 



290 



Cotton Root. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July 1, 1872. 



dried and reduced to a powder. It then resembled very much in ap- 
pearance powdered cochineal. 

The change that had taken place in the color of the original perco- 
late by the action of heat during the distillation, was a matter of much 
surprise to me ; the resulting aqueous solution and separated resin 
being so different in color to that of the original percolate, from a 
pale amber color to a dark red, resembling in appearance that of a 
solution of kino. 

The red resin obtained from one pound avoirdupois of bark, weighed 
210 grains. 

Upon examination of the dark resinous mass, it was found to be in- 
soluble in the following menstrua : alcohol, chloroform, ether, aqua 
ammonise, but soluble in solutions of caustic potassa and soda ; the so- 
lution a dark purplish-red color, and precipitated unchanged on the 
neutralization of the alkali by acids. 

A portion of the precipitate that deposited by standing in the fluid 
extract of cotton root was filtered off, washed and dried, and submit- 
ted to the action of the same solvents as the resin mentioned, and 
with like results. 

The watery solution left in the still was, as mentioned, also of a 
dark red color, and gave the following precipitates with solutions of 
metallic salts. With mercuric chloride, red ; with argentic nitrate, 
purplish-red ; with plumbic acetate, purplish-red, and with ferric sul- 
phate, purplish-black. 

The remaining portion, after making the above tests, was precipi- 
tated with plumbic acetate, which precipitated the red coloring mat- 
ter, and left it of a light yellow color ; then treated with sulphhydric 
acid to remove excess of lead, and, after filtration to remove the sul- 
phide of lead, was evaporated to dryness in a water-bath. The ex- 
tract mass left was of a light yellow color, and exceedingly hygro- 
scopic. A portion of it was dissolved in water, and tested for the 
presence of an alkaloid with solution of iodohydrargyrate of potassium, 
but gave no indications of the presence of any. 

With Trommer's copper test it gave an abundant precipitate of cu- 
prous oxide, indicating the presence of sugar. 

A portion was also agitated with ether, and another with chloro- 
form, and, after separation had taken place, the ethereal and chloro- 
form solutions separated and left to spontaneous evaporation, no crys- 
tallizable proximate principles were separated. To a quantity of the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
July 1, 1872. J 



Cotton Root. 



291 



powdered bark was added a solution of caustic potassa ; there was no 
development of propylamin, as with ergot. 

From the above experiments, it would seem that cotton root bark 
contains no substances similar to those of ergot, upon which its thera- 
peutic value rests, nor any other peculiar alkaloid or proximate prin- 
ciple except the red resinous mass spoken of, or a substance colorless 
as in the original percolate, and by oxidation changing to this red 
substance. This red matter seems to be a peculiar one — an acid resin, 
insoluble in alcohol, chloroform and ether, forming colored precipi- 
tates with metallic salts, and soluble in solutions of caustic potassa 
and soda. 

The red color of the watery solution described is also due to this, 
and held in solution through the solvent action of organic matter pre- 
sent, often the case in such solutions, and sometimes with difficulty 
gotten rid of. 

The substance that produces this red-colored acid resin, seems to 
exist in all parts of the plant — in the flowers and in the seeds — the 
purplish tint at the base of the petals is due to it, and in the seeds 
the dark red spots there found, and which gives to crude cotton seed 
oil its dark color, and which is removed in the process of refining the 
oil by the solvent action of caustic alkalies. From the solubility of 
this substance in alkalies, and forming well-marked and characteris- 
tic precipitates with metallic solutions, it has claims to be classed an 
acid, and would propose for it the name of gossypic acid. 

Having satisfied myself as to the nature of the substance that com- 
poses the precipitate in the fluid extract of cotton root, and the iden- 
tity of the precipitate with the resinous mass that was left in the still, 
as mentioned, I would say that it is impossible to prevent the same 
from forming in it, as it is caused by a chemical change taking place 
in a peculiar proximate principle in the plant, insoluble in the alco- 
holic menstruum. 

Whether the addition of glycerin or sugar would prevent this, I 
have not determined, and will report experiment at some future time. 

Query : Is this acid or the substance from which it is produced the 
active principle of cotton root ? 

The cotton seed cake (the mass left after pressing out the oil) con- 
tains more or less of it, and I am informed by Dr. John A. Warder, 
that cows fed upon it will abort, otherwise it is a nutritious food for 
cattle. Some of the substance I have placed in the hands of practi- 
tioners for practical test, but as yet have had no report concerning it. 

Cincinnati, May, 1872. 



292 On some Pectoral Powders, etc. { k "'£\^Jm*' 

ON SOME PECTORAL POWDERS OF EUROPEAN PHARMACY. 

By the Editor. 

At the request of two correspondents we publish the following 
formulas of preparations, which are more or less used on the continent 
of Europe, and occasionally prescribed in this country. The two first 
formulas yield a mild aperient preparation. 

Pulvis glycyrrhizce (s, liquiritios) compositus ; Pulvis pectoralis Ku- 
rellce is prepared, by the German pharmacopoeias, by mixing inti- 
mately the powders of senna and liquorice root, each 2 parts ; fennel 
and flowers of sulphur, each 1 part - ; sugar 6 parts.* 

The formula of the Greek pharmacopoeia differs somewhat, as fol- 
lows : liquorice root and senna, each 6 parts ; sugar 3 parts ; anise 2 
and sulphur 4 parts. 

The Belgian pharmacopoeia orders : marshmallow root, 36 parts; 
orris root, liquorice root, tragacanth and sugar, of each, 16 parts. 

Pulvis pectoralis antispasticus. — The Danish pharmacopoeia uses 
ipecac and opium, of each, 1 part ; starch, 40, sugar, 80 parts. This 
preparation is twelve times weaker than Dover's powder. 

Pulvis pectoralis resolvens. — The same pharmacopoeia mixes equal 
weights of flowers of sulphur, orris root and Indian turnip (Arummacu- 
latum). 

Pulvis pectoralis Trossii; Saccharolatum lichenis Islandici. — The 
old Hamburg pharmacopoeia prepares it as follows : 2 parts of Iceland 
moss are twice boiled with 32 parts of water until 16 parts are left ; 
the liquids are expressed, strained, mixed and evaporated to 10 parts ; 
when somewhat cooled, 8 parts of strong alcohol are added, the pre- 
cipitated jelly is collected, washed and mixed with 1 part of sugar, 
when it is carefully evaporated to dryness, and powdered. 

The Sleswick-Holstein pharmacopoeia removes the bitter principle 
by an alkali, and manipulates as follows : 1 J oz. Iceland moss are 
macerated with hot water containing one drachm carbonate of potas- 
sa; after 24 hours the liquid is expressed, the residue washed with cold 
water, and then boiled with 24 oz. water until 6 oz. remain behind, 
in which 4 oz. sugar are dissolved by boiling. The solution, on cool- 
ing, forms a good jelly, which constitutes gelatina lichenis islandici 
edidcorata. Six parts of this, 4 parts sugar and one part gum arabic 
are mixed, dried and rubbed to a uniform powder. 



*The formula published on page 336 of the Philadelphia Medical Times, re- 
quiring but 3 parts of sugar, is that of the sixth Prussian Pharmacopoeia of 
1846. and not in use in Germany since 1862. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
July 1, 1872. J" 



On Lobelina. 



293 



Pulvis pectoralis Wedelii. — Hager, in his Manuale pharmaceuticum, 
gives the following formula : liquorice root, 8 p. ; orris root, 2 p. ; 
sulphur, 4 p. ; benzoin, 1J p. ; sugar, 16 p. ; oil of fennel and of 
anise, each \ parts. 

The proportions of the Danish pharmacopoeia are : liquorice and 
orris root, each 6 p. ; sulphur, 4 p ; benzoic acid, 1 p. ; sugar, 16 p. ; 
oil of fennel and of anise, each \ part. 

The formula of the Wurtemberg pharmacopoeia of 1798 was as fol- 
lows : Arum maculatum (Indian turnip), orris root, diaphoretic anti- 
mony, flowers of sulphur, native cinnabar and crab's eyes, equal parts. 



ON LOBELINA. 
By W. D. Richardson, Jr. 
From the authors Inaugural Address. 

Lobelina has a light yellowish color and somewhat aromatic odor. 
It is lighter than water, and when dropped into that fluid rises to its 
surface, spreads out like a drop of oil, and gradually dissolves, form- 
ing a transparent solution. It has an extremely acrid taste, turns 
turmeric paper brown, and restores the blue color to litmus reddened 
by an acid. It neutralizes the acids, forming with most of them crys- 
tallizable salts. The acetate of lobelina does not crystallize, and is 
the most soluble of the salts ; hence the superiority of acetic over 
the other acids in the process for obtaining "the alkaloid. 

The salts are very soluble in water, less in alcohol, and sparingly 
soluble in ether ; whereas lobelina is most soluble in ether, and least 
in water. In its natural state it is combined with lobelic acid, for 
which it has a rather weak affinity. 

One of the most interesting properties of this alkaloid is its decom- 
position, either in the free state or as it exists in the herb, by heat ; 
that of boiling water being sufficient to deprive it of its characteristic 
acrid taste : but, on being combined with a strong acid, it may be 
subjected to heat without injury. 

The separation of lobelina from its aqueous solution, by means of 
ether, is not complete, both on account of the gelatinous consistence 
imparted to the lower position of the ether, and its affinity for the 
coloring matter, which is more soluble in water than in ether, as 
demonstrated by the following experiment of preparing lobelina by 
Prof. Procter's process. 



294 



On Lobelina. 



( Am. Jour. Phar»w 
\ July 1, 1872. 



Four troy-ounces of finely- powdered seed were exhausted with al- 
cohol acidulated with acetic acid, evaporated to a syrupy consistence, 
triturated with magnesia, and four fluid-ounces of water gradually 
added ; and after frequent agitation for several hours, the liquid was 
filtered, and the filter washed with a small quantity of water. This 
solution was then agitated frequently with ether, during four or five 
hours, and the ethereal solution decanted. 

The residue was treated in the same manner, with two succes- 
sive portions of ether, and the ethereal solutions, mixed and evapo- 
rated spontaneously, yielded lobelina. The aqueous solution was 
found still to have an alkaline reaction and acrid taste. 

It was treated with iodohydrargyrate of potassium, which produced 
a yellowish-brown precipitate. This was washed with water slightly 
acidulated, dissolved in alcohol, and decomposed by sulphuretted hy- 
drogen, which precipitated the mercury, and left the hydriodate of lo- 
belina in solution. 

The whole was transferred to a filter, and washed with alcohol. 
The filtrate had a beautiful reddish-brown color, and was tested with 
mucilage of starch for free iodine with no effect, then evaporated 
to dryness ; the residue, treated with a small quantity of water and 
filtered, had a light yellowish color. To this solution was added ni- 
trate of silver, which produced a yellowish white precipitate, the ni- 
trate of lobelina remaining in solution. The solution filtered and 
evaporated spontaneously, yielded yellowish, transparent, granular 
crystals, having no odor, but possessing the characteristic acrid taste 
of the base. The nitrate of lobelina, by exposure, deliquesced, and 
assumed a somewhat darker color. 

2. A portion of lobelina in a watch crystal was exposed four days. 
It changed to a resinous consistence and darker color. In this state 
it is scarcely soluble in water, but readily dissolved by alcohol and 
ether. Cold nitric and sulphuric acids had no effect. 

3. Another portion of lobelina, which had been exposed four days, 
was dissolved in water, and a few drops of muriatic acid added to the 
solution. This produced a white precipitate, which, by heat, changed 
to a brown color. 

4. An aqueous solution, exposed for a longer time, slowly deposited 
a white sediment, which, after the decanting of the water, resumed its 
brown color. 

5. A portion of the exposed lobelina was boiled with diluted sul- 



M?i*m"'} An Asserted Specific for Ague. 295 

phuric acid, and Trommer's test applied without giving any evidence 
of glucose. 

6. Two troy-ounces of the seed were treated according to the pro- 
cess for obtaining colchicia, but without a satisfactory result. 

From the above experiments, it appears that lobelina, by exposure, 
undergoes some change, by which it is rendered incapable of uniting 
with acids to form salts. 



ON AN ASSERTED SPECIFIC FOR AGUE. 
By John M. Maisch. 

When I wrote the short notice on Artemisia Ludoviciana, Nuttall, 
in my "Pharmacognostical Notes," in the May number of this journal, 
I did not expect that I should meet again, in so short a time and un- 
der a different garb, with a plant which appears to possess the pro- 
perties of the aromatic bitters merely in a very moderate degree. In 
the same month in which the above-mentioned paper was first pub- 
lished, I received from East Saginaw, Michigan, a letter from Mr. F. 
C. Weber, enclosing portions of the flowering tops of this plant, which 
had been offered to him as a specific for ague. Guided by the infor- 
mation received from Mr. Weber, I applied to Mr. Ottmar Eberbach, 
at Ann Arbor, Mich., who kindly furnished me with an original pack- 
age, the dimensions of which are 2 by by 4 inches, and which 
weighs ounces. The material consists of the leaves and the flow- 
ering tops, with but small portions of the stems of the plant named 
above, the whole cut up and much broken, but the botanical charac- 
ters, particularly of the flower-heads, readily discernible. It is done 
up in an angular package, of the dimensions stated, and packed first 
in thin white printing paper, which is enclosed in a wrapper of yellow 
paper, with the following printed on the outside : 

CHINESE AGUE CURE. 



[Wood-cut of 
a Chinaman, 
holding a 
plant in his 
right hand.] 



Directions. — Steep a tablespoon once and a half full of the herb in one quart 



296 An Asserted Specific for Ague. {^J^SffR 

of water; drink at any time daring the day, when the stomach will bear it, and 
freely at night before retiring. 

This herb will not only neutralize and drive out the Ague poison, but will 
thoroughly 

CLEANSE THE SYSTEM 

and purify the blood, by continuing its use moderately for a few days. 

This herb has been analyzed and by the medical faculty of the Uni- 

versity of Michigan, at Ann Arbor. It is gathered by the Chinamen in the 
West, and is put up by G. Engle & Bro., Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

It is curious, though, under the circumstances, not surprising, that 
this "wonderful" medicine was entirely unknown at Ann Arbor, ex- 
cept to the proprietors ; and it is but just to state that the name of 
the University of Michigan has been unwarrantably connected with 
it. From the information received, it appears that Prof. Rose was, 
last winter, requested by Mr. Engle, a law student of the University, 
to analyse a handful of the herb, which was then stated to have been 
collected near Salt Lake, Utah. The analysis, however, was not 
made by the Professor. The blank space left above near the lower 
end of the wrapper, is in the original blurred over with blue paint or 
printers' ink, which leaves the word u and" plainly visible, but renders 
the following word (to judge from the space, probably "recommended") 
quite indistinct. 

The circular announcing the virtues of this new claimant for public 
favor and for the money of those who like to be duped, bears, like- 
wise, the effigy of the Chinaman. Its contents deserve to be pre- 
served for future reference and edification, and we therefore give it, 
verbatim et literatim : 

CHINESE HERB. 
Burning fever and Ague Chills, — Need not be endured ; nor those Quinine 
Pills: For, soon as the Chinese Herb is given, — The Fever will cease, — The 
Ague be driven. 

If you, my friend, would keep your wealth? 
And, what is more, — your solid health ? 
Keep the Quack Doctors from the door! 
And use the " Chinese Ague Cure." 

No more Quinine. This Herb is cured and put up in its natural state ; and 
thus should be used. It will drive all fever and ague, and cure many diseases 
by purifying the blood. 

We must admit, — the "Heathen Chinee" is ahead of us in curing the sick. 
— The Chinese Herb should be within the reach of every family : for the price 
will admit. 

Druggists? Supply your customers. We will allow a large commission. 
A trial package will convince you of its merit. Doctors can use it in practice 
to their advantage. — Price, 75 Cents. 



AM jui y UR i,i872 RM i Commercial 1 Root of Cypripedium. 297 

ON THE BOTANICAL ORIGIN OF THE COMMERCIAL ROOT OP 

CYPRIPEDIUM. 

By John M. Maisch. 

In the May number of this journal (page 194) I stated that two 
different rhizomes are met with in commerce under the common name 
of ladies' slipper, but that I was unable to make out their origin for want 
of specimens of the different species of Cypripedium. Since the pub- 
lication of my paper I have been enabled to verify my former suppo- 
sition that C. pubescens and parviflorum contribute their roots to the 
commercial article. My thanks are due to Mr. James T. King, who 
sent me living specimens of the former species from Middletown, N. 
Y., where it grows, though not abundantly ; also to Messrs. Ferdinand 
Reppert, of Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Henry Maclagan, of Lindsay, 
Ontario, from whom I received 0. parviflorum. Mr. Reppert col- 
lected his specimens in a tamarack swamp, about three miles south of 
Ann Arbor ; where also 0. spectabile is occasionally found, but not 0. 
pubescens. Other species than 0. parviflorum and spectabile appear 
to be likewise of rarer occurrence near Lindsay. 

The most characteristic difference in the growth of the two rhi- 
zomes is that the one belonging to 0. pubescens is almost horizontal, 
and even in its greatest length, observed by me, measuring nearly 4 
inches, but slightly bent, with one shallow downward curve ; its thick- 
ness is usually about \ to T \ inch, with deeply concave scars of the 
over-ground stems, having fully the diameter of the rhizome. Some 
rhizomes have short branches, swelled considerably at the places where 
the flowering-stems had been developed, leaving scars frequently fully 
half an inch in diameter. The more recent scars have a rather long 
fibrous tuft of the dead ligneous tissue, which gradually disappears in 
the older ones. The scars are rather crowded, being distant from 
each other less than the length of their own diameter. The numerous 
rootlets reach a length of nine inches, with about y 1 ^ inch in diameter, 
are entirely free from branches, and, though attached to all sides of 
the rhizome — owing to the position of the latter in the ground, — are 
rather abruptly bent downwards, leaving the upper side of the rhi- 
zome almost bare. They are considerably undulated, and have a yel- 
lowish-brown color externally, which becomes much darker on drying, 
when the rootlets shrivel much, showing longitudinal wrinkles. The 
cortical portion of the rootlets is colored blue by iodine, the ligneous 
cord, about J the diameter, becoming yellowish, while the cortical por- 



298 Commercial Root of Cypripedium. { k *'£\™\im. 

tion cf the rhizome becomes darker, but not blue, the ligneous centre 
behaving like that of the rootlets. 

The rhizome of C. parviflorum, of which I received a larger num- 
ber of living specimens, grows in an entirely different manner. It is 
bent up and down in a direction differing but little from right angles, 
the sides of which are about f inch in length. None of the speci- 
mens received had more than four such bends or three angles, so that 
the length of the rhizome, actually about three inches, is in a straight 
line about two inches. The diameter of the rhizome is about \ inch, 
the stem scars fully the same, somewhat alternating in their position, 
and about three in number on each bend. Short, thick side branches 
were not observed. The rootlets are likewise attached to all sides of 
the rhizome, the upper surface of which is always more or less covered 
with them, a natural result of its position in the soil. They are about 
4 to 6 inches in length, of about the same diameter, but less wavy 
than those of C. pubescens, from which they differ likewise in their 
brighter color, which is a decided orange-brown when fresh, and re- 
mains brighter after drying. In the relative thickness of the corti- 
cal and ligneous portion of the rhizome and rootlets, as also in the 
amount of starch contained therein, as far as may be judged from the 
color imparted by iodine, the two species closely resemble each other. 
This resemblance is also found in the peculiar musty odor, and the 
mucilaginous, disagreeable, scarcely bitterish, somewhat acrid taste. ; 

The roots of these two species of Cypripedium, I am now satisfied are 
the only ones which I have observed in the commercial article, in which 
the appearance, particularly of the rootlets, will vary somewhat. 
When pressed in packages, owing to the moist condition, the rootlets 
will be apparently much thicker than after curing the drug without 
pressure, and the shape of the rhizome is apt to lose its characteristic 
form ; the color of the rootlets and the presence or absence of the 
thicker lateral rhizome branches may then aid in determining the ori- 
gin, while there will scarcely be any difficulty in this, if the rhizomes 
have been dried without pressure. 

P. S. After the above was in type, I received from Mr. H. Mac- 
lagan several splendid specimens of C. pubescens, with numerous short 
side branches, and with rootlets measuring 18 to 21 inches in length. 
My thanks are likewise due to M. Alfred Daggett of New Haven, 
Conn., for some fine specimens of C. acaule. 



i 



AM jui°y R i,i8 H 7 A 2 RM '} Gleanings from the European Journals. 299 



VALUABLE PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM MACLURA AURANTI- 

ACA, NUTTALL. 

Bonham, Texas, May 27th, 1872. 

The writer respectfully suggests that the article noticed by Prof. 
J. M. Merrick (published in Amer. Jour. Pharm., Feb., 1872, p. 82) 
is probably an extract from the wood of the Bois d'Arc {Madura au- 
rantiaca, Nuttall), a native tree of Northern Texas, and largely used 
in the Nortwestern States for hedges, under the name of Osage orange. 
A decoction of the wood, obtained by boiling the chips in water, has 
been used here many years for coloring yellow. A solid extract, ob- 
tained in the manner used for extract of logwood, gives a beautiful 
yellow extract, which might very properly be called Aurantine. This 
suggestion is made for the benefit of the curious in such matters, and 
might well repay the experiment of the scientific. The material is 
abundant in this section of Texas. 

In addition to the coloring matter obtained from the Bois d'Arc, it 
also yields a large percentage of tannin. Experiments have been 
made here with it in tanning leather, which indicate its great supe- 
riority over the oak barks or sumach, and requiring much less time. 

The seeds from the fruit yield an abundant, bland and limpid oil, 
burning with a steady, clear flame in an ordinary lard oil lamp. In 
taste it resembles very much that of olive oil, and maintains its fluid- 
ity at a low temperature. The specimen we have was obtained by 
expression in the ordinary manner, and we are of the opinion that it 
will yield equal to the castor bean. " Texan." 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Preparation of pure muriatic acid. — Th. Diez dilutes the crude 
acid until it has a specific gravity of 1*13, and passes sulphuretted hy- 
drogen through it, whereby arsenic, chlorine and sulphurous acid are 
removed, and the ferric chloride is converted into ferrous chloride. 
Next morning the precipitate is collected upon a double filter, and the 
acid distilled from a glass retort into a glass receiver, which fits well, 
but is not luted. Heat is applied, and when the distilling liquid 
ceases to contain sulphuretted hydrogen, the receiver is changed and 
the pure acid collected. Towards the close of the operation the re- 
ceiver is again changed, as the distillate is now apt to contain again 



300 Gleanings from the European Journals. { AM jui7tSra*' 

traces of ferric chloride, in which case it is reserved for a subsequent 
purification.*—^. Jahrb. f. Pharm., 1872, April, 203. 

The external application of chloral hydrate to syphilitic ulcers has 
been successfully tried in 69 cases by F. Acetella. After a few ap- 
plications healthy granulations were formed and the ulcer changed 
into a simple wound. Several of the cases were of long standing, and 
had resisted various treatments for 12 and even 15 months. Ibid., 
2Sl,from Allg. Med. Centr. Ztg. 

Dry narcotic extracts, when prepared with dextrin, cannot be dis- 
solved in alcoholic liquids, owing to the insolubility of dextrin in the 
latter. W. Stromeyer prepares these extracts now with sugar, and 
finds that they remain perfectly dry. It is necessary, however, to 
exsiccate the mixture at a temperaeure not exceeding 80° C, since 
a higher temperature causes them to remain soft. Thus prepared 
they dissolved readily in the usual solvents by simple agitation. — 
Archiv d. Pharm., 1872, March, 225. 

Action of sunlight upon olive oil. — Luigi Moschini found that olive 
oil, bleached by exposure to sunlight, does not alter its specific grav- 
ity ; if now treated with sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1.63) it is colored red- 
yellow, not greenish ; by nitric acid or caustic soda it acquires a 
whitish instead of a green or light yellow color. Exposed to the sun- 
light in open vessels for one month, the oil continues to congeal under 
the influence of nitrous acid ; but after two or three months the oil re- 
mains liquid, even if treated with a solution of nitrate of mercury 
saturated with nitrous acid. The bleached oil has a strongly acid 
reaction, a somewhat rancid odor and taste, and dissolves aniline red 
easily, acquiring a deep color. 

It follows from this that the usual tests for the oils — nitric acid, sul- 
phuric acid, caustic soda and aniline red — are apt to mislead if pure 
olive oil has been exposed for some time to the sunlight and become 
rancid. Normal olive oil contains a yellow principle, which is col- 
ored green by acids, and which, is decomposed by the sunlight so that 
neither the acids nor caustic soda produce the characteristic reactions ; 
at the same time free acids are formed, and the olein gains one of 
the characteristic properties of elaidin. — Chem. Centr. Bl. f 1872, jST. 
17, from Landw. Vers. Stat., xv, 1. 



* See also page 164 of April number Amer. Journ. Pharm., 1872. 



AM j u ^ u i ) ^2. RM } Gleanings from the European Journals. 301 

Antimonic blue. — This new beautiful pigment which, however, can- 
not be used upon lime, is easily prepared by dissolving metallic an- 
timony in aqua regia, filtering through granulated glass and adding 
a dilute solution of ferrocyanide of potassium as long as a precipitate 
is produced. It resembles ultramarine, and yields, with chrome yel- 
low or chromate of zinc, a green color, scarcely less bright than Paris 
green, but much less poisonous. It may be used with oil, varnish, 
gum, glue and starch. — Ibid., from Polyt. Notizbl. xxvii, 112. 

Arseniate of antimony. — The grannies antirnoniaux de Papillaud 
contain, according to H. Blaser, each 0*0005 grm. of this compound, 
which appears to be also used in Russia in doses of 0.0012 grm. four 
times daily. Hager prepares it by first obtaining oxide of anti- 
mony from the chloride by precipitating with dilute solution of car- 
bonate of soda, washing with a warm solution of the same salt, 
then with distilled water, and drying. Ten grm. of the oxide are 
dissolved, with moderate boiling, in four times tee quantity of muriatic 
acid of 25 per cent. After cooling, small fragments of carbonate of 
soda are added until a faint turbidity becomes permanent. 12 grm. 
of anhydrous neutral arseniate of soda are dissolved in 120 grm. of 
distilled water, into which solution the antimony solution is gradually 
dropped with continued stirring. The liquid is then diluted with 
more distilled water and the precipitate washed by decantation and 
upon the filter, until the filtrate ceases to occasion a turbidity with ni- 
trate of silver. It is then dried at a temperature of about 50° to 60° 
C, and then constitutes a snow-white, not very heavy powder. Its 
composition is SbO s , As0 5 , and it contains 56 per cent, oxide of an- 
timony and 44 per cent, arsenic acid. If the solution of the chloride 
is added too rapidly, or if the precipitate is washed with hot water, 
the preparation contains an excess of antimony. — Pliarm. Centr. 
Halle, 1872, N. 20. 

Chloride of mercuric ethyl was first prepared by Strecker and Frank- 
land from the iodide. A very simple method, according to Priimers, 
is to add an alcoholic solution of corrosive sublimate to mercuric ethyl ; 
the crystalline precipitate is washed upon a filter with warm water 
and dried over sulphuric acid^ The reaction is as follows : Hg 
(C 4 H 5 ) 2 +Hg Cl 2 = 2 Hg(C 4 II 5 )Cl. It occurs in white glistening scales, 
is little soluble in water, ether and cold alcohol, but dissolves freely 
in hot alcohol. At 40° C. it sublimes without fusing previously ; its 
odor is peculiar, not disagreeable. Stannous chloride, potassium io- 



302 Quinamina, A New Cinchona Alkaloid. { AM jSj E i, w^J** 

dide and mineral acids are without action upon it, and albumen is not 
precipitated. It has been successfully used in Berlin in cases of syphilis 
in the form of pills (0*5 to 1*0 in 100 pills) and subcutaneously (0*5 
to 10 grm. in 100 water).— Ibiot., K 22. 

Cod liver oil is flavored, by Duquesnel, with 1 per cent, of oil of 
eucalyptus, which covers the odor and taste so completely that only 
that of the latter is perceived, and even the unpleasant eructations- 
are entirely modified. — Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., May, 1872. 



ON QUINAMTNA, A NEW CINCHONA ALKALOID. 
By O. Hesse. 

Cinchona succirubra, cultivated in British India, is now so far de- 
veloped that considerable quantities can be exported, and its value, 
which, according to Howard, is not inconsiderable, may be established. 
I have found this bark to contain relatively much quinidia (cinchoni- 
dia ?) some quinia, and in variable proportions other alkaloids, among 
them a new one, which I propose to call quinamina (chinamin.) 

Quinamina crystallizes in very fine long, asbestos-like, white prisms^ 
which contain no water of crystallization. It dissolves at ordinary 
temperature rather easily in ether, more readily on boiling, and crys- 
tallizes on cooling and evaporation. Alcohol and petroleum ether 
dissolve it readily, particularly when heated, and separate it likewise 
in the crystalline form. It is little soluble in diluted alcohol and in- 
soluble in water, caustic potassa and ammonia; alkalies separate it 
from the solutions of its salts as a milky turbidity and finally in fine 
needles. 

Its alcoholic solution has an alkaline reaction ; it neutralizes sul- 
phuric and muriatic acid, forming salts which are very freely soluble 
in water. The muriate is amorphous ; the sulphate crystallizes with 
difficulty in hexagonal scales and short prisms. 

The platinum salt is a yellow amorphous precipitate, readily solu- 
ble in water, and therefore obtainable only from the concentrated so- 
lution of the muriate. Its behavior to chloride of gold is likewise 
very characteristic ; the solution of the muriate produces with it a 
yellowish white precipitate, soon acquiring a purple color and sepa- 
rating gold, while the supernatant liquid assumes a purplish red, af- 
terwards a brownish color. Ferric chloride shows no characteristic 
reaction. 

Dilute acid solutions of quinamina have not the slightest fluores- 
cence. With regard to its solubility in ether, it might be placed be- 



AM '/uiy R i,i8 e 7 A 2 RM '} On Wild Cherry Bark. 303 

tween quinia and conchinin (quinidia) ; but it does not, like these al- 
kaloids, produce a green color with chlorine and ammonia. The ad- 
dition of chlorine causes the solution to turn yellowish, and on super- 
saturation with ammonia, a yellowish amorphous precipitate occurs. 

Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves the new alkaloid colorless ; 
on heating the solution turns yellowish and brown. Concentrated 
nitric acid produces a yellow solution, which becomes orange-red and 
finally colorless. The alkaloid fuses at 172° C, congealing on cool- 
ing, radiatedly crystalline, if the application of heat has lasted only 
a short time , when longer applied it turns brown and amorphous. 
The pure alkaloid has scarcely a bitter taste, unless combined with 
acids, when it is pretty bitter. , 

The amount of quinamina left on hand would be sufficient to deter- 
mine its elementary composition, which, however, has been deferred 
until more can be prepared. 

Compared with other alkaloids of the cinchonas, it resembles pay- 
tina in its behavior to chloride of gold ; but the other properties of 
this alkaloid do not admit of its being confounded with quinamina. — 
Beriehte d. d. ehem. Gfes. zu Berlin, 1872, JV. 6. 



ON WILD CHERRY BARK. 
By Joseph L. Lemberger. 
Query 43. — The cold infusion of wild cherry bark sometimes varies considerably 
in color. Is this due to the time at which the bark is collected, or to what other 
cause ? 

In investigating this subject, several ideas have suggested them- 
selves : 

1st. The probability that the season or month in which the bark is 
gathered may control the peculiarity we meet with. 

2d. If such is the case, it must be due to some principle existing 
to a greater or less extent according to the time of gathering. 

In order to do justice to the query, it became necessary to have 
the different seasons of the year represented in the bark to be exam- 
ined, having no data at all upon the subject, although having fre- 
quently been examined, however, by some of our ablest pharmacists, 
with other objects in view. I therefore had carefully collected for me 
portions ot the bark during every month of the year, bark of the root 
as well as of the tree or branches, and, after making an infusion, find 
a great diversity in the shades of color. 



304 On Wild Cherry Bark. {^;& 

I have arranged them into three classes, light) medium, and dark, 
as follows : 

Infusion of the Bark of the Tree of Wild Cherry. 

Light. Medium. Dark. 

1st month January 

2d " February. 

3d " March. 

4th " April. 

5 th « May. 

6th « June. 

7th « July. 

8th " August 

9th " September 

10th " October. 

11th " November. 

12th " December 



The bark gathered in April, October and November form the dark- 
est preparations, that of the months of January and August the light- 
est, whilst the bark of the remaining months form various shades of 
medium dark, that of the month of September seeming to be the 
darkest. The result of experiments with the bark of the root vary 
considerably from those with the bark of the tree, and as the color of 
the infusion is decidedly light or dark, I have arranged but two 
classes, the light being a pale straw color and the dark about the color 
of the darkest of the medium list of the bark of the tree. 

Infusion of the Bark of the Root of Wild Cherry. 



Light. Dark. 

1st month January. 

2d " February 

3d " March. 

4th « April. 

5th " May. 

6 th " June. 

7th » July. 

8th " August. 

9th " ,. September. 

10th « ., October. 

11th " , November 

12th " December : 



The darkest seeming to be the months of May and October. 

After precipitating the tannin out of the several infusions, and find- 
ing this principle to exist in the ratio of color, I have come to the con- 
clusion, and give as the answer to the 43d Query, that the cause of 
the variance in the color of cold infusion of wild cherry bark is due to 
the existence of tannin in greater or less quantity, in proportion as 
the infusion is dark or light, and suggest that this difficulty or pecu- 
liarity can be avoided by due attention to the collection of the bark. 
— Proceedings Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1871. 



4m. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1, 1872. J 



The Calabar Bean. 



305 



THK CALABAR BEAN* 
By Dr. L. Yincent. 
' In a sojourn of nearly two years at the Gaboon, during which time 
he had opportunities of studying the numerous substances possessing 
medical properties produced in that part of equatorial Africa, Dr. 
Vincent's attention was particularly directed to the Calabar bean. It 
is used in that country, together with several other toxic agents, such 
as the Icaza mboundu, the Inee, the Alehiuse, etc., by the tribes still 
plunged in barbarism and fetichism, for the compounding of their or- 
deal drinks. From a memoir giving the result of his inquiries we are 
enabled to glean the following particulars : 

The first specimens of this drug were sent to Europe by English 
missionaries from Old Calabar, where the natives called it "here." 
About ten years afterwards its botanical position was assigned by Pro- 
fessor Balfour, and at nearly the same time Dr. Fraser, of Edinburgh, 
while studying its physiological properties, discovered the remarkable 
property it possesses of contracting the pupil of the eye. In 1866 
it was found in the French possessions in the Gaboon, not far from 
the banks of the rivers Como and Rhamboe. It is also found in 
abundance on the banks of the Ogo-wai ; and as the physostigma pre- 
fers marshy and humid soils, it is probable that it occurs on the bor- 
ders of all the rivers flowing into the Atlantic, from Old Calabar on 
the north to Cape Lopez on the south. 

The Calabar bean is the seed of the Physostigma venenosum, Balf., 
which has been placed by Balfour in the Leguminosce, sub-tribe Eu~ 
phaseolce, the only tribe of the Leguminosce that contains poisonous 
plants. 

It is a perennial woody climber, attaining sometimes a height of 
from forty to fifty feet. It twines from right to left round the neigh- 
boring trees, and in spite of any obstacles that may temporarily pre- 
vent its progress in this direction, it will after a time resume its course. 
The leaves are alternate, trifoliate, the middle leaflet ovate, very 
acute at the tip, regular at the base, stipulate, the lateral leaflets un- 
symmetrical. There are also two short stipules at the base of the 
general petiole. The flowers are disposed in clusters, and rose-col- 
ored, with magnificent purple veins. The calyx is unequally five- 
toothed ; the corolla papilionaceous with vexillary aestivation ; stamens, 

* Journ. Pharm. ct de Chimie [4], vol. xv, p. 109, 
20 



306 



The Calabar Bean. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July 1, 1872. 



ten, perigynous and disposed in two fascicles, one consisting of nine 
stamens and the other of one vexillary stamen ; anthers bilobed, in- 
trorse, and dehiscing by two longitudinal slits. The ovary is stipi- 
tate and surmounted by a very long style, bearing a globular stigma, 
the surface of which is slightly hairy and covered with conical papillae. 
Immediately below the stigma, on the convex part of the style, is a 
prominence having the shape of a falcate crest, which Professor Bal- 
four appears to have looked upon as empty and vesicular, and there- 
fore named the genus "Phy so stigma" The author, however, asserts 
that this prominence is full, and cannot be said in any way to justify 
the designation. The fruit is a pod 4J inches to 6 inches long, atten- 
uated at both ends, a little compressed at the sides, bluish in color ; 
the valves are thickish, striated and rugose on their external surface, 
and smooth on their internal face, which presents in the intervals 
between the seeds a sort of whitish cellular tissue. Each pod con- 
tains two or three seeds, most commonly two. The seeds, which are 
the active part of the plant, for neither the leaves nor the stems are 
poisonous, are oblong, convex, and slightly reniform, a character 
which is more marked in the beans proceeding from Ogo-wai than in 
those collected in the neighborhood of the Como and Rhamboe. They 
are from one to one and a quarter inch long and about two-thirds of 
an inch broad. The hilum, which surrounds nearly half the circum- 
ference of the bean, has the appearance of a long cicatrice, bounded 
by a slightly projecting line; is reddish and divided into two equal 
parts by a furrow that runs its entire length. The external tegument 
is testaceous, rather rough, and of a chocolate brown color. In the 
interior is found a large fleshy embryo, with conical radicle accum- 
bent to the cotyledons, which are ellipsoidal, hard, white, plano-con- 
vex, perfectly joined to each other at first, afterwards retracting, and 
leaving between them an empty space that constitutes a kind of cen- 
tral cavity. 

Chemical analysis and microscopical examination have shown that 
the nucleus is formed of loose cellular tissue, containing large granules 
of amylaceous matter. These starch grains are oval or reniform, or 
sometimes assume the form of parallelograms with rounded angles ; 
the margin is sometimes toothed. The spermoderm contains several 
coloring matters, which have recently been studied by M. Grassi, who 
thinks they might be utilized in the dyeing of silk. The active prin- 
ciple of the bean is the alkaloid discovered in 1864 by Jobert and 



^iiyi,w K ™ } The So-called African Saffron. 307 

Hesse, which has been variously designated physostigmine, calaba- 
rine, and eserine, from the name here given to the plant by the Cam- 
eroons. It is amorphous, brownish-yellow, nearly insoluble in cold 
water, rather soluble in ammonia, carbonate of soda, ether, benzine, 
and alcohol. Its solutions in acids are generally deep red, but some- 
times intensely blue. 

The plant is also called by the Gaboon ese nChogo, and by the 
Fans, d Itounda. By the last-mentioned people the bruised seeds are 
made up into an ointment with palm oil, or some other excipient, and 
used to rid their bodies from the parasites with which they are cov- 
ered. — Pharm. Journ., Lond., May 11, 1872. 



THE SO-CALLED AFRICAN SAFFRON. 
By John R. Jackson, A.L.S. (Curator of the Museums, Kew). 

From the description of the so-called African Saffron by Prof. Maisch,* 
there seems no doubt but that the flowers are those of Lyperia crocea^ 
Eckl., a scrophulariaceous plant of South Africa, small quantities of 
which have been imported into this country from time to time, chiefly 
for use as a dye. The following description of the plant and its uses 
is given by Dr. Pappe in his " Florae Capensis Medico Prodromus " : 

"A little branchy shrub. Leaves very small, wedge-shaped, fasci- 
culate, obtuse, entire, smooth. Peduncles elongated, axillary. Flow- 
ers sub-racemose, yellow. Tube of the corolla much longer than the 
calyx. This bush deserves notice as a drug ; and in all probability 
will, before long, become an article of colonial export. It grows 
abundantly in some parts of the Eastern districts, whence it has found 
its way into the dispensary. The flowers, which are called Qeele 
bloemetjes, closely resemble saffron in smell and taste ; they possess 
similar medical properties, and as an antispasmodic, anodyne and 
stimulant, ought to rank with the Crocus sativus. Here, they have as 
yet been only used with success in the convulsions of children, but 
they deserve a more general trial. On account of the fine orange 
color which they impart, they are in daily request among the Moham- 
medans, who use them for the purpose of dyeing their handkerchiefs. 
This drug has been observed to be sometimes adulterated by the ad- 
mixture of other plants of the same genus which are less efficacious. " 



*See Amer, Journal of Pharmacy. 1872, page 110. 



308 



American Helenicce. 



J Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
\ July 1, 18T2. 



About thirty species are recorded of the genus, all natives of the 
Cape Colony, and the flowers are mostly yellow or purple, always 
turning black in drying. — Pharm. Journ., Lond., May 11, 1872. 



AMERICAN HELEN JCiE (SNEEZE WEEDS ) 
By J. M. Bigelow, M. D. 
Bead before the Detroit Academy of Medicine, Feb. 27, 1872. 

1. Helenium autumnale^ Linn. — Grows all over the United States, 
from Maine to Florida, Texas, New Mexico, California and Oregon. 
In part 3 of the United States Dispensatory, Wood and Bache speak 
of it as being a good sternutatory. Rafinesque, in his Medical Flora, 
giving an account of the plant, says it is tonic, febrifuge and errhine, 
and, on the authority of Clayton and Schoepf, says it has been used 
in intermittents. Prof. Diesbaeh, of Heidelberg, ranks it among the 
febrifuges. It is known and employed all over the country as a val- 
uable errhine. The whole plant, reduced to a powder, acts as such, 
but the flowers, especially the central florets, are more powerful. Dr. 
Benj. Barton, of Philadelphia, has highly extolled it as a substitute 
for the more acrid errhines, either alone or united with other ingredi- 
ents. It may be used in diseases of the head, deafness, amaurosis, 
headache, hemicrania, rheumatism and congestion of the head and 
jaws. The shocks of sneezing are often useful in these cases when 
other remedies hardly avail. Cattle never eat it. 

2. Helenium parviflorum, Nutt. — Found in Georgia and probably 
in other Southern States. It is a very distinct and well marked spe- 
cies, but scarcely bitter to the taste. 

3. Helenium tenuifolium, Nutt.— Fields and roadsides of Missis- 
sippi, Louisiana and Arkansas, where it is a common and troublesome- 
weed. According to Dr. Hale, it imparts a bitter taste to the milk 
of cows that feed upon it. The plant is also found in Texas, New 
Mexico and Sonora. It is the plant referred to by Drs. Galloway 
and Lewis, of Kosciusko, Miss. That it possesses powerful poisonous 
properties will appear from their statements, which we take the lib- 
erty of adopting in their own words. Dr. Galloway says : 

" The first effect that is observable after a horse or mule has swal- 
lowed a bit of the weed, is a twitching of the eyes and a dodging of 
the head, as if to avoid some imaginary blow. I suppose this to be 
caused by flashes of light or some similar disturbance of the vision. 



Am. Joitr. Pha&m. \ 
July 1, 1872. j 



American Helenicce. 



309 



This is followed by twitchings of the muscles in other parts of the 
body, which increase in frequency and severity until they pass into 
general convulsions of such violence as to throw the animal upon the 
ground. The spasms recur at intervals of a few minutes, and in most 
cases terminate in the death of the animal, unless timely remedies are 
employed. The convulsions are of an atonic character, and on their 
cessation the animal breaks out in a very profuse perspiration. In 
the intervals between the spasms, the animal will eat greedily. The 
remedy consists in the prompt administration of lard or oil in some 
form. The first effects are observed within fifteen or twenty minutes 
after the weed has been swallowed. The active properties seem to 
reside chiefly in the top or bloom of the plant. I have seen sheep eat 
with seeming impunity the young plant. On the other hand, cattle 
are not unfrequently poisoned in the late fall or winter by eating the 
dried weed, after it has been killed by the frost. It is very rarely 
that stock raised here will bite it ; even when hitched within its reach, 
unless very hungry and restless. Horses raised in Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky or Texas are often poisoned by it. A few years ago a gen- 
tleman passed through this place with a drove of ponies, about twenty- 
five in number, from Texas. He arrived about noon, and remained 
until four o'clock P.IVL, when he started forward for a watering-place 
five miles distant. The animals, meanwhile, in feeding in the open 
lots and grounds around the town, had picked up so much of the sneeze 
weed # that eleven of them died before reaching the watering-place. 

"A very small quantity of the sneeze weed suffices to cause death 
in an animal. Its effects on the human economy appear to be equally 
deleterious. A few years ago a neighbor of mine had some flour pre- 
pared from wheat that had been threshed in a lot in which the sneeze 
weed grew. A biscuit made from this flour and eaten without butter, 
produced in a lady general nervous twitching. Two other members 
of the family partook of the biscuit, but ate freely of butter with it, 
and escaped any unpleasant symptoms. Four negroes eating of the 
same biscuit, without butter, were all poisoned. They presented the 
same phenomena of spasmodic action of the muscles, accompanied 
with more or less delirium and loss of consciousness. A small sack 
of the flour was sent by this gentleman to his sons in the army, before 
its poisonous character had appeared, and all who ate of it were af- 
fected in a similar manner." 

Dr. Lewis writes : " In 1866 a squad of Federal cavalry was sta>- 



310 Substitution of Acids for Creosote, j AM juty 1, m*" 

tioned at Goodman, Miss. Many of their horses died from eating 
sneeze weed ; some recovered by the use of oil." He moreover says 
that the soldiers firmly believed that a fatal ease occurred in a patient 
to whom a strong decoction of the weed had been administered by the 
surgeon in charge. Little, or, at least, limited, reliance can be placed 
on the authenticity of this case, as it was only the opinion of the sol- 
dier in attendance. Dr. Lewis, however, fully confirms the fact of 
powerful effects of this plant, and believes that its active principle 
may be isolated and prove valuable in a variety of nervous diseases, 
when properly investigated. 

4. Ilelenium puberulum, D. C. — California and Sonora. 

5. Ilelenium quadridentatum, Labill.- — Louisiana, Mississippi and 
Arkansas. 

6. Ilelenium microcephalism, J). C— Eastern and Western States 
and Texas. 

7. Ilelenium Mexicanum, II. B. K. — California. 

8. Ilelenium Bigelovii, A. Gray.— California ; a very distinct and 
marked species, the handsomest and most ornamental of the genus. 

9. Ilelenium Hoopesii, A. Gray.-— Colorado, California and Ne- 
vada. 

Nothing is known respecting the properties of the six last species, 
but from what is known of numbers 1 and 3, it maybe safely inferred 
that some of them, at least, possess active medicinal principles, and are 
worthy of a better analysis than has been accorded to those already 
known. — Detroit Rev. of Med. and Pharm., May, 1872. 



SUBSTITUTION OF CARBOLIC OR PHENIC ACID FOR CRE- 

ASOTE. 

Communicated by Mr. T. N. R. Morson. 
The value of the wood creasote of Reichenbach as a remedial agent, 
and its employment in the preservation of articles used as food, has 
been fully proved during the forty years we have been manufacturers 
of this article. 

Of late years its reputation has suffered from the substitution of 
carbolic or phenic acid for true creasote ; and as no good test to dis- 
tinguish these bodies has been published (and those of our Pharma- 
copoeia are for this purpose useless), we shall feel obliged by your 
publishing a very simple means for distinguishing these two bodies, 
Tyhich my son, Mr. Thos. Morson, has discovered in making some ex- 



AM ju]yTm2 EM } Bam to Detect Adulteration of Oils. 811 

periments on adulterated samples submitted to us. The test is gly- 
cerin, in which true creasote is insoluble, or nearly so. Carbolic or 
phenic acid, on the contrary, dissolves in all proportions, and any 
large amount of this latter substance, if mixed with true creasote, 
will render the creasote soluble. 

The danger of substituting carbolic or phenic acid for creasote to 
be used internally for food is well known. 

To test a suspected sample, mix it with an equal quantity of pure 
glycerin. If they unite and make a clear solution, the substance is 
carbolic acid, or in greater part consists of it. — Pharm. Journ., 
Lond., May 18, 1872. 



HOW TO DETECT ADULTERATION OF OILS. 

The following instructions for the detection of adulterated linseed 
and refined rape oils, drawn up by Messrs. Blundell, Spence & Co., 
may prove very useful to many of our readers who wish to possess 
either article perfectly genuine : — 

" Rosin oil is exceedingly heavy, having a sp. gr. of 0*989 (the 
gravity of pure linseed oil is about 0*935). Fischer's oil balance is 
a convenient instrument for comparing the density of oils. The fol- 
lowing table shows the results of a few experiments : — 

Fischer's Gay-Lussac's Sp. 
oil balance, alcoholora'r. gr. 

Pure linseed oil, 29° to 30° 50° 0-935 

Linseed oil containing 5 p. c. rosin oil, 27° to 28° 49° 0*939 

" 10 « " 25° to 26° 47J° 0*943 

" " 20 " " 23° to 24° 46° 0*947 

Rosin oil, — 6° 0*989 

If the sample of oil is below 29°, the presence of rosin oil may fairly 

be suspected, and the following confirmatory tests should be applied : 

: — Put about a quarter of an ounce of the suspected sample into an 

ounce vial, and add pure linseed oil till it is about three-quarters full. 

If the sample under examination contains rosin oil, the pure linseed 

last added floats on the top, the line of contact being plainly visible. 

If the finger be now placed on the mouth of the bottle, and the latter 

inverted two or three times, and held up to the light, bright wavy 

streaks will be observed, caused by the slow mixing of the tw T o oils. 

Even five per cent, of rosin oil may easily be detected in this way. 

Place a slab of clean glass on a piece of white paper, at one end put 



312 Em to Detect Adulteration of Oils. { AK j^; 1 P 8 ? 2 ARM - 

from ten to twenty drops of a known sample of pure linseed oil. at the 
other an equal quantity of that suspected ; to each add one drop of 
oil of vitriol. On the pure linseed oil a dark-brown spot slowly forms ; 
if the suspected sample contains rosin oil, a dark reddish-brown spot 
quickly forms, retaining its red color for a long time, and a peculiar 
scum forms over it. Rosin oil may be detected in boiled linseed oil 
in a similar manner, and with the same certainty, the reactions being 
more rapid. A sample of genuine boiled oil must be used for the 
comparison. The rosin oil used in adulterating linseed oil is half the 
price of the latter ; it is free from smell even when heated ; it has a 
peculiar metallic taste, which is not masked by the linseed oil. It 
greatly retards the drying properties of linseed oil, causes it to re- 
main 4 tacky ' for some time, and prevents it ever becoming hard.'' 

To detect the Purified Mineral Oil used in the Adulteration of re- 
fined Rape [Colza) Oil. — The mineral oil is rather lighter than rape 
oil, having a specific gravity of 0*902 (the gravity of refined rape 
being about 0*914). When mixed with rape it may be detected by a 
slight but peculiar smell on gently heating, and by a slightly dis- 
agreeable taste. It imparts the opalescent appearance peculiar to 
all earth and mineral oils. Bright wavy streaks may also be seen 
when an adulterated sample is mixed with a pure sample, as described 
above, but in this instance the pure oil should be added first. Place 
a slab of clean glass on a piece of white paper, at one end put from 
ten to twenty drops of a known sample of refined rape, at the other 
an equal quantity of that suspected ; to each add one drop of oil of 
vitriol. On the pure rape a pale yellow spot slowly forms, throwing 
out dirty orange streaks ; on the adulterated sample a reddish-brown 
spot quickly forms. Mineral oil interferes greatly with the burning 
of refined rape, causing smoke and great deposit on the wick. 

Detection of Mineral Oils in Fatty Animal or Vegetable Oils, and 
vice versa. — The distinction of coal oil from animal and vegetable oil 
is not very difficult, from the fact that mineral oils cannot be saponi- 
fied, as the following experiment will show. Boil the oil with caustic 
soda liquor until it is saponified ; the soap resulting from it is to be 
evaporated in a water bath, and the residue treated with ether or pe- 
troleum spirit. The soap will be insoluble, while the coal oil, if such 
was mixed with the oil to be tested, will be soluble in the ether or pe- 
troleum spirit. The latter is to be evaporated carefully in a gradu- 



AM juiy tr i; m2 RM ' } Notes on American Asphaltum. 313 

ated cylinder, and, as the coal oil boils at a much higher temperature 
than either ether or petroleum spirit, the former -will remain in the 
glass cylinder, while all the ether or petroleum spirit will be evapo- 
rated. The best way for evaporating the ether or spirit will be to 
put the glass cylinder containing the same in a vessel with hot water. 
— -American Chemist, May, 187 '2, from The Oil Trade Review. 



NOTES ON AMERICAN ASPHALTUM. 
By Prof. J. S. Newberry. 

All my observations on asphalts have resulted in the conviction, 
that without exception they are more or less perfectly solidified resi- 
dual products of the spontaneous evaporation of petroleum. In many 
instances the process of the formation of asphalt may be witnessed as 
it takes place in nature, and in our oil stills we are constantly pro- 
ducing varieties of asphalt. These are, in some instances, undistin- 
guishable from the natural ones, and in general differ from them only 
because our rapid artificial distillation at a high temperature differs 
from the similar, but far slower, distillation that takes place sponta- 
neously at a low temperature. 

Asphaltum occurs in America, as does petroleum, in an immense num- 
ber of places — so many that I cannot enumerate even one-half of those 
known to me. I will, however, notice a few of the most interesting. 
The asphalt from these various localities exhibits great diversity of 
physical character, and some, of chemical composition. These differ- 
ences are doubtless, in part, due to differences in the petroleums from 
which they have been derived. The greatest noticeable diversity is, 
however, probably due to difference of age, and is a record of the 
slow but constant changes which time affects in these, as in other or- 
ganic compounds. 

Among the most important of our asphaltic minerals are the Alber- 
tite and Grahamite ; the first from New Brunswick, the second from 
West Virginia. Both these are found filling fissures, opened across 
their bedding, in strata of carboniferous age. The geology of the 
districts where these deposits occur, has been described by Professors 
Dawson and Lesley, and it is unnecessary now to repeat the details 
which they have given. Suffice it to say that the fissures filled by 
both the Albertite and Grahamite mark lines of disturbance, where 
the strata are more or less tilted and broken, and where oil springs 



314 Notes on American Asphaltum. { kv 'A\^Jm^ 

abound. There is little room for doubt that in each instance the fis- 
sures which contain the asphalt have afforded convenient reservoirs 
into which petroleum has flowed, and from which all the lighter parts 
have been removed by evaporation. A large number of similar de- 
posits, though of less magnitude, are known to me, all presenting the 
same general features. Among these I may mention a nearly verti- 
cal bed in the mountains west of Denver, in Colorado. This is a fis- 
sure filled with an asphalt which I submitted to Prof. Henry Wurtz 
for examination, and which he has shown to be not essentially differ- 
ent from Grahamite. On the banks of the Arkansas, south from 
Denver City, a number of smaller fissures, cutting cretaceous rocks, 
are filled with a similar asphaltic mineral. In the great Devonian 
black shale of Ohio and Kentucky (Huron Shale), fissures cutting 
across the bedding of the formation filled with Albertite, occur near 
Avon Point, Lorain Co., Ohio, and Liberty, Casey Co., Kentucky. 
Petroleum flows from this formation nearly everywhere along its line 
of outcrop. The asphalt from all the localities I have cited is hard, 
bright and brittle, and seems to be the product of very long continued 
and complete spontaneous distillation and oxidation. 

In southern California, western Canada, central Kentucky and 
Chicago, &c, asphaltum may be seen in the process of formation from 
petroleum. In Enniskillen, Canada, an abundant flow of dark and 
heavy oil has produced large accumulations of more or less perfectly 
formed asphalt at the surface. These are locally known as gum beds. 
They attracted the attention of Mr. Williams in 1860, when the dis- 
tillation of oil from cannel coal, bituminous shales, etc., was expand- 
ing into an important industry, and he established an oil distillery 
there for the use of this material. On cutting through the crust of 
solidified asphalt, semi-fluid and finally fluid petroleum was met with, 
afterwards these oil springs yielded immense quantities of petroleum. 
In Butler Co., Kentucky, the central member of the lower carbon- 
iferous group, is saturated with petroleum. This flows out from the 
cut edges of the formation in the valley of Green river and its branches, 
forming sheets of mineral tar and ultimately asphaltum, which cover 
the exposed surfaces of the rock. The quantity of asphaltic material 
in this vicinity is large, and it may some time be utilized for road 
making in the same manner as the Syssel asphalt. 

In southern California,' the accumulations of asphalt on the coast 
of Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, &c, have attracted the notice of 



^jiiyXm™'} Notes on American Asphaltum. 315 

all travellers who have visited that region. The asphalt is here 
plainly inspissated petroleum. It drips from the cliffs at many points, 
and forms a scum on the ocean off the coast. There it is evaporated 
and oxidized, then thrown upon the beach by the waves, where it ac- 
cumulates in large masses, generally mingled with sand and other 
foreign matter. When pure, the asphalt of California resembles that 
from Trinidad, and is beginning to be used for the same purposes — - 
roofing, paving, lining of cisterns, &c. The wants of the entire wes- 
tern coast can be easily supplied from this source. About Chicago, Il- 
linois, the Niagara limestone is in some localities completely saturated 
with a thick petroleum, which on exposure is converted by evapora- 
tion into asphalt. There are no important asphaltic accumulations 
here, and it is perhaps a little doubtful whether the hydrocarbon 
which fills the limestone is not too oily to serve the same purposes as 
the bitumen in the limestone of Val de Travers. But I know of no 
asphaltic limestone which approaches nearer to the foreign variety 
now so largely used, and it is quite possible that with appropriate 
treatment others may be utilized in the same way. 

The above list includes all the important deposits of asphaltum in 
our country of which anything definite is known. At various points 
in the far west, occur what are known as " tar springs," really oil 
springs, around which more or less asphaltum accumulates as the re- 
sult of evaporation. In Texas, south from Shreveport, a pitch lake 
is spoken of, in which are said to occur large quantities of bitumen. 
But of this almost nothing is known. 

In anticipation of a great demand for asphaltum for the uses to 
which it is so extensively applied in Europe, I have endeavored to 
ascertain the quality and quantity of all the asphaltic materials found 
in our country, and with the exception of the Albert mine, have vis- 
ited all of the localities described in the above notes. The result of 
my observations has been the conviction, that aside from the Alber- 
tite and Grahamite, which from their peculiar character will but par- 
tially supply our want of asphaltic material, we must look to Trinidad 
as a source from which we are to obtain the greater part of our as- 
phalt. The quantity existing there is inexhaustible. The quality is 
such that it will with proper treatment do all that asphalt will any- 
where do, and it is so accessible and transportation to our seaports so 
inexpensive, that it should be furnished from this source to our At- 
lantic cities, at a much less price than asphalt brought from any point 
in the interior must cost. — American Chemist, May, 1872. 



316 Method of Estimating Ethylic Alcohol, etc. {^jJg^'SS* 

ON A PROPOSED METHOD OF ESTIMATING ETHYLIO ALCO- 
HOL WHEN PRESENT IN METHYLIC ALCOHOL. 
By M. Carey Lea, Philadelphia. 

While engaged in the study of some methyl compounds, I met with 
a method, which has been recently published in England, for effecting 
the above object with approximate correctness. As any simple means 
of accomplishing this result would be useful, I have made an examina- 
tion of the proposed method, which is as follows : 

Methylic oxalate is first to be prepared from the specimen of me- 
thylic alcohol to be examined, by distilling it with sulphuric and ox- 
alic acids. After separating the methylic oxalate from the distillate^ 
its melting point is to be determined, and this melting point is affirmed 
to fix approximately the quantity of ethylic alcohol present, the 
melting point being lower in proportion to the ethylic alcohol con- 
tained in the methylic* 

This was tested as follows : 

1. Some good wood-spirit, which I had distilled over caustic soda, 

was heated with oxalic and sulphuric acids, and the crystals of 
methylic oxalate separated from the distillate. It was not stated 
whether the melting point of the crystals was to be taken while 
they were still wet, or after drying. Apparently the first was 
intended ; I tried, however, in both ways. 

2, The adhering liquid was squeezed out as completely as possible 

with a spatula, the mass was liquified by heat, and a therm ome- 
trie bulb placed in it. 

Crystals first appeared at . . 102° F. 

The liquid became thick with crystals at . 100° F. 
8. The crystals were next taken out and dried on blotting paper ; as 
soon as dry were tried again. Result : 

Crystals first appeared at . . 128° F. 

The liquid became thick with crystals at . 127° F. 
4. Nine volumes of the same wood-spirit were next mixed with one 
volume of 95 per cent, (by vol.) alcohol, and the experiment re- 
peated. 

* A table has been given to show the relation : 

Per cent, of ethylic alcohol, Methylic oxalate solidifies at or about 104° F. 
a ii (i g ii n it 950 

« i* 11 20 a n 1* ggo 

15 •? " 76 c 



*"jiiyX StT } Oleates of Mercury and Morphia. 317 

5. The crystals of niethylic oxalate were freed from adhering liquid 

as far as could be done by pressure, the mass was liquified, and 
as it cooled, 

Crystals first appeared at , . 98° F. 

The liquid became thick with crystals at . 97° F, 

6. These crystals were dried as before, and then fused and cooled. 

Crystals began to form at . . . 128° F. 

" became thick at . . 127° F. 

It thus appears that the melting point of the crystals, if they have 
been dried on blotting paper, is precisely the same whether prepared 
from methylic alcohol nearly pure, or containing about ten per cent, 
of ethylic alcohol. So that no inferences can be drawn from this. 

When the crystals have been simply squeezed, the congealing point 
appears to be lower when ethylic alcohol has been present, and when, 
consequently, the liquid which moistens the crystals contains ethylic 
oxalate. But it seems evident that the congealing point will depend 
quite as much upon the purity of the wood-spirit, so that two operators 
working with the same materials would be apt to get quite different 
results. 

Accordingly, the congealing point attained at (5) compared with the 
table would indicate the presence of 3-4 per cent, of ethylic alcohol, 
whereas there was present about ten per cent. This conclusion is to 
be regretted, as the method, if reliable, would have been valuable, — 
Amer. Journ. Set. and Arts, May, 1872. 



OLEATES OF MERCURY AND MORPHIA. 

In a Clinical Lecture recently delivered by Professor John Mar- 
shall, F.R.S., in the University College Hospital,* he drew attention 
to the fact that mercurial ointment, which is itself the basis of other 
mercurial preparations, is merely a mechanical mixture of minute 
globules of mercury ; and said that he had long thought that if a 
solution of mercury in some oleaginous or unctuous medium could be 
employed, more immediate and satisfactory results would be obtained 
from the well-known therapeutical powers of this ancient remedy. In 
seeking for his object he first dissolved some of the perchloride of 
mercury in a small quantity of ether, and added to it about four times 



* Reported iu the " Lancet/' May 25th, 1872. 



318 



Oleaies of Mercury and Morphia. 



1 Am. Jocr. Pharm. 
I July 1, 1872. 



the amount of oleic acid ; but found that this combination freely used 
on the skin produced much irritation, unless it was employed in too 
dilute a form to be of service as an absorbent. In Gmelin's Chem- 
istry there is a short account of certain metallic oleates formed by 
double decomposition ; but with this as a guide, he failed to obtain 
any satisfactory oleate of mercury. Mr. Frank Clowes, to whom he 
then referred the chemical question, soon discovered that, although 
the ordinary sublimed scales of red oxide of mercury were with diffi- 
culty dissolved in oleic acid, the oxide, precipitated by caustic potash 
or soda from a solution of the metal in nitric acid (which is a yellow 
impalpable powder) is, when recently made and well dried, readily 
soluble in oleic acid, especially when aided by a temperature of about 
300° F. At Professor Marshall's request Messrs. Hopkin and Wil- 
liams have since studied the subject pharmaceutical^, and have suc- 
ceeded in preparing oleate of mercury, and certain solutions of that 
salt in oleic acid. The strength of the preparations made by them is 
indicated by the percentage of the oxide of mercury which they con- 
tain. The 5 per cent, solution is a perfectly clear pale yellow liquid, 
resembling olive oil, but thinner ; the 10 per cent, solution is also- 
fluid and perfectly clear, but as dark as linseed oil ; whilst the 20 per 
cent, preparation is an opaque yellowish unctuous substance, closely 
resembling in appearance resin ointment, melting very readily at the 
temperature of the body, and forming a kind of transparent, viscid,, 
colorless varnish when applied to the skin. The chief care to be ob- 
served in the manufacture of these solutions is not to hurry the pro- 
cess, and not to employ a high temperature, or the mercury will be 
immediately reduced. 

Unlike the mercurial ointment so long in vogue, which is a crude, 
gross, unscientific mixture, very dirty and very wasteful, because so 
small a proportion of its mechanically admixed mercury is but slowly 
absorbed, these solutions of oleate of mercury are cleanly and econo- 
mical in use ; and as the diffusibility or penetrating power of oleic 
acid is much greater than that of ordinary oils or fats, and as each 
one-thousandth part of even a minim of these new preparations con- 
tains its proper modicum of mercury, they are absorbed by the skin 
with remarkable facility and manifest their remedial effects with great 
promptitude. They should not be rubbed in like ordinary liniments 
or embrocations, but should be merely applied with a brush, or be 
spread lightly over the part with one finger : otherwise they may cause 



AM jui° y c i; mT' } Ohili Saltpeter Deposits of Peru. 319 

cutaneous irritation, or even produce a few pustules on the skin, espe- 
cially in certain persons. This result may, however, be obviated by 
the addition of a small quantity of olive oil, or purified lard, accord- 
ing as an oleaginous or an unctuous preparation is required. Any of 
these forms may be scented by the addition of essential oils. 

In employing these mercurial solutions for combating persistent 
inflammation of joints, Professor Marshall soon found that the addi- 
tion of morphia was of very great advantage. For this purpose the 
simple alkaloid must be used, as neither the hydrochlorate, the acetate 
nor the meconate is soluble in oleic acid. For every drachm of the 
solution of oleate of mercury in oleic acid one grain of morphia may 
be added. Being, as well as the rnercury, completely dissolved, it 
quite as rapidly penetrates the skin, comes quickly into contact with 
the extremities of the nerves, and thus, even within a few minutes, 
acts upon them at their most sensitive points, and speedily produces 
a soothing effect. 

The oleates of mercury and morphia, thus united in one prepara- 
tion, represent, as it were, a liniment, ointment, or plaster of mercury 
and opium ; but they are far more elegant, economical and efficacious. 
— Pharm. Journ., Lond., June 1, 1872. 



THE CHILI SALTPETER DEPOSITS OF PERU. 

In travelling eastward through Peru, from the sea to the Cordille- 
ras, on the 20th parallel of south latitude, seven zones are crossed, 
the third of which, the Pampa of Tamarugal, and the fifth, Serrania 
Alta, or the inner chain (Upper Peru, or Bolivia), are explored for 
saltpeter. The treeless Pampa, a plain somewhat depressed in the 
center, has a very scanty vegetation, and the only thing which grows 
there is a single variety of lucerne grass (medicago) ; the cultivation 
of even this is attended with difficulty, on account of the large pro- 
portion of common salt, borax and saltpeter in the soil. It serves in 
part for the support of the beasts of burden used for transporting to 
the coast the salts and metallic minerals found here. In the south of 
the Pampa is a large deposit of borax, pieces of which weigh on an 
average from 100 to 200 grammes ; soda saltpeter is found on the bor- 
ders of Pampa and Serrania, but too far distant from the sea. On 
the western slope of the Cordilleras, salt is only found in small quan- 
tities ; but in Upper Peru, where frequent rains wash it together into 



320 Chili Saltpeter Deposits of Peru. { AM j^ y u& 1 ; Sff* 

great lakes, there are large quantities of it. The saltpeter mines con- 
sist of different strata. The surface of the ground is composed of 
silicates, sandstone and pieces of lime. At a depth of from 8 to 16 
inches, very regular prisms are usually found, which sparkle with a 
mass of very small microscopic crystals ; the strata below this, which 
is of rocky hardness, consists principally .of common salt, with a lit- 
tle chloride of potassium and soda saltpeter, mixed with earth and 
pieces of silicates and carbonates, and has a thickness of 20 to 25 
inches. Beneath this crust is the pure soda saltpeter, in more or less 
perfect crystals, from 20 to 40 inches long, and 3 to 7 feet in diameter. 
Guano is seldom found there, and only in small quantities ; and it 
always occurs just below a stratum of salt. It is not in a powder, 
like that from the Chincha Islands, but adheres together, and is of a 
brown color, containing the bones and remains of birds and insects, 
and has an ammoniacal smell. 

The chloride of sodium and lime present furnish mineral constitu- 
ents required for the formation of the saltpeter. According to Thier- 
celin, the guano furnishes the nitrogen ; but since the guano is always 
found below the salt crust, Koenig is compelled to refer the nitrogen 
to some other nitrogenous organic bodies, from whose decomposition 
ammonia is formed, and this in turn is converted by the action of the 
air and organic bases into nitric acid. Besides the three substances 
named, all the conditions favorable to the formation of saltpeter are 
found in that neighborhood, namely, a pure, dry atmosphere, absence 
of rain to wash away the saltpeter when formed, and the regular night 
fogs. The latter, leaving the salt undissolved, dissolve the saltpeter 
and filter it through this stratum, under which it crystallizes. 

The search for saltpeter is conducted thus : The workman recog- 
nizes its presence by certain undulatory elevations of the ground, 
and numerous lumps of lime and disintegrated sandstone. He bores 
a hole some 12 to 18 inches in diameter, going down till the mineral 
is plainly visible. When the lowest layer is reached, the hole is 
widened to about three feet, filled with charcoal and sulphur and fired. 
The explosion breaks and tears up the ground for twice that distance 
around, and then properly begins the bringing up of saltpeter. The 
crude article varies considerably in compactness, color and quality, 
and is named accordingly. The so-called sulphuret, which owes its 
name to its mode of manufacture, is the purest. The porous, earthy 
and the congealed are different in quality. If the raw product con- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
July 1,1872. j 



Varieties. 



321 



tains less than 50 per cent., the mine is abandoned as not worth work- 
ing; a yield of 70 to 80 per cent, is exceptionally good. The raw 
material is transported on pack animals or wagons to the factory, 
where it is refined in two different ways. One method is to break it 
up in pieces and put it in an iron kettle half full of water, which is 
then heated over fire for an hour, the insoluble matter removed and 
a fresh quantity of raw material added until the solution is saturated. 
The clear solution is run off into crystallizing vessels, the crystals 
collected when formed and allowed to dry in the sacks in which it is 
shipped. In the second method, steam heat is employed ; the crude 
material is put in perforated iron baskets and suspended in boiling 
water, and the process repeated until the liquor is saturated. The 
salpeter prepared in this way contains less than one per cent, of com- 
mon salt, while that obtained by the former method contains upward 
of two per cent. Large quantities of iodine are annually reclaimed 
from the mother liquors of the saltpeter works of South America. — - 
Scientific American, April 27, 1872. 



A Delicate Test for Phenol. — Landolt, wishing to detect the presence of 
phenol (carbolic acid) in a well-water from the vicinity of a gas-works, and 
finding that the ferric chloride test is only of moderate delicacy, and is inter- 
fered with even by normal salts, as sodium sulphate, made use of bromine-water. 
When used in excess, this reagent gives, even with a solution of phenol in 
43,700 parts of water, an immediate bulky precipitate of tribromophenol. 
The odor of phenol cannot be recognized when the solution contains less than 
1 of phenol to 2800 of water ; and the color developed by ferric chloride ap- 
pears only when there is more than 1 of phenol to 2100 of water. By this test, 
the presence of phenol may be shown in 500 c.c. of urine. It may also be used 
quantitatively, — Amer. Jour. Science and Arts, May, 1872, from Ber. BerU 
chem. Ges., iv, 770, Oct., 1871. 



A New Test for Arsenic. — Bettendorff* has simplified Hager's method of test- 
ing for this substance, and, it would seem, has rendered it peculiarly suitable 
for testing pharmaceutical preparations for slight impurities from this element. 

The method of testing commercial sulphuric acid for traces of arsenic will 
give a fair illustration of the author's process. 

A small quantity of protochloride of tin, in a shallow dish, is covered with 
pure hydrochloric acid (1*12 sp. gr.j until it is dissolved. To this is added, 



* Dingler's Journal, C iii, 385, 

21 



322 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July 1, 1872. 



drop by drop, the sulphuric acid to be tested, the vessel being agitated at each 
addition. This addition will cause considerable heating, and if no arsenic is 
present the liquid will remain clear. If the arsenic is present in the smallest 
quantities the liquid will be colored first yellow, then brown, and finally a dark 
greyish-brown, becoming at the same time turbid. 

The process, while far more readily carried out than Marsh's, is declared to 
be nearly equal to it in delicacy. — Journal Franklin Institute, June, 1872. 

A New Use for the Aniline Colors. — Mr. F. Springmiihl recommends the use 
of alcoholic solutions of various gums (shellac, sandarach, &c), to which various 
aniline colors have been added, in coloring all kinds of paper, linen, &c*. 

The gum solution, which should be thin, penetrates entirely through the 
paper and gives to it an even tone. The operation is simply to place the coloring 
liquid in a shallow dish, and to draw the substance to be colored through it, 
which is subsequently hung up to dry ; when dry another color can readily be 
produced upon one of the sides. Sandarach is said to produce matt; shellac 
and most other gums, a lustrous color. By adding to the lac solutions a small 
quantity of some ethereal oil, the substance may at the same time be perfumed. 
By judiciously mixing several of the lacs, any desirable tint can be produced. 
— Journal Franklin Institute, June, 1872. 

Hydrofluoric Acid— Mr. A. P. S. Stuart remarks that every one who has 
prepared hydrofluoric] acid knows that sulphuric acid and fluor spar form an 
exceedingly hard, rock-like compound, and that it is very difficult to remove 
this from a platinum retort. The inconvenience may be avoided by mixing with 
the fluor spar about an equal weight of gypsum and the proper quantity of sul- 
phuric acid. After the hydrofluoric acid has been expelled by heat, the mass 
in the retort is found to be of a pasty nature, and is easily removed by water. — 
Scientific American, June 22, 1872. 

Action of Sulphuric Ether on Iodides. — E. Ferriere. — When to a solution of 
any iodide in water there is first added some starch solution, and this mixture 
shaken up with sulphuric ether, the following phenomena are observed : If the 
solution of the iodide is somewhat concentrated, a portion of iodine is set free, 
and the starch is colored blue ; if the solution is weak, this coloration only sets 
in after some three hours; if the solution is very dilute, the blue coloration 
only appears after some two or three days. When the blue-colored starch is 
separated by filtration, and there is added to the filtrate another dose of ether, 
the blue coloration again appears, all the iodine being at last driven from its 
combination ; chlorides and bromides are not thus acted upon. The author 
attributes this decomposition to the slow but continuous formation of an unsta- 
ble iodhydric ether (C4 H5 I), but the experimental proof of that reaction has 
not been found by him. — Chem. News. May 31, 1872. 

Apomorphine — A New Remedy. — It appears that the Materia Medica is 
about to be enriched by an important remedy — apomorphine, an emetic appa- 



* Zeitschr. f. Farberei, 1871, No 41. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1,1872. j 



Varieties. 



323 



rently superior to all which have been used before. Two published investiga- 
tions about the physiological effects of this remedy are before us : one by Y. 
Siebert, of Dorpat (" Investigations on the Physiological Effect of Apomor- 
phine"— Archiv fuer Heilkunde, xii, 6), and another one by Riegel and Boehm 
("On the Emetic Effect of Apomorphine,' — Deutches Archiv fuer Klinisehc 
Medicin, ix, 2). 

After it had already been prepared, in 1845, by Arppe and other chemists, 
Matthiesen and Wright, in England, have lately again, by treating morphine 
with hydrochloric acid, produced it as a hydrochloric salt, the base of which 
(apomorphine) has simply originated out of morphine by the escape of water, 
to-wit: C17H19NO3 (morphine) — H2 0= O17H17NO2 (apomorphine). The'same 
chemists have given notice of its emetic effect. 

Numerous experiments on animals and human beings have taught that apo- 
morphine is a reliable and speedy emetic (acting within from four to sixteen 
minutes, according to Riegel and Boehm), which has no very disagreeable con- 
comitant effects of any kind, but the great advantage of being well suited for 
subcutaneous injections — a quality not belonging to any other known emetic, 
and one of great importance in the treatment of children, lunatics, unconsciou s 
patients and other cases. Slight vertigo, heaviness of the head, inclination to 
yawn, and precordial uneasiness of very short duration, are the only symptoms 
which so far have been observed to occur when administered, but they disap- 
pear as soon as emesis sets in. After-effects on the intestinal canal, like those 
of tartar emetic, or inflammation and suppuration at the point of injection, have 
never been observed. Its physiological effects on the pulse, temperature of 
the skin, etc., are of no practical importance. The quantity necessary for this 
effect by hypodermic injection is, in the human being, according to Siebert, 
0*006 to 0"007 (about 1-10 grs.), and oscillates, according to Riegel and Boehm, 
between 03 and 0*04 (about i to f of a grain). The latter used a solution 
containing one per cent, for their preparations. 

This preparation has principally been obtained from England (under the 
name of hydrochlorate of amorphia, from McFarlan & Co., Royal Medical 
Warehouse, 17 North Bridge, Edinburgh), as a pale, greenish-gray powder. — 
Atlanta Med. and Surg. Joum., May, 1872, from Berliner Wochenschrift, 
Jan., 1872, No. 5. 

Spilanthes Oleracea. — At a recent meeting of the Agri-Horticultural Society 
of Madras, a reference was made to the medicinal properties of Spilanthes 
oleracea, especially as to its use as a remedy for toothache. 

Colonel Pears, who communicated the fact, says that it was administered on 
the recommendation of a native 'servant to a friend of his who was suffering 
from very severe toothache, and that it effected a perfect cure in a very short 
time. Dr. Hunter pointed out that the Spilanthes contains some acrid principle, 
and, when chewed, causes a copious flow of saliva. The use of such articles 
for the relief of toothache is of very ancient date in European medicine, the 
pellitory of Spain having long been used as a masticatory in cases of toothache, 
The Spilanthes is probably just as effective as the pellitory, and is, moreover, 
easily obtained in India. 



324 



Varieties. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July 1, 1872. 



The plant, which belongs to the Compositce, is an erect, branching annual, 
growing about twelve or fourteen inches high, and having small yellow flower- 
heads at the ends of the branches. It is well known for the peculiarly pungent 
taste of its leaves, on which account it is frequently cultivated in some tropica^ 
countries for use as a salad and potherb. It is known as Para grass ; in Japan 
it is called Ho Ko So.— Med. and Surg. Reporter, June .1, 1872. 



Xylol. — Richard Moffett, M.D. — This is a new remedy,* recently discovered 
by a German chemist, and is used at the Royal Hospital in Berlin, in the treat- 
ment of small-pox. It is found in wood-tar and coal-gas naphtha. My first 
experience in the use of the remedy was in the following case. I was called to 
Mrs. Sophia H., a German woman, aged forty-two years, on March 27. She 
was suffering with preliminary symptoms of small-pox, which in a few days 
developed into the confluent form. My usual treatment failed to give any relief 
whatever, and she was fast sinking. On April 8 her pulse was 155, respiration 
40, tongue brown, dry, and hard ; the ends of her fingers and nails were purple, 
and her face was entirely covered with black scabs. The tonsils and parotid 
glands became so much affected that it was with the greatest difficulty that 
anything could be swallowed. She suffered from great restlessness, and was 
unable to obtain sleep even after taking large doses of chloral and morphia. 
Having obtained some of the new remedy, — xylol, — I determined to try it in 
her case. I gave her the following prescription : 



B. Olei Xylol., . 
Fulv. Acacias, 
Syrupi Simplic. 
Aquas, aa, 
S. — A teaspoonful every two hours. 



. gtt. cc; 
q. s. 



I called the next day, and found her sitting up in bed. All the graver symp- 
toms had disappeared. Her tongue was quite moist, pulse 98, respiration 22. 
She told me the medicine relieved her at once ; and her husband said that after 
taking three doses she went to sleep, and slept for four hours. 

April 14. — The patient is quite talkative, and can swallow without difficulty. 
From this time forward her convalescence was uninterrupted. At this date, 
April 19, she is able to go about the house, suffering only from a partial loss 
•of the right eye. She was vaccinated when an infant, but bore no mark. I 
have tried this remedy in a number of cases since, and its use has always been 
attended with the most happy results. — Philad. Med. Times, June 15, 1872. 



Cimicifuga Racemosa as a Preventive of Small-Pox. — Dr. G. D. Norris, at a 
recent meeting of the Alabama State Medical Association, " stated that during 
the prevalence of small-pox in Huntsville, certain families, at the instance of 
some one unknown, had resorted to the free use of the tea of the Cimicifuga 
■racemosa, or black snakeroot of the United States Pharmacopoeia (cohosh), as 

*See Amer. Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, April, 172. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June 1, 1872. j 



Varieties. 



325 



a preventive of small-pox. In the families using the Cimicifuga, there occurred 
no case of the small-pox, though some were exposed to the disease. In the 
same families, Dr. Norris vaccinated the members, but without effect so long 
as they continued the use of the cohosh ; after ceasing to use the tea as a pro- 
phylactic, he again vaccinated them, when the specific effects of the vaccine 
virus were produced. He submitted the results in these cases as new, and not 
without interest to the profession." — Med. News and Library, June, 1872, from 
Atlanta Med. and Surg. Journ., April, 1872. 



Old Rubber. — A fortune awaits the happy inventor who shall teach manu- 
facturers to restore old rubber to the condition in which it was before vulcani- 
zation, for, with that secret there would be practically no consumption of this 
invaluable article. The thing has been done, and successfully, and we have 
ourselves, says the "Commercial Bulletin," seen pieces of vulcanized rubber 
possessing great strength and elasticity which were made entirely from old car 
springs ; but it has never been accomplished on a large scale, and awaits the 
enterprise and ingenuity of some new Goodyear to develope it. 

Meantime, old rubber has its uses. By a system of steaming and passing 
between rollers, it is reduced to a semi-plastic state, and in this condition is 
used in combination with a coarse fabric for heel stiffening, a purpose for which 
it is admirably adapted, its waterproof qualities being of especial value. There 
is, in a neighboring city, a factory devoted entirely to this branch of manufac- 
ture, where several hundred tons of old rubber of all kinds are consumed 
annually. 

Old rubber is also largely used to mix with new raw material in the manufac- 
ture of all kinds of rubber goods. It serves to give bulk and weight, and if it 
does not increase, it certainly does not lessen, the strength of the fabric. It 
may also be mentioned that powdered soapstone, white lead, terra alba, and 
other heavy substances enter largely into the composition of almost all rubber 
goods, the use of which becomes apparent when it is remembered that they are 
generally sold by weight. — Scientific American, May 25, 1872. 



The Use of Glycerin as a Solvent in Hypodermic Injections. — Dr. M. Rosen- 
thal calls attention, in the "Wiener Medizinische Presse" for January 7, 1872, 
to the power which glycerin possesses to dissolve various of the substances 
which are ordinarily used in hypodermic medication. Its solvent powers are 
greater than those of water, and are very much increased by heat. Thus, a 
fluidrachm of glycerin, when heated, will readily dissolve twenty grains of the 
sulphate of quinia, from ten to twelve grains of the acetate or muriate of mor- 
phia, and ten grains of the extract of opium. Morphia may be added to a 
solution of quinia in glycerin without causing a precipitate. It will also dissolve 
from half a drachm to one drachm of the iodide or bromide of potassium, and 
four grains of corrosive sublimate. These substances are not precipitated as 
the liquid cools ; on the contrary, the solution will remain clear and fit for use 
during at least a year. — Boston Med. a?id Surg. Journ., June 6, 1872, from Med. 
Times. 



326 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July 1, 1872. 



Cure of Hydrophobia. — Dr. Alford, at Flint, Mich., has cured a case of 
hydrophobia. The disease did not make its appearance until eight months after 
the patient was bitten. The treatment was this : Sulphate of morphia, one 
grain, was injected subcutaneously every four hours, and half a drachm of pow- 
dered castor given internally, in syrup, at the same time. Chloroform was also 
inhaled in small quantities. In about half an hour, sleep occurred, and con- 
tinued over an hour. Convulsions then recurred, and continued, with intervals 
of variation, for about twelve hours, when they entirely ceased. Vomiting and 
great prostration followed, but the patient ultimately recovered. The exces- 
sive prostration was counteracted by wrapping the patient in a woollen blanket 
moistened with a warm solution of muriate of ammonia, twenty grains to the 
ounce. 

Dr. Alford states that he had another successful case of cure of hydrophobia 
eight years ago. — Scientific American, May 25, 1872. 



Coffee Roasting. — There is a considerable difference in the method of roast- 
ing the coffee berry in this country and on the Continent. In France, for in- 
stance, not only is the machinery used constructed with some amount of care 
for the purpose of securing the object desired — namely, the equal torrifying of 
the berries, but the persons employed in the operation have to possess a cer- 
tain amount of technical skill, and a knowledge of the chemistry of the work 
they do. In France a roaster has to acquire a knowledge of the various coffee 
berries, for each different sort requires to be roasted a longer or shorter period 
than the other; and when it is remembered that, on the authority of those who 
have studied the subject, a few seconds only will make all the difference in the 
quality of the coffee, it will seem that this knowledge is important. Roasters 
have to serve some years before they are declared thoroughly competent, and 
the operation of roasting is always under the superintendence, if not of the ac- 
tual care, of a tried and experienced man. The machinery in use is generally 
as follows : A hollow iron ball, turning on its axis, receives the unroasted ber- 
ries. In it is a valve by which the escape of the gas, arising during the pro- 
cess, is regulated. This ball is turned over a fire and made to revolve some- 
what rapidly. Its shape secures the equal contact of every berry with the hot 
metal. As soon as the berries are sufficiently roasted, the gas is let off, for if 
it were allowed to remain, the berries would absorb it, and the flavor be viti- 
ated. The revolving motion is then continued until they are turned into the 
receptacle prepared to receive them. They are then kept in hermetically- 
closed tins until they are ready for use. In this country the process is much 
more a rule of thumb affair, and, with rare exceptions, all coffees are roasted 
alike, in cylinders, which are not capable ef roasting so equally as a ball, and 
but little attention is paid to the chemical effects of the roasting. Another 
bad feature ^prevails in England, and that is, the berries are ground by the 
wholesale dealers, and by the time the decoction reaches the breakfast table 
the best flavor of the coffee has been floated away in the air. In order to facili- 
tate adulteration, coffee is usually ground very fine, which is another mistake* 
— Good Health, March, 1872, from English Mechanic. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 7 
July 1, 1872. J 



Varieties. 



327 



Bread made with Sea- Water. — M. Rabuteau, after considering the effects of 
sea- water in large or small doses on the economy, thinks that bread made with it 
might be taken with advantage in dyspepsia, phthisis, and. scrofula. The bread 
is extremely pleasant to the taste. — Detroit Rev. of Med. and Pharm., May, 
1872. 



A Fact for Non- Smoker a. — A Dutch merchant, named Klaes, who was 
known among his acquaintances by the name of the King of Smokers, has just 
died near Rotterdam. According to the Belgian papers he had amassed a 
large fortune, and had erected near Rotterdam a mansion, one portion of which 
was devoted to the arrangement of a collection of pipes according to their 
nationality and chronological order. A few days before his death he sum- 
moned his lawyer, and made his will, in which he directed that all the smokers 
of the country should be invited to his funerel, that each should be presented 
with 101b. of tobacco and two Dutch pipes of the newest fashion, on which 
should be engraved the name, arms, and date of the decease of the testator. 
He requested all his relatives, friends and funeral guests to be careful to keep 
their pipes alight during the funeral ceremonies, after which they should empty 
the ashes from their pipes on the coffin. The poor of the neighborhood who 
attended to his last wishes were to receive annually, on the anniversary of his 
death, 10lb. of tobacco and a small cask of good beer. He desired that his 
oak coffin should be lined with the cedar of his old Havanna cigar boxes, and 
that a box of French caporal and a packet of old Dutch tobacco should be 
placed at the foot of his coffin. His favorite pipe was to be placed by his side, 
along with a box of matches, a flint and steel, and some tinder, as he said there 
was no knowing what might happen. A clever calculator has made out that 
Mr. Klaes had, during his eighty years of life, smoked more than four tons of 
tobacco, and had drunk about 500,000 quarts of beer. 

It is said, " exceptions prove the rule." This is decidedly a very strong ex- 
ception, and will doubtless be often adduced as forcible evidence against " the 
poisonous effects of tobacco upon the system." — Med. Press and dr., May 
8, 1872. 



Arabian Mode of Perfuming. — How the Arab ladies perfume themselves is 
thus described by Sir Samuel Baker in his work on the Nile : " In the floor of 
the hut or tent, as it may chance to be, a small hole is excavated sufficiently 
large to contain a champagne bottle. A fire of charcoal or simply glowing 
embers is made within the hole, into which the woman about to be scented 
throws a handful of drugs. She then takes off the clothes, or robe which forms 
her dress, and crouches over the fumes, while she arranges her robe to fall as 
a mantle from her neck to the ground like a tent. She now begins to perspire 
freely in the hot air bath, and the pores of the skin being open and moist, the 
volatile oil from the smoke of the burning perfumes is immediately absorbed. 
By the time the fire has expired, the scenting process is completed, and both 
her person and her robe are redolent with incense, with which they are so thor- 
oughly impregnated that I have frequently smelt a party of women strongly at 



328 



Minutes of the College. 



5 Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July 1, 1872. 



full a hundred yards distance, when the wind has been blowing from their di- 
rection. The scent, which is supposed to be very attractive to gentlemen, is 
composed of ginger, cloves, cinnamon, frankincense, and myrrh, a species of 
sea weed brought from the Red Sea, and lastly the horny disc which covers the 
aperture when the shell fish withdraws itself within its shell. The proportions 
of these ingredients in this mixture are according to taste." — Scientific Ameri- 
can, June 7, 1872. *► 



AMEBIC AN PHAEMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 



The Twentieth Annual Meeting of the "American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion " will be held, in the city of Cleveland, on the first Tuesday (3d) of Sep- 
tember, 1872, commencing at 3 o'clock P.M. 

It is confidently expected that the hopes expressed at the last meeting will 
be fully verified, and a large number of applications for membership presented 
to the Association at this meeting. 

The Local Secretary, Henry C. Gaylord, of Cleveland, will receive the goods 
intended for exhibition during the session, and druggists as well as manufac- 
turers of chemicals and articles connected with pharmacy and its collateral 
branches, are respectfully requested to send the goods to be exhibited free of 
charge and accompanied by an invoice and a full description of the articles. 

Enno Sander, President' 

St. Louis, June 2Uh, 1872. 



Minutes 0f % fPaMpjp CloIUge of Hftarmaqj.. 



A stated meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held at the 
College Hall, Jane 24th, 1872, Dillwyn Parrish. President, in the chair; 17 
members present. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. The minutes o f 
the Board of Trustees were read by William C. Bakes, Secretary of the Board, 
and on motion were approved. 

The following communication from the College of Physicians, referred by the 
Board of Trustees to the College, was read. After an interchange of views by 
the members on the practical effects of such cautionary provisions as are con- 
templated in the resolutions, the communication was, on motion, referred to a 
committee. To this service /the Chair appointed Wm. Procter. Jr., Edward 
Parrish, Joseph P. Remington and William C. Bakes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. / 
July 1, 1872. 5 



Minutes of the College. 



329 



"Preamble and Resolutions passed by the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, May \st y 

1872. 

" Whereas, cases of accidental poisoning and of the internal administration 
of medicines intended only for external use are so common ; and, whereas, every 
possible safeguard should be employed to prevent such accidents, therefore 

li Resolved, by the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, that it be recom- 
mended to all druggists to place all external remedies in bottles, not only col- 
ored so as to appeal to the eye, but also rough on one side, so that, by the sense 
of touch, no mistake shall be possible even in the dark. 

"Resolved, that all bottles containing poisons should not only be labelled 'poi- 
son,' but also with another label, indicating the most efficient and convenient 
antidote. 

"Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be presented to the American 
Medical Association, to the College of Pharmacy of Philadelphia, and to the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, and that their assistance be asked in 
bringing about so desirable a reform. Signed, 

"John H. Packard, M.D., 
"Secretary of the College of Physicians of Philada" 

The committee on deceased members read the following notice of their late 
honorary member, Prof. Samuel Jackson, M.D. 

Prof. Samuel Jackson was born in Philadelphia, on the 22d of March, 1787. 
He early embarked in the drug business, in which, however, he was not suc- 
cessful ; and the bent of his mind being toward scientific and professional 
pursuits, he became early connected with Associations for Medical Instruc- 
tion, and in 1821 was elected Professor of Materia Medica in this College. 

His lectures were fluent and suggestive ; but in the department of Materia 
Medica there was less scope for his peculiar talents than in that of Physiology. 
In 1827 he resigned his Professorship in our College, though still devoting him- 
self with success to medical education. 

So high was his reputation that, in 1835, on the Chair of Institutes of Medi- 
cine being established in the University, he was elected its first incumbent. 
Here his reputation steadily increased, his clear and vigorous style, and the 
terseness and force of his language, drawing crowds of listeners to his lecture- 
room. 

He published several works of value, of which his " Principles of Medicine," 
issued in 1832, was the most important. In 1856, he wrote an " Introduction to 
the American Edition of Lehman's Chemical Physiology." As a practitioner 
of medicine he was remarkable for the originality displayed in his prescriptions, 
in many of which the leading idea was an application of chemical principles to 
the treatment of diseased or enfeebled conditions. Dr. Jackson continued in 
active professional life until, a few years since, physical weakness and advanc- 
ing years compelled his retirement. He died on the 4th of April, 1872, uni- 
versally respected and honored by the medical profession, by pharmacists and 
the community at large. 

The following communication was read, for information to the members of the 
College : 

To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy ; 

The Committee appointed at the last meeting of the Convention of the 
teaching Colleges of Pharmacy of the United States, held at St. Louis in Sep- 
tember last, has agreed to recommend the following questions for discussion at 
the next meeting of the Convention, to be held in Cleveland, Ohio, in Septem- 
ber next : 

1. Analytical Chemistry. Is it essential for a thorough pharmaceutical 
education ? If so, should it not be embraced in the curriculum of the Colleges 



330 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. { AM jui°y *\Xm?\ 

of Pharmacy, and how much time should at least be devoted to the lectures 
and to laboratory instruction ? 

2. Would it not be advisable that the questions at the examinations in writing 
for the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy be annually reported and, if deemed 
necessary, discussed by all the Colleges represented in the Convention of the 
teaching Colleges of Pharmacy, for the purpose of establishing, as nearly as 
may be. possible, a uniform standard for graduation? 

3. Pharmaceutical Degrees. In order to stimulate the acquirement of sci- 
entific attainments amongst graduates in pharmacy, is it not advisable to estab- 
lish one or more higher degrees ? If so, upon what basis ought such degrees to 
be conferred ? 

For the Committee, John M. Maisch. 

The following delegates were elected to represent the College at the next 
session of the American Pharmaceutical Convention, to assemble in Cleveland, 
Ohio, on the 3d of September next, viz.: Wm. Procter, Jr., Prof. John M. 
Maisch, Prof. Edward Parrish, Joseph P. Remington, Edwin McC. Boring. 

On motion, the following Committee was appointed to confer with the Cor- 
responding Secretary regarding the certificates of corresponding and honorary 
membership in this College, which there is reason to believe have miscarried' 
and with the Secretary to take such action on the subject as they may deem 
expedient, viz. : Win. C. Bakes, John M. Maisch, Samuel S. Bunting. 

On motion, then adjourned. Charles Bullock, Secretary. 



The New York College of Pharmacy has elected the following five gen- 
tlemen to constitute the Board of Pharmacy, in accordance with the law signed 
by the Governor May 22d : Dr. Wm. Neergaard, Dr. W. Manlius Smith, Dr. 
F. Weissmann, Paul Balluff and Theobald Frohwein. 



Maryland College of Pharmacy. — At the June meeting the Committee on 
Unofficinal Formulas made a verbal report through its Chairman, Prof. J. F. 
Moore, and read the formulas as far as adopted. On motion of Dr. J. Brown 
Baxley, the Committee was vested with plenary power to adopt and print at 
the earliest possible day. Two copies will be issued : a formulary, for the use 
of pharmacists; and a descriptive, concise catalogue, to be presented to mem- 
bers of the medical profession. 

Prof. Moore presented, in the name of Mr. Chas. R. Beck, a beautiful speci- 
men of taraxacum, pressed, mounted and framed. Mr. J. F. Hancock, on 
behalf of Prof. Jno. M. Maisch, presented samples of Chinese blistering flies 
{Mylabris Ctchorn), which proved a great attraction. On motion, the thanks of 
the College were tendered to both donors. 

Mr. Wm. S. Thompson's paper on "Pharmacy," read at the last meeting, 
was then called up, and discussed by Prof. Moore, Dr. J. Brown Baxley, and 
others. 

After a few hours pleasantly spent the meeting stood adjourned. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July l, 1872. / 



Editorial. 



331 



The California Pharmaceutical Society has elected, on May 8th last, five 
pharmacists to serve for the next three years as the Board of Pharmacy, in com- 
pliance with an Act to Regulate the Practice of Pharmacy in the City and 
€ounty of San Francisco, approved March 28, 1872. The Board has organized 
and consists of John Calvert, President ; James G. Steele, Secretary ; Wm- 
T. Wenzell, Wm. Simpson and J. W. Forbes. The registration commenced 
June 1st, at 521 Montgomery street, while the examinations are held at the 
rooms of the Pharmaceutical Society. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Antwerp. — The session held April 23d was 
mainly occupied by the report of Mr. F. Yan Pelt on a memoir by Dr. Donato 
Tommasi, in which the author proposes to employ a solution of acetate of 
sodium as a solvent for iodide of lead; 5 c.c. of a concentrated solution of the 
former salt will dissolve in the cold 1 grm., and when hot 2 grm. of the iodide. 
This solubility may be taken advantage of in detecting insolube adulterations 
in the iodide of lead. For external application the following formula is pro- 
posed : 

R. Concentrated Solution of Sodium Acetate, . 15 c.c. 

Glycerin, ...... 23 c.c. 

Iodide of Lead, ..... 0-40 grm. 

Rose Water, ..... a few drops. 

Mix. 



The General Pharmaceutical Association of Belgium met, April 28th, at 
the free University at Brussels, Mr. De Bauque presiding, and Mr. Vauden 
Heuvel acting as Secretary. The transactions were mainly of local interest. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — At the meeting of May 1st, Mr. Lefort 
read a paper on belladonna, to demonstrate the practicability of preparing 
atropia from the leaves. (An abstract of the paper will be published in our 
oext number.) In the following discussion attention was drawn to the danger- 
ous results which may follow the administration of crystallized atropia, aconitia 
or digitalin, since they are much more powerful than the preparations hereto- 
fore employed in medicine. After hearing a report on the transactions of the 
Academie des Sciences, and on Duquesnel's observations on the sulphate of 
•eserina (physostigmia), the meeting adjourned. 



<£intorial Department* 



The Twentieth Annual Meeting of the American Pharmaceutial Asso- 
ciation. — Elsewhere will be found the public announcement, by President 
Enno Sander, of the next meeting of this Association, which will be held in the 
•city of Cleveland, Ohio, on the third of September next, at 3 o'clock P.M. The 



332 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July 1, 1872. 



pharmacists and druggists of that city have been at work for several months to 
give the Association a hearty reception, and to make this meeting as success- 
ful as the previous ones have been. The beautiful situation of Cleveland on 
the southern shore of lake Erie, and the splendid scenery, through which the 
visiting members will have to pass, in order to reach the place of meeting, will 
doubtless cause many to postpone their usual summer trips until that time, while v 
on the other hand, it is expected that the important matters which will be re- 
ported on aud discussed, will render this meeting as interesting and profitable 
as the last. 

In a short time the permanent Secretary will issue his usual notices to the 
members, in which the arrangements will be mentioned which he may be able 
to make with the different railroads. 

The important feature of the exhibition connected with the meeting has like- 
wise received proper attention, and members and others having objects of in- 
terest to the profession or the trade to exhibit, are requested to apply for space 
to the local Secretary, Mr. Henry 0. Gaylord, at Cleveland, who will forward 
circulars on application, and take charge of the goods on arrival. 



The Third Convention of the Colleges of Pharmacy will be held at Cleve- 
land during the period of the approaching meeting of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association. In 1870, at the Baltimore meeting, the first convention 
was held, which was merely preliminary in its character, although several im- 
portant questions were discussed. An organization was effected at the second 
convention at St. Louis, in 1871, and a committee, consisting of Professors J . 
Faris Moore and J. M. Maisch, was appointed, to propose, with the approval 
of the President, My. E. H. Sargent, a number of questions for the considera- 
tion of the third convention. Three subjects have been agreed upon, and were 
communicated to all the teaching colleges of pharmacy in the United States 
for their information in advance of the meeting. These questions are printed 
on page s28 and 330 of our present number. 



An Act to Prevent the Sale of Drugs or Medicines Designed to Pro- 
cure Criminal Abortion has passed both Houses of the Legislature of Illinois, 
and was signed by the Governor. It prohibits the sale of abortifacient drugy 
or medicines except upon the written prescription of some well-known and re- 
spectable practising physician, the prescriptions to be registered in a book kept 
for that purpose only. Medicines designed for the use of females, together with 
the formulas by which they are prepared, must be submitted, under oath, to five 
physicians in the county in which the medicine is proposed to be sold ; if the 
physicians certify, under oath, that the medicine is not abortifacient, the 
medicine may be sold, if the dealer keeps a copy of the certificate and of the 
formula for the inspection of any person desiring to see the same. The fine for 
every offence is from fifty to five hundred dollars, or imprisonment for one to 
six months, or both. 

The law is evidently intended to reach those murderous concoctions sold as 
" female pills," " golden pills," " periodical mixtures," &c, and inviting to com- 



Am. Jour, Pharm. ) 
July 1,1872. j 



Editorial. 



333 



mit the crime of abortion by statements of their harmlessness, coupled with the 
caution not to take them during pregnancy. If the law is properly enforced, 
it will doubtless save the lives of many an innocent unborn that would have 
been murdered by these vile preparations, which were never found in a respect- 
able pharmacy. 



Collusions between Physicians and Apothecaries are possible in all com- 
munities ; but to the honor of both professions we believe that they are of com- 
paratively rare occurrence, at least in their more vulgar grades, the lowest one 
of which we regard the practice of writing prescriptions in a manner that they 
can be understood only by those apothecaries with whom the little arrangement 
has been made. This is done sometimes in obscure and unintelligible charac- 
ters ; at other times by the employment of more or less barbarous terms, or by 
the agreement upon certain formulas which are prescribed by names, perhaps 
correct enough as far as the preparation is concerned, but giving no clue of all 
the constituents, their nature or proportion. 

We refer to this species of fraud upon two honorable professions and the suf- 
fering public, in consequence of a communication, by Mr. Adolph Mueller, of 
Highland, 111., having been handed to the Editor by the Executive Committee 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association, to whom it was referred by the 
Association at its last meeting in St. Louis, want of time preventing its consid- 
eration. Mr. Mueller sent copies of several prescriptions, one of which reads 
thus : 

R. 01. sol. acid, carb., . . . . gij. 
and then asks the following questions : 

1. Is it not obligatory on the practising physician to use in his prescriptions 
a scientific language, intelligent to any educated pharmacist? 

2. Is it admissible that prescriptions are written in secret characters, so as 
to be understood by those only who are in possession of the corresponding key ? 

3. Does not such a practice endanger the lives of the patients, and would it 
not, if generally adopted, be detrimental to the public welfare ? 

4. Is not, therefore, such a practice to be regarded as "malpractice," unwor- 
thy the professional physician and pharmacist ? 

5. Is there no legal way to prohibit such a practice on the part of unscrupu- 
lous physicians and pharmacists ? 

We leave it to our readers to answer these questions. An honorable man 
will not stoop to such means to increase his profits ; if found out, the offender 
will not be tolerated, we think, in the various medical and pharmaceutical so- 
cieties — the codes of ethics of all containing provisions against such actions. 
We have very little faith in the influence of legal restrictions upon such arti- 
fices, believing that the tactics would be changed so as not to come into direct 
conflict with the law; we expect by far better results from raising the profes- 
sional standard of both professions, and therefore look with confidence towards 
improvement also in this respect, as one of the results which is likely to follow 
the conscientious administration of the pharmaceutical laws enacted in various 
parts of the country. 



334 



Editorial, 



f Am. Jour. Pharhs 
\ July 1, 1872. 



Potash in Corn-cobs. — Under this title, the Boston Journal of Chemistryv 
for June, contains a short paper, which, except by the very careful reader, is- 
readily taken as original, and apparently refers to an analysis of the ashes of 
corncobs raised at Lakeside farm. It is. however, merely an abstract of the 
essay of Mr. Herbert Hazard, published on page 152 of our April number, and 
although the last half is copied verbatim from it, no credit is given either to 
the author or to our Journal. 

Petroleum-benzine. — In copying our paper on " The Use of Petroleum- 
benzine in Making Oleo-Resins,"* the Editor of the Pharmaceutical Journal 
and Transactions says in a foot note : 

"The application of the term benzine to this volatile spirit is objectionable? 
inasmuch as it is liable to cause misunderstanding. It is the more volatile por- 
tion of petroleum or paraffin oil, and would be better designated petroleum or 
paraffin naphtha." 

As far as America is concerned, the adoption of this suggestion would be 
productive of confusion, since here the term petroleum naphtha is used to desig- 
nate a still lighter and more volatile liquid than the one to which the name of 
benzine is applied ; the former term (naphtha) is probably nearly identical witia 
what in Germany is now called petroleum-ether. The adoption of scientific, 
names for the various products of the distillation of petroleum, will be impos- 
sible as long as we are unable to obtain them in a state of purity, it being well 
known that all these liquids, as now met with, consist of mixtures of isomeric 
or polymeric hydrocarbons, differing in specific gravity and volatility. The 
adoption in the United States of the word benzine has been explained by the 
" Scientific American," in a paper which was copied into the " Chemical News 
for May 17th, and with the prefix petroleum — to indicate its difference frorc& 
the true benzine or benzole — we believe it to be as good and definite a term as 
petroleum naphtha or petroleum ether ; or rather all these terms are more or 
less indefinite, since they are not applied to definite mixtures in definite propor- 
tions of the hydrocarbons, but rather to mixtures of lighter and heavier one©* 
having a certain density. 

A Reliable Test for Creasote, which is at the same time easy of applies*,- 
tion, has been a desideratum for many years. We publish in the present num- 
ber Mr. Morson's recently proposed test to distinguish creasote from carbolk- 
acid by means of glycerin, in which the former is said to be insoluble, if pure. 
On examining a number of samples, one of which was known to be Merck's, we 
found them all miscible with an equal bulk of glycerin to a transparent home*- 
geneous liquid, and hence we are forced to conclude either that all these sam- 
ples contain more or less carbolic acid, or that Mr. Morson's testis based! 
upon an erroneous observation, or that different creasotes differ in their \he- 
havior to glycerin. The latter view seems the most probable, since the diffi- 
culties encountered in isolating and separating the various constituents of crea^ 
sote from each other are very considerable. Judging merely from the solvent 
powers of glycerin, we should have expected that it would dissolve a substance 
which, like creasote, is so readily soluble in alcohol and also soluble In water. 

* American Journal of Pharmacy, May, 1872. 



AM j£i y£m2? M '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 335 

We shall wait with interest for further experiments with creasote of undoubted 
origin. 

In a communication to the Pharm. Jour, and Trans., of June 15th, Profes- 
sor Fluckiger states that nearly anhydrous glycerin dissolves both carbolic acid 
and creasote to a transparent liquid, which, on the addition of water, remains 
clear with the carbolic acid, but becomes turbid if it contains creasote. Mr. 
Morson's observation, therefore, probably refers to a diluted glycerin. 



Syrup of Phosphates of Iron Quinia and Strychnia. — A correspondent, 
who omitted to give his address, so that we could not communicate with him 
by letter, will find the original formula for this preparation in the " American 
Journal of Pharmacy," 1867, page 177, some remarks thereon on page 386 of 
the same volume, and a paper containing a modified formula on page 322 of 
the volume for 1868. 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Constitution. By-Laws, Articles of Incorporation and Proceedings of the Third 
Annual Meeting of the California Pharmaceutical Society, held at San Fran- 
cisco, October. 1876 ; also the Roll of Members. San Francisco : printed by 
Joseph Winterburn & Co. 1872. 8vo, 36 pages. 

The pamphlet before us gives evidence that the pharmacists residing on the 
coast of the Pacific Ocean mean to take part in developing scientific pharmacy 
and to elevate our profession to that position which it ought to occupy. The 
legal incorporation of the Society ; the part it has taken in order to secure the 
passage of the act regulating the practice of pharmacy in San Francisco ; the 
minutes of the third annual meeting; the papers then read, although but two 
in number; and the increased number of names upon the roll of members of 
the Society, are so many indications of the energy and professional spirit dis- 
played. 

We are informed that, although the cod fisheries on the Pacific coast have 
been in successful operation for the past six or seven years, no single attempt 
of organized effort has been made towards developing the production of cod- 
liver oil. 

Mr. Wenzell has succeeded in obtaining the alkaloids of ergot, discovered 
by him,* as a white flocculent precipitate from their alcoholic solution by means 
of anhydrous ether; the precipitate, however, is very deliquescent, and rapidly 
turns brown on exposure to air. 

Mr. Calvert's paper is an able argument in favor of reducing the fluid ex- 
tracts to one-half of their present pharmacopoeia strength, a movement, how- 
ever, for which we have no sympathy. 

The pharmaceutical law appears to be a good one, based upon that proposed 
last winter for New York by the pharmacists of that city. It is certainly cal- 
culated, if properly enforced, to meet with the approbation of conscientious 
pharmacists and protect the interests of the public. 



*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1804, p. 193—202. 



336 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { AM juiy™;m£ RM ' 

Geo. P Rowell $ Co.'s American Newspaper Directory. Containing accurate 
lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and 
Territories, and the Dominion of Canada and British Colonies of North 
America ; together with a Description of the Towns and Cities in which they 
are published. New York : Geo. P. Rowell & Co., Publishers and News- 
paper Advertising Agents. 1872. Large 8vo, 680 pages. 

A handsomely gotten up and well arranged volume, this directory will prove 
of particular value to all advertisers and others seeking information about the 
numerous periodicals published on this continent, the list of which appears to 
be pretty complete and reliable, although we miss a few, among them the " Chi- 
cago Pharmacist/' and the " American Journal of Science and Arts," pub- 
lished at New Haven. 

There are 6432 periodicals published in the United States, 87 in the Territo- 
ries, 374 in the Dominion of Canada, and 29 in the other British North Ameri- 
can Colonies. The largest number is published in New York (951), then fol- 
lows Pennsylvania (614), Illinois (518), Ohio (439), Iowa (308), Missouri (300), 
Massachusetts (292), Indiana (290), Michigan (236), Wisconsin (208), &c. 

The list of periodicals is arranged alphabetically, by states and towns, and 
gives, besides the names, the days of issue, general character, form, size, sub- 
scription price, date of establishment, editors and publishers' names, circulation, 
&c. This is followed by a list of towns and cities in which periodicals are 
published, giving the location, population, industry, &c, then by a list of peri- 
odicals inserting advertisements, publishing over 5000 copies ; lists of papers 
devoted to religion, agriculture, medicine, education, amusement, secret socie- 
ties, commerce and finance, insurance, real estate, science and mechanics, law, 
sporting, music, and woman's suffrage. The papers published wholly or in part 
in other than the English language conclude these lists, which occupy one-half 
of the volume, while the other half contains advertisements and the index in 
two parts. 



Second Cincinnati Industrial Exposition, 1871. 8vo, pp. 285. 

Cincinnati Industrial Exposition of Manufactures, Products and the Arts. 
Rides and Regulations and Premium List for the Third Exposition, 1872. 
Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co., Printers. 8vo, 56 pages. 

The former of these handsome volumes, which contains the usual reports of 
articles entered for competition, on premiums awarded, &c, is embellished with 
a plan of the floor room of the last fair, a view of the building in which the 
exposition was held, a facsimile of the medals awarded, and a handsome steel 
engraving of the Davidson Fountain erected at Cincinnati last fall. 

The contents of the other volume, to which plans of the space are added 
which will be available for the next exposition, is expressed in the title. With 
a commendable enterprise, the exhibiting space has been increased to seven 
acres, which has been divided into 16 grand departments, each of which is again 
subdivided. 

The third exposition will be open from September 4th to October 5th. Any 
information desired in regard to it may be obtained on application to W. W. 
Taylor, Secretary of the Cincinnati Industrial Exposition. 



r 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



AUGUST, 18 7 2. 



ON MONOBROMATED CAMPHOR. 
By John M. Maisch. 

Monobromated camphor was discovered by Th. Swarts in 1861,* 
who obtained it by heating Laurent's bibromide of camphor (C^H^ 
2 Br 2 ), in a sealed tube, to 100° C. After several hours, the color 
of bromine disappears, hydrobromic acid is formed, and a brownish 
oil, which gradually becomes crystalline, and contains the new com- 
pound. If bromine and camphor, in the proper proportions, are 
heated, in a sealed tube, for three hours, in the water-bath, the same 
compounds are formed. The crystalline mass is washed with water, 
recrystallized from alcohol after treatment with animal charcoal, 
washed with an alcoholic solution of potassa, to free it from hydro- 
bromic acid, then with much water, and finally recrystallized from a 
mixture of alcohol and ether. 

After the publication of Professor Deneffe's accountf of the medi- 
cinal properties of this compound, I attempted to prepare it, at the 
request of Professor Wm. A. Hammond, of New York, and followed 
at first the above process, not being aware at the time of the subse- 
quent researches of W. H. Perkin, to which I shall presently refer. 

Laurent prepared bibromide of camphor by dissolving camphor in 
cold bromine, and freeing the crystals, which form after some time, 
by rapid expression between bibulous paper. Gerhard states that 
these crystals decompose on the application of heat into bromine and 

* L'Institut, 1862-63. Kopp & Will's Jahresbericht. 1862, 462. 

f Amer. Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, 84. 

99 



338 



On Monobromated Camphor. 



J Am. Jour. Phaem. 
\ August!, 1872. 



camphor, which, however, has been refuted by Perkin. I can confirm 
this observation of the latter, and have also satisfied myself that Lau- 
rent's statement, that camphor crystallizes unaltered from its warm 
solution in bromine, is incorrect, as the copious evolution of hydro- 
bromic acid already proves. 

Monobromated camphor is formed according to the following equa- 
tion : C 20 H 16 O 2 +2Br=C 20 H 15 BrO 2 +RBr. If prepared in a closed 
tube, it is evident that at all stages of the process the pressure must 
be very considerable, at first in consequence of the volatile nature of 
both camphor and bromine, and subsequently on account of the pres- 
ence of the gaseous hydrobromic acid. When operating on a small 
scale, with suitable precautions, there was little difficulty in obtaining 
the compound. But when using several ounces of bromine at once, 
the tubes were usually shattered, and it became evident that this pro- 
cess could not be used with advantage on a large scale. The obser- 
vation that on slightly heating the mixed camphor and bromine, the 
heat increases after the withdrawal of the fire, and the vessel con- 
tains considerable quantities of hydrobromic acid, suggested the idea 
that the camphor might be bromated without using closed tubes, simply 
by digesting the bibromide at an elevated temperature, or by allowing 
bromine to act upon camphor at a higher temperature, with the pre- 
caution to return into the retort any bromine and bromide of cam- 
phor which might be volatilized, while the disengaged hydrobromic 
acid might be absorbed by a solution of an alkali. 

The neck of the retort was raised and connected with a reversed 
Liebig's condenser, which being found unnecessary, was afterwards sub- 
stituted by a glass tube. If the reaction was not allowed to become 
too violent in the beginning, no bromine volatilized, but a yellowish- 
brown substance condensed in the neck, flowing back into the retort, 
like oil ; gradually this became lighter in color, and golden-yellow 
needles were observed in the upper part and neck of the retort after 
cooling. Whether these needles are a bromide of camphor or a hy- 
drobromate of monobromated camphor, has not been determined. 

The heat was raised after the first reaction was over to a tempera- 
ture varying in the different experiments between 100° and 132° C. 
(212 and 270° F.) The higher temperatures were found better 
adapted for rapidly generating the monobromated camphor ; but in 
all cases a considerable quantity of an oily compound was found in 
the mother liquor from which the monobromated camphor had crys- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Aug 1, 1872. / 



On Monobromated Camphor. 



339 



tallized. This oil contained more or less of the latter compound in 
solution, which was obtained by reducing it to a low temperature. 
The mother liquors containing the oil, in consequence of the frequent 
application of heat, turned black and left after the evaporation of the 
menstruum a black oil, which in the course of several weeks became 
granular ; the oil still present in the magma could not be removed bj 
different solvents which would also dissolve the crystallized granules. 
On being expressed between bibulous paper a grey solid mass was left 
behind, which was permanent in a temperature of 32° C. (90° F.), 
but became soft and oily when exposed to the direct heat of the sun, 
which was above 38° C. (100° F.) This compound is not monobro- 
mated camphor ; its composition has not yet been investigated. 

Attempts to separate the whole of the monobromated camphor from 
this oily substance by sublimation were not successful ; the whole 
mass, after a slight white sublimate had been obtained, near 132° C. 
(270° F.), turned black, and after cooling sometimes did not separate 
any crystals, but remained liquid and oily, while at other times dark 
blackish-grey crystals were obtained. 

It was noticed that the mother liquors of the first crystallizations 
of monobromated camphor contained considerable hydrobromic acid, 
which also adhered to the crystals. The endeavor to remove it by wash- 
ing with hot water was not entirely successful, and necessitated the 
drying of the solid portion previous to recrystallization from alcoholic 
solvents. To avoid these difficulties the removal of the acid by means 
of a weak alkali (carbonate of lime) suggested itself, and, instead of 
alcohol, petroleum benzine was experimented with as a suitable men- 
struum for recrystallization. 

The first crystallizations, whether obtained from alcohol or from 
petroleum benzine, contained notable quantities of the oily matter 
mentioned above, in consequence of which bromine was liberated on 
exposure to the light. The greatest portion of this oil could be re- 
moved by pressure between bibulous paper, and the remainder by 
subsequent recrystallization ; but the loss of monobromated camphor 
was considerable, owing to its being partly absorbed by the paper 
with the oil, and to remain to some extent in the mother liquor 
with that portion of the oil not absorbed by the paper. Gasoline or 
petroleum naphtha was found to be a good solvent for this oil, and to 
dissolve at the same time much less of the monobromated camphor 
than alcohol, ether or petroleum benzine. Accordingly, when the 



340 



On Monobromated Camphor. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm, 
\ Aug. 1, 1872. 



crystals as first formed have been drained in a funnel, they may be 
obtained nearly pure simply by washing them with gasoline, and re- 
quire then one crystallization from alcohol or petroleum benzine, to 
be entirely pure and unaltered in the light. The monobromated 
camphor dissolved by the gasoline, may be recovered by evaporating 
most of the solvent spontaneously, washing the crystals with a little 
gasoline and recrystallizing. The remaining mother liquors, if not 
used as solvents in subsequent operations, may be worked up with the 
oil left by the first crystallization. 

While experimenting with bromide of camphor, W. EL Perkin,* in 
1865, obtained monobromated camphor by treating the oily matter 
obtained from the action of bromine and camphor with hot solution 
of potassa, and subsequently heating the product in a retort, collect- 
ing that portion of the distillate separately, which comes over above 
364° C. (508° F.) 

Th. Swarts,f however, prefers the process suggested by him to that 
of Perkin, regarding the former as more satisfactory ; he also states 
that when moist monobromated camphor is distilled, or it is left in 
contact with hot water, bromine and hydrobromic acid are evolved, 
and camphor free from bromine is separated. The regeneration of 
camphor under these circumstances has never been observed by me ; 
onlthe contrary, when the monobromated compound is boiled in a re- 
tort with water, a white crystalline sublimate resembling snow-flakes 
is slowly formed in the neck of the retort, and these crystals contain 
bromine, and have all the behavior of monobromated camphor. 

Perkin observed that monobromated camphor, treated with alco- 
holic ammonia in a sealed tube, at 180° C. (356° F.), undergoes a 
slight decomposition, with the formation of an organic base and of 
ammonium-bromide. Fearing that the prolonged action of hot pot- 
assa solution upon the oil which already contains monobromated cam- 
phor might induce its decomposition, and my time not permitting to 
investigate it, I had resort to carbonate of lime (white marble), which, 
as previously observed, was found to answer the purpose well, as far 
as the removal of hydrobromic acid was concerned. On heating the 
remaining oily matter gradually, it was found to turn black when 
nearing 150° C. (300° F.), the color became darker as the tem- 

* Journal of the Chemical Society, new series, iii, 92; Annalen d. Chem. a. 
Pharm. Suppl. iv, 124, and Will's Jahresbericht, 1865, 570. 
f L'Institut, 1866, 287. Will's Jahresbericht, 1866, 622. 



Am. Joub. Pharm. 1 
Aug. 1, 1872. J 



On Monobromated Camphor. 



341 



perature rose, and a little oil distilled over, which solidified after a 
while and turned red from the liberation of some bromine. Mean- 
while the flake-like sublimate in the neck of the retort increased con- 
siderably, and the hot liquid boiled actively between 260 and 261° C. 
(500 and 502° F.), disengaging considerable quantities of hydrobro- 
mic acid, and separating also so much charcoal that the retort cracked. 
8 ounces of bromine had been used in this experiment, the black resi- 
due of which, when dissolved in alcohol and filtered, yielded white 
crystals, requiring to be recrystallized once, while the mother liquor 
had a strong acid reaction, due to free hydrobromic acid. 

Although this experiment was not very favorable for Perkin's pro- 
cess, in its application to the preparation of this compound on a large 
scale, it suggested a method of utilizing the oily residue which had 
accumulated from the mother liquors of the first crystallization of 
monobromated camphor prepared at a lower temperature. The grey 
granular mass, left by expressing a portion of the solidified oil, as 
stated above, was slowly heated to 260° C. (500° F.), and after the 
disengagement of most of the hydrobromic acid, was dissolved in 
petroleum benzine, treated with marble and filtered, when monobro- 
mated camphor crystallized. The oily residue, containing some of the 
granular compound, was next treated in the same way, with a similar 
result. In both cases some of the oily mass was left in the mother 
liquor, which may undoubtedly be utilized in a subsequent operation. 

To recapitulate the results of these experiments, before giving the 
process which in my experience is best adapted to obtain monobro- 
mated camphor on a more extensive scale for medicinal purposes, it 
may be stated that the process is divided into three distinct opera- 
tions : 1, the combination of bromine with camphor (bibromide of 
camphor), which takes place at the ordinary or slightly elevated tem- 
perature, particularly in the presence of a trace of alcohol ; 2, the 
formation of the substitution compound (monobromated camphor), 
which may be effected at a temperature of 100° C. (212° F.), or in a 
much shorter time at 132° C. (270° F.) ; and 3, the utilization of the 
oily residue, the greatest part of which is converted into the substitu- 
tion compound at 260° C. (500° F.) The product of the second part 
is at once white, requiring, if decomposition has been avoided, no fil- 
tration, but simply recrystallization. The use of the cheap petro- 
leum benzine and naphtha, in preference to alcohol and ether, will 
also commend itself for the sake of economy. The yield is probably 



342 



On Monobromated Camphor. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug. 1, 1872. 



larger than by Perkin's process, and the entire absence of all danger 
by the bursting of apparatus recommends this method as more prac- 
tical than that of Swarts. Although more time is required for finish- 
ing the process completely, the different reactions will not require 
much supervision, except the careful attention to the temperatures. 

The combining weight of camphor C 20 H 16 2 is 152 ; that of 2 Br 
=160; equal weights of the two substances, therefore, give a slight 
excess of camphor. I have found it advisable to use about one-twelfth 
more of camphor, the excess of which remains in the mother liquor, 
and very likely serves to prevent the formation of bibromated cam- 
phor (C 20 H 14 Br 2 2 ,) if the oily residue previous to its final treatment 
has liberated bromine on exposure to the light. A greater increase 
of camphor is unnecessary, since even in the proportion of two to one 
bromine, the formation of the oily compound and the liberation of 
bromine on subsequent exposure is not prevented, while the difficulty 
to obtain the substitution compound free from camphor is considerably 
increased. 

In regard to the quantity that may be conveniently worked up at a 
time, the manipulation described below renders it possible to use 12 
oz. of bromine in a retort of the capacity of a quart, in which even 14 
oz. have been operated upon by me at once. 

Regarding the necessary apparatus, I have found the following most 
serviceable, and well adapted for the purpose. 

A quart retort is placed in such a position that, the neck being suf- 
ficiently raised, any liquid condensing therein may readily flow back 
into the retort. To the neck is joined a glass tube, eighteen inches 
to two feet in length, bent downwards at the farther end, and by 
means of India rubber and glass tubing connected with a bottle of 
about 8 oz. or more capacity ; the glass tube is cut off immediately 
beneath the cork, while another glass tube, running nearly to the bot- 
tom of the bottle, is bent twice at right angles, and dips with the other 
end into an open bottle containing about 8 oz. of water and an alkali 
for the absorption of the hydrobromic acid. The intervenient bottle, 
which is empty, serves merely as a receptacle for the bromide solution, 
which is drawn over on the cooling of the contents of the retort, and 
pressed back again into the last bottle on the reapplication of heat; 
the liquid is thereby prevented from running into the retort, but the 
bottle may be replaced by a Welter's safety-tube inserted into the 
tubulure. Since, theoretically, one half of the bromine employed is 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Aug. 1, 1872. | 



On Monobromated Camphor. 



343 



converted into hydrobromic acid, its saving is a matter of some im- 
portance ; it may be collected in water, or combined with any salifia- 
ble base or its carbonate. I have found the employment of white 
marble very convenient ; the resulting solution of bromide of calcium 
is nearly pure ; traces of iron present are removed by hydrosulphate 
of ammonia, after which the solution will, on evaporation, yield the 
pure salt. 

The retort is charged with 13 oz. of camphor broken into pieces of 
•convenient size, with which the neck is completely filled, while the 
balance is given into the retort. For this quantity, 12 oz. of bromine 
are used, which is introduced in four or five portions in quantities 
ranging from 2 to 4 oz. at a time, the larger quantity being used in 
the beginning, the smaller afterwards. If a funnel tube is used for 
this purpose, and the last drops of the bromine are washed down with 
a small quantity of alcohol, (about J drachm,) the reaction usually 
commences in from 15 to 20 minutes, or it may be brought on by the 
careful application of heat, which should be at once withdrawn as soon 
as gas bubbles commence to rise in the retort ; the reaction will then 
proceed without any further attention, the heat increases, some bro- 
mine and bromine compounds volatilize, the latter being mostly con- 
densed in the upper part of the retort, while the former condenses in 
the neck, forming with the camphor an oily liquid which returns to 
the retort. The next addition of the bromine should not be made un- 
til the contents of the retort have cooled down almost or quite to the 
ordinary temperature ; and this precaution should particularly be 
observed, if, perhaps in consequence of too violent reaction, all the 
camphor has run into the retort. The contents of the latter will 
usually solidify when cooling, after such a reaction ; but sometimes 
they remain quite fluid, and congeal on the subsequent addition of the 
requisite bromine. If the bromine is added in too large quantities, the 
heat will become so high, and the reaction so violent, that a large 
quantity of bromine may distil over uncondensed ; if added in frac- 
tions, with the precautions stated, the temperature rises generally to 
from 60 to 65° C, (140 to 150° F.,) with at first slow, but gradually 
brisk extrication of hydrobromic acid gas. It follows from the latter 
phenomenon, that the mass must contain some monobromated cam- 
phor, or perhaps combinations of it with hydrobromic acid and 
bromine. 

Up to this stage the tubulure of the retort may be kept closed with 



344 On Monobromated Camphor. { k \lTS™' 

the glass stopper ; now a thermometer is inserted, and the retort 
slowly heated ; a rapid, but regular evolution of hydrobromic acid 
gas takes place as the temperature increases ; the golden yellow nee- 
dles, mostly condensed in the neck, fuse and run back, and when the 
temperature has gradually reached about 120° C, (248° F.,) the 
liquid boils somewhat and the evolution of gas slackens. From and 
above 90° C, (194° F.,) the deep red color of the liquid becomes 
much lighter, and if the heat is raised to about 132° C, (270° F.,) 
the color will not deepen. At a somewhat higher temperature, par- 
ticularly when nearing 150° C, (302° F.,) the liquid soon becomes 
darker and finally black. 

When the temperature has reached 132° C. — which should require 
not less than three hours — the fire is withdrawn and the retort allowed 
to cool to about 50 or 55° C, (120 to 130° F.); the contents are dis- 
solved in 12 oz. of petroleum benzine, and the solution is poured into 
a beaker glass containing some warm water and pieces of marble to 
neutralize the free acid still present. While cooling, the benzine so- 
lution is occasionally stirred to disturb the crystallization. On the fol- 
lowing morning, the liquid matter is poured off, the benzine mother- 
liquor separated from the aqueous solution of bromide of calcium, and 
the crystals drained upon a funnel, the neck of which is loosely stopped 
with some cotton. Petroleum naphtha or gasoline is poured upon them 
until they change but little in color when exposed to the direct sun- 
light. When dry the crystals will weigh about twelve ounces; for 
complete purification they require to be recrystallized from alcohol or 
petroleum benzine. 

More crystals may be obtained by evaporating the benzine mother- 
liquor to one-half and washing them first with the naphtha solution and 
then with some fresh naphtha. The mother-liquor, not yielding suf- 
ficiently pure crystals, is evaporated, heated in a retort to 260° C, 
(500° F.,) when it boils again, evolving hydrobromic acid. When the 
evolution of the latter slackens, the black mass, after cooling suffi- 
ciently, is taken up with benzine, the solution treated, as before, with 
warm water and an alkali (marble) and set aside to crystallize ; the 
black crystals are redissolved in alcohol or benzine, the solution fil- 
tered and crystallized. The crystals require to be washed with petro- 
leum naphtha, and on recrystallization are obtained pure. The remain- 
ing mother-liquors which on concentration do not yield any crystals, 
are evaporated, and the oily matter reserved for a subsequent ope- 
ration. 



A m. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1872. 5 



On Monobromated Camphor. 



345 



Monobromated camphor crystallizes from alcohol in thin white or 
colorless prisms or needles ; from petroleum benzine, it may be obtained 
in long, flat prisms, which are perfectly transparent and hard, -and as- 
sume the appearance of shining scales when crystallizing rapidly 
from a very concentrated solution. It is entirely insoluble in water, 
but readily and freely soluble in alcohol, ether, and in less than its 
own weight in hot petroleum benzine, from which solution the greater 
portion crystallizes on cooling. It is permanent in the air and is 
not affected by the direct sunlight. Boiled with water it evapo- 
rates very slowly, condensing in the neck of the retort in fine white 
interlaced needles. Its odor is somewhat camphoraceous, not 
very strong, but persistent, and reminding of Borneo camphor ; 
the taste likewise reminds of camphor, and is terebinthinate and 
scarcely bitter. It fuses at about 67° C, (170° F.,) and boils 
with partial decomposition at 274° C, (525° F.) According to 
Swarts, it forms with hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids, oily com- 
pounds, crystallizing after having been warmed for some time, in soft 
scales. This is very probably the oil-like matter remaining in the 
first mother-liquor, and requiring for its decomposition a temperature 
of 260° C, (500° F.) But even then the decomposition is not com- 
plete, and Perkin found that the product obtained by his process at 
274° C, required to be freed from oil by pressing between bibulous 
paper. Long continued application of heat, (260° C.,) and treatment 
with potassa may perhaps effect it. Its decomposition by the action 
of light and air may probably be expressed thus : C^H^BrO.,, HBr= 
2Br + C M H 16 2 . 

When boiled with a solution of nitrate of silver in nitric acid, mo- 
nobromated camphor is decomposed and bromide of silver precipitated. 
From this the amount of bromine was calculated, and the following 
results obtained. 



THEORY. 






FOUND. 










I. 


II. 


III. 


20 C 


120 


51.95 








15 H 


15 


6.49 








Br 


80 


34.63 


34.59 


34.57 


34.64 


2 O 


16 


6.93 










231 


100.00 









No. I was monobromated camphor crystalized from petroleum ben- 



346 



Notes on Pepsin, Bismuth, etc. 



{ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I Aug. 1, 1872. 



zine ; II, crystallized from alcohol, and, III, obtained by heating the 
oily compound of the first mother-liquor to 260° C. and crystallizing 
from petroleum benzine. 



NOTES ON PEPSIN, BISMUTH, AND ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND 

BISMUTH. 
By E. Soheffer. 

Several facts which I published in my essay (Am. Jour. Phar., Feb., 
1872), impressed on me the impossibility of a preparation such as 
elixir pepsin, bismuth, (and strychnine.) I do not want to speak 
again about the presence of alcohol in a solution containing pepsin, 
as I have repeatedly given the results of my experiments, which 
prove beyond doubt that pepsin and alcohol, particularly when the 
latter amounts to a certain percentage, are incompatible. 

The main objection I intended to bring against such an elixir, pre- 
pared with ammonio-citrate of bismuth in a neutral or alkaline solu- 
tion, is the neutral or slightly alkaline state. My experiments prove 
clearly that pepsin, in neutral solution, does not keep, and that in 
alkaline solution it loses its digestive properties. In how minute 
quantities the presence of an alkali destroys the digestive properties 
of pepsin, will be shown by the following experiments, quite recently 
made. 

Having once taken, instead of distilled water, of our well water — 
which contains carbonate of lime and magnesia — to swell the pepsin, 
before the acid wa3 added, I was astonished to find that the pepsin 
did not act on albumen. This caused me to repeat the experiment 
simultaneously with others for control. 

A. Pepsin swelled in distilled water ; the acid (6 drops of muriatic 
acid to the fluid ounce) added afterwards. 

B. Pepsin swelled in well-water, and 6 drops of acid added to 1 
oz. after 2 hours. 

C. Pepsin swelled in distilled water, which was before shaken with 
carbonate of magnesia, for two days, and then filtered ; 6 drops of 
acid added after two hours. 

D. Pepsin dissolved in acidulated well water. 

Of these four experiments each contained the same amount of acid, 
the same amount of pepsin, and to each vial the same amount of co- 
agulated albumen was given. After having been exposed to a tem- 
perature of 105° Eahr. for six hours, in A and D all the albumen 



^g^.gSS"*"} Notes on Pepsin, Bismuth, etc. 347 

-was dissolved, while in B and C the albumen did not appear to have 
been acted upon. 

Therefore, in C, the small quantity of magnesia which the distilled 
water had dissolved, and with which quantity the pepsin had been in 
contact before the acid was added, was sufficient to modify the pepsin 
and destroy its digestive action on fresh coagulated albumen. In B, 
the carbonates of the well water had caused the same result. In D, 
the carbonates were destroyed by the addition of acid before the pep- 
sin was added, and therefore the albumen was easily dissolved. Such 
proofs, I think, must necessarily convince the most skeptic. 

The physician might wish for a combination of pepsin and bismuth 
in the liquid state, but another question is, can such a combination 
be made, or can it exist ? Those that manufactured the elixir of pep- 
sin and bismuth (and strychnine), were satisfied to know that they 
used pepsin in its preparation, but whether it was in it or in an active 
form, never troubled them, as they never tested for it. They could 
conscientiously put their label on the bottle, and maintain that they 
used pepsin in its preparation. The physician prescribed it in good 
faith, because he had confidence in the firm who made it, and in the 
name by which the preparation was designated. 

Having tested several elixirs of pepsin and bismuth that I could 
get hold of, I found that even after the addition of hydrochloric acid 
not the least quantity of albumen was dissolved. 

Thinking that an acidulated bismuth solution might, in combination 
with pepsin, prove more efficacious containing the pepsin in its active 
form, my first aim was to find a bismuth salt for that purpose. 

Crystallized ternitrate of bismuth dissolves in glycerin, which solu- 
tion can be diluted with a considerable quantity of water before the 
subnitrate is precipitated. This salt I dropped from the list, as the 
solution is too acid and tastes too styptic. 

Freshly precipitated subnitrate of bismuth, prepared with 1 part of 
crystallized ternitrate with 40 parts of water was put on a filter, and 
when entirely drained added to glycerin, in which it dissolves, form- 
ing a clear solution, but on the addition of water the clear solution 
becomes milky after some time. 

I now tried the action of acids on ammonio-citrate of bismuth. 
For that purpose I made two solutions of ammonio-citrate of bismuth 
of the same strength, with the difference that the one solution was 
made with water alone, and the other with a mixture of glycerin and 



348 Glycerole of Assdfcetida. {^AuTi^" 

water. To these solutions were now added different acids, and the 
following results obtained : Mineral acids gave in both solutions im- 
mediately a precipitate. By the addition of organic acids, such as 
acetic, lactic and citric, both solutions kept clear, but after a lapse of 
several hours the pure water solutions became milky, and by longer 
standing deposited a white precipitate, while in the solutions contain- 
ing glycerin, an opalescence did not show itself before 24 hours. 

Judging that a small quantity of organic acid, sufficient to dissolve 
the pepsin, would not give even an opalescence in a solution of am- 
monio-citrate of bismuth containing glycerin, I thought that a gly- 
cerole could be made containing pepsin as well as bismuth, etc. ; but 
by mixing the pepsin solution with the solution of the bismuth salt, 
the pepsin was precipitated in the same characteristic form as it is; 
precipitated from its solutions by chloride of sodium. 

Having at first intended to make the glycerole contain in the pint 
128 grains ammonio-citrate of bismuth, 256 grains of saccharated 
pepsin (respectively 1 and 2 grains to the fluid-drachm), 1 fluid-drachm 
of lactic acid, 8 fluid-ounces glycerin, and 8 ounces of water, I thought 
that by making it only half as strong in bismuth and pepsin it might 
answer, but the pepsin was in this instance also precipitated. The 
ingredients were put together in four different ways, but in all with 
the same result. 

This negative result proves clearly that the pepsin is precipitated 
from its solution by the bismuth salt, and as I have proven in my 
essay (Feb., 1872), that a watery solution of pepsin is precipitated 
by chloride of sodium in the same way as an acidulated one, we must 
infer'that the bismuth salt acts the same, and that therefore the elixir 
of pepsin and bismuth, as it was made, cannot contain any pepsin. 

Abstracting, therefore, from the alcohol, and not speaking of the 
neutral or alkaline solution, the elixir of pepsin and bismuth is an in- 
congruity, and when patients have derived any benefit from it, it was 
from the bismuth it contains and the stimulating effect of the spirits, 
but surely not from the pepsin, as it does not contain any pepsin. 

Louisville, Ky., July 1st, 1872. 



GLYCEROLE OF ASSAF(ETIDA. 
By Alonzo Robbins. 
B. Assafcetida, . . . . . gij. 

Glycerin, q. s., ft., f . Jviii. 

Select the best assafcetida and cut it quite fine ; put it into an 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Aug. 1, 1872. J 



Sa?igui?iaria Canadensis, etc. 



349 



eight-ounce bottle, and add five fluid-ounces of glycerin ; cork well 
and suspend in a can of water, which place on the stove where the 
heat will be very moderate ; leave it remain so a day or two, shaking 
the bottle frequently ; then strain through a coarse cloth, and re- 
turn the residue to the bottle with three fluid-ounces of glycerin ; let 
stand as before ; and then strain into that first obtained, and make up 
to 8 fluid-ounces by adding glycerin. 

One fluid-drachm of this added to seven drachms of water will make 
milk of assafoetida containing the proper quantity of the drug. 

The formula, as given above, 1 have made use of a number of times 
during the last ten years, and have found it to furnish at all times a 
good article of milk of assafoetida. I have also used glycerin with 
gum ammoniac, and while the solution was not as perfect as that of 
assafoetida, I have found, upon examination, that the amount of am- 
moniac taken up is about the same as when the mistura ammoniaci is 
made by the officinal formula. With myrrh I did not succeed well, 
but still obtained a passable preparation which I have no doubt could 
be, by continued experiment, much improved. 



ON SOME CONSTITUENTS OF THE RHIZOME OF SANGUINARIA 

CANADENSIS. 
By Ernest Peirpoint. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 
The author reviews the various chemical examinations by Dana, 
Schiel, Riegel, Wayne, Gibb and Newbold, and then relates his ob- 
servations. 

In preparing sanguinarina, the powdered root was digested in water 
strongly acidulated with muriatic acid, the liquid expressed, filtered and 
precipitated with aqua ammonia in excess. The precipitate, which was 
of a brownish-purple color, was collected on a filter. The paper on which 
the precipitate was deposited was torn into small pieces, and digested 
with alcohol till it would take up no more of the substance. The ob- 
ject of digesting with alcohol instead of at once treating with ether, 
is to save ether, which is absorbed by the paper and magma. The 
alcoholic solution was then evaporated to dryness, and a small quan- 
tity of ammonia was added (to neutralize any acid absorbed from 
fumes), which changed it from a deep blood-red to a light fawn color. 
This residue was then repeatedly shaken with ether, till a small por- 
tion of the solvent evaporated on platinum foil left no residue, and 



350 Sanguinaria Canadensis, etc. { A Aug.™," m2 RM * 

was not reddened by dilute sulphuric acid. During the agitation of 
the residue with ether, there was noticed a marked fluorescence, 
similar to that of acid solutions of quinia, which was also observed 
in alcoholic solutions, but not to the same degree as in the former. 
Having never read of this, I thought it worthy of mention. The 
ethereal solutions were then mixed, and precipitated with a mixture 
of sulphuric acid and ether. The precipitate was dissolved in hot 
alcohol, and left to evaporate spontaneously. 

The clear filtrate obtained after precipitating the sanguinarina by 
ammonia was acidulated and tested for an alkaloid by iodohydrargy- 
rate of potassium, which caused a light brown precipitate. This was 
collected on a filter and washed well with water. The filter was then 
torn up as before, and digested in a concentrated solution of carbonate 
of soda for 24 hours, and finally evaporated to dryness. The residue 
was treated with alcohol (sp. gr. *835) till it would take up no more. 
The alcoholic solution was then evaporated to dryness. 

Supposing that the alkaloid, which had caused the precipitate with 
the iodohydrargyrate, might be a small quantity of sanguinarina dis- 
solved by the excess of ammonia employed, some of the acidulated 
watery infusion was precipitated by ammonia, leaving it in excess. 
The liquid was allowed to stand for a day in the test tube, and then 
filtered. A small portion evaporated on platinum foil left a slight 
residue, but was not reddened by dilute sulphuric acid. When the 
dilute acid was added in excess to the liquid in the test tube, it gave 
no red color, as would result with a solution of sanguinarina. After 
evaporating the alcoholic solution the residue was placed in. a flask, 
and agitated with ether to remove any sanguinarina that might be 
present. When the ethereal liquid was evaporated on platinum foil,, 
it left no residue. 

The mass which was not taken up by ether was shaken with very 
dilute sulphuric acid, and treated with animal charcoal. On evapo- 
ration, fine needle-shaped crystals formed, and when a small crystal 
was exposed to heat on a platinum foil, it swelled up, blackened and 
burned, leaving only a slight residue; this, when boiled with water 
and filtered, gave a white precipitate with oxalate of ammonia and 
chloride of barium, indicating a little sulphate of lime, probably de- 
rived from the animal charcoal. 

The mass of crystals thus obtained were exhausted with alcohol 
and the alcoholic solution evaporated, when the same needle-shaped 



t 



AH Aug U i,i8 H 72 RM '} Sanguinaria Canadensis, etc. 351 

crystals were obtained. They were clear, almost transparent, and 
had an acrid and slightly pungent taste. When exposed to heat they 
swelled up, blackened, and were entirely volatilized. 

From the small quantity obtained I was unable to present a speci- 
men or to make any further experiments, but hope to do so at some 
future time. 

To obtain puccin, the clear ethereal solution left on precipitating 
the sulphate of sanguinarina was set aside ; on standing, a deposit 
took place on the sides of the bottle, consisting of sulphate of san- 
guinarina, known by its red color. 

The clear ethereal liquid was then poured into a retort, carefully 
separating the free acid at the bottom of the bottle. It was then 
slowly distilled till nearly dry, leaving a slight residue of a brownish- 
red color and having the odor of sulphate of sanguinarina. 

It was not rendered turbid by the addition of a larger quantity of 
ether. 

The retort was then rinsed out with ether and the whole evaporated 
to dryness, when it was obtained in the state of a reddish-brown mass, 
having taste, smell and all the external characteristics of sulphate of 
sanguinarina, which might have been re-dissolved in the excess of ether 
employed for its precipitation. 

Equal bulks of sulphate of sanguinarina and this residue were 
taken and separately treated with equal quantities of ether ; the resi- 
due was dissolved, while the sulphate of sanguinarina was not. 

The residue had an acid reaction to test paper ; it was then dis- 
solved in alcohol and left to evaporate spontaneously. 

For want of time I did not make any further experiments with 
sanguinarina and puccina, which appear to be not identical, as has 
been asserted by some. 

Sanguinarinic acid was prepared from the filtrate after precipitat- 
ing by iodohydrargyrate of potassium. The precipitate obtained 
with solution of acetate of lead was washed with water to remove ex- 
cess of lead ; the moist magma was suspended in water, and sulphu- 
retted hydrogen was passed through it till the black sulphide of lead 
was no longer produced. The clear filtrate, free from lead, was 
evaporated till it formed into a crystalline mass of a deep red color. 
The crystals were insoluble in alcohol, and their taste was sour and 
acrid.* 

* Newbold's sanguinarinic acid is soluble in alcohol, and has little taste. (See 
Amer. Journal of Pharmacy, 1866, 497.)— Ed. 



352 Gleanings from the European Journals. { A \l°gX\m M ' 

The residue left after exhausting the precipitate by ammonia with 
ether, was treated with dilute sulphuric acid and purified by animal 
charcoal. The filtrate, on evaporation, yielded crystals containing 
sulphate of lime, which were exhausted with alcohol. This solution 
produced crystals of the same appearance as obtained in the precipi- 
tate by the iodohydrargyrate, and the two are probably identical. 
Their nature has not been ascertained, except that they are the 
salt of an alkaloid.* 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Generation of Hydrocyanic Acid from Nitro- Compounds. — Wohler 
observed in 1828, that picric acid, on being treated with baryta water, 
yields hydrocyanic acid. Julius Post and H. Hubner observed that 
nitro- and dinitrobenzol yield the same acid when treated with caustic 
alkalies, the former with fusing potassa, the latter with boiling dilute 
solutions of potassa. The authors intend to investigate other nitro- 
and amido-compounds. — Ber. d. d. Cem. Geo. zu Berlin, 1872, N. 9. 

Estimation of Uric Acid. — H. Schwanert has found that uric acid 
whether precipitated by muriatic acid from its soda solution, from the 
urine of healthy or of leucsemic persons, remains partly in solution, 
so that for every 100 c.c. of liquid 0-0048 gram, must be added to the 
weight of the precipitate, corroborating the researches of Zabelin.f 
The proposed method of Solkowski, % to precipitate first with muriatic 
acid, and after supersaturation with ammonia, by nitrate of silver, 
decomposing by sulphuretted hydrogen, and precipitating by muriatic 
acid, may sometimes occasion a loss of uric acid. — Ibid., No. 7. 

Estimation of the Commercial Value of Carbolic Acid. — To ascer- 
tain the amount of pure carbolic acid, Schsedler converts it into sul- i 
pho-carbolic acid, operating as follows : 2 or 3 grammes of the acid 
are heated in the waterbath to expel alcohol, if present ; an equal 
quantity of sulphuric acid is added, and the mixture digested between 
50 and 60° C, (122 and 140° F.,) afterwards diluted and saturated 

* This alkaloid, if not identical with, seems at least to bear some resemblance 
to, chelidonina, which has an acrid taste, dissolves in alcohol and in ether on pro- 
longed boiling, and yields salts having a bitter taste. — Ed. Am. Jour. Pharm. 

f Annalen d. Chem. u. Pharm. Suppl. ii, 313. 

X Yirchow's Archiv. Hi, 60. 



A Au J g.T, i P 872 BM '} Gleanings from European Journals. 353 

with carbonate of baryta or litharge ; the filtrate is precipitated by- 
dilute sulphuric acid, the precipitate washed, dried and heated, and 
its weight calculated into that of pure carbolic acid. — Pharmac. Centr. 
Halle, 1872, N. 25. 

Dry Narcotic Extracts; Correction. — The temperature given in 
Stromeyer's paper on this subject (see page 300 of July number) 
should be 50° C, and not 80°, as published. — Archiv. d. Pharm. 
1872, April, 41. 

To prevent Gum Solutions from Moulding, A. Hirschberg adds 
a few drops of sulphuric acid, and decants from the subsided sulphate 
of lime. After keeping for 18 months, it had neither moulded nor 
lost its adhesive properties.* — Ibid. p. 44. 

The preservation of Milk by Boracic Acid has been experimented 
with by A. Hirschberg, who observed that two pounds recently drawn 
milk, in which 1 drachm of boracic acid has been dissolved, will show 
a very faint acid reaction, (temp. 10° R.=55° F.,) after 96 hours, but 
even after 120 hours, merely a thin film of cream had separated. — 
Ibid. 45, 46. 

The Sugars in the Rhizome of Couch grass, Triticum repens, Lin., 
have been examined by Prof. H. Ludwig and H. Mueller, who found, 

1, a sugar (fruit sugar) turning polarized light strongly to the left ; 

2, a sugar rotating to the right, (not cane sugar ;) 3, a peculiar left 
rotating gum, copulated in a peculiar manner with nitrogenated com- 
pounds, and yielding, by splitting, left-rotatory sugar ; 4, sweet com- 
pounds intermediate between this gum and fruit sugar, and copulated 
with nitrogenated compounds. — Ibid. May, 132-147. 

To render Cloth and other Fabrics Moth and Water-Proof a solu- 
tion of acetate of alumina is prepared by mixing solutions of equal 
weights of alum and sugar of lead. The clear liquid is diluted with 
wa,ter and mixed with solution of isinglass. In this mixture the arti- 
cles are left for about 12 hours, until they are thoroughly saturated, 
when they are dried and pressed, or otherwise finished. — Chem. Cen- 
tralblatt, 1872, No. 22, from Fcirber Ztg., No. 8. 

Cement for Chemical Apparatus. — Otto Facilides mixes syrupy 
solutions in benzine, prepared with the aid of heat, of shellac and 

* For years past, we have used alum for this purpose, with the same good 
effect. — Editor Amer. Jour. Pharmacy. 

23 



354 Gleanings from the European Journals, { AM Aug UR i, lS"' 

caoutchouc. If applied with a brush to the corks used for the appa- 
ratus for preparing chlorine, the joints are perfect. — Archiv d. 
Bharm., May, 151. 

New Reagent for Blood. — H. Struve found that the coloring mat- 
ter of blood is best precipitated in the following manner : To the 
liquid containing blood, a little ammonia or caustic potassa is added, 
then a solution of tannin, and finally acetic acid, until the reaction is 
distinctly acid. The dark-colored precipitate, tannate of hsematin, 
subsides rapidly, is easily collected, washed and dried, and yields, 
when treated with sal ammoniac and glacial acetic acid, the well-known 
haemin crystals. 

20 c. c. of urine containing 0*023 per ct. blood yielded an abundant 
precipitate, sufficient for many experiments for haemin. — Zeitschr. f. 
Anal Chem., 1872, 29. 

A source of Error in the Estimation of Sugar with Fehling's Solu- 
tion has been pointed out by Dr. L. Brunner, who found that some 
kinds of filtering paper are very appreciably dissolved by alkaline so- 
lutions of copper ; he, therefore, recommends to ascertain this beha- 
viour of the copper solution for each lot of filtering paper, or to con- 
vert the cuprous oxide obtained in the process into cupric oxide. — 
Ibid. 32. 

Examination of Indigo. — It is uncertain whether the presence of 
the other constituents of indigo besides the blue coloring matter, does 
not render the estimation of the latter by the oxidation process in- 
correct, or at least uncertain. J. Loewenthal believes that more re- 
liable results are obtained from estimating the ashes, which sometimes 
amount to 29 per ct., while an excellent indigo yielded only 4-5 per ct. 
—Ibid. 45. 

Modification of Bettenkofers Test for Biliary Acids. — Strassburg* 
adds to the urine to be tested a little cane sugar, then moistens a 
piece of filtering paper with the liquid, and, after drying, places a 
drop of concentrated sulphuric acid upon the impregnated paper, 
which after J minute shows the violet coloration beautifully, particu- 
larly in transmitted light. Normal urine does not produce this color- 
ation, which appears if only 0*00003 biliary acids are present. — 
Ibid., 91. 



* Archiv d. Physiol, iv, 461. 



I 



AM A^g U T,m2 RM "} Gleanings from the European Journals. 355 

Arbor vitce in Small-pox. — The leaves of Thuja orientalis and occi- 
dentalis are employed in Belgium against small-pox. A tincture is 
prepared by macerating, for ten days, one part of the fresh leaves 
with 10 parts of 90 per cent, alcohol ; it is given in water in doses of 
10 drops. — Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., 1872, May, 382. 

Ointment against Itching in Small-pox. — Dr. Gueneau de Mussy 
uses, when the itching is intolerable, a cerate composed of simple 
cerate 30*0, bromide of potassium 3*0, and camphor 0*3 grm. After 
the pustules have been followed by ulceration of the skin, the follow- 
ing application to the little ulcers is employed by the same physician : 
simple cerate 30-0, tannin 2*0, oxide of zinc 2*0, calomel 0*25, ex- 
tract of opium 0*1 grm. During the intervals of the applications, it 
is useful to wash the sick parts with water to which a little tincture 
of benzoin has been added. — Ibid., June, 436. 

Camphor in Erysipelas. — Dr. Delpech recommends an ethereal so- 
lution of camphor, composed of equal weights of both, a few drops 
of which are from time to time put upon the erysipelatous surface ; 
in most cases a rapid cure follows. — Ibid. 

Disinfection of Sponges. — Leriche impregnates them witha solu- 
tion of 4 parts permanganate of potassa in 100 p. water ; they are 
afterwards put into a solution of sulphurous acid (25 to 100 water), 
and finally washed with much water. 

By this treatment sponges acquire their original condition, even 
their marine odor, although they may have been soaked in pus and 
infectious matter. In the course of time they bleach without altering 
their tissue, even if subjected for four months to this process of dep- 
uration.—^, de Pharm., 1872, May, 418. 

A New Organic Matter in Diabetic Urine has been discovered by 
Professor Campani. It is precipitated by basic acetate of lead, and 
reduces four times more of Fehling's solution than is reduced by 
glucose ; but it is devoid of rotating power upon polarized light. 

Although the precise origin and true nature of this new body is 
not known, this discovery throws a doubt upon the correctness of the 
assays by volumetry in some cases of glycosuria ; it deprives, in par- 
ticular, a case of polyuria of all value, in which small traces of sugar 
were found, upon which ground an analogy has been supposed to exist 
between this disease and diabetes ; and it follows, finally, that diabe- 



356 Atropia from Belladonna Leaves. { A \l™Xisn™' 

tes is not a simple glycosuria, but that its morbid process consists in 
an altogether special alteration of the functions of assimilation and 
nutrition. — Journ. de Pharm. d'Anvers, 1872, May, 204, from G-az. 
Med. de Paris. 

A New Property of Collodion. — At a recent session of the Berlin 
Society of Natural Sciences some explanations were made concerning 
a discovery of Mr. Kleffel, which is likely to lead to some useful ap- 
plications. Kleffel found that if a glass-plate is covered with collo- 
dion, and, after this has become solid, a printed paper is pressed upon 
it with the hand, an impression of the letters is left upon the collo- 
dion, remaining discernible after the complete drying of the latter. 
The impression is best seen in transparent or in reflected light, after 
breathing upon the plate, the letters being depressed and clear, while 
the other portions are opaque. — Pharmac. Zeitung, 1872, No. 50. 



ON THE PREPARATION OF ATROPIA FROM BELLADONNA 

LEAVES. 
By J. Lefort. 

Dry and coarsely contused belladonna leaves are exhausted by boil- 
ing water containing 10 grm. tartaric acid for each kilogramme of the 
leaves ; the decoction is strained and evaporated to a soft extract, 
which is treated with strong alcohol heated to 50° C. (122° F.), to dis- 
solve the tartrate of atropia. By treating the extract three or four 
times, only about a litre of alcohol is required for about 200 grm. 
of extract, the approximate yield of 1 kilogramme of leaves. From 
the dark brown tincture the alcohol is distilled off, leaving about 50 
grm. of extract of a thick syrupy consistence, which in a suitable 
flask is agitated with one or two portions of ether, to remove a little 
resin and chlorophyll. The extract is now treated with a fresh por- 
tion of ether and with a solution of 8 grm. of caustic potassa in half 
its weight of water; on agitation, a little ammonia is disengaged 
from an ammoniacal salt, normally contained in the leaves, and the 
liberated atropia dissolves in the ether, which is several times re- 
newed to completely exhaust the alkaloid. The ether is now dis- 
tilled off, leaving a transparent, yellowish-brown, semi-solid extract, 
which is dissolved in water acidulated with sulphuric acid. A little 
resin is separated by filtration, bicarbonate of soda is added until ef- 
fervescence ceases, when, on agitating with ether, all the atropia will 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Aug. 1, 1872. j 



Sulph-hydrate of Chloral. 



357 



be dissolved, and obtained in a crystallized condition on the sponta- 
neous evaporation of the ether. 

The preparation of atropia by this process is as easy and satisfac- 
tory as from the root, and has the advantage of saving labor in not 
requiring the leaves powdered. It is to be observed that the extract, 
previous to its treatment with ether, has the consistence of grape 
sugar syrup ; if more diluted, a portion of the alkaloid will not be 
dissolved from the aqueous liquid, except by considerable portions Oi 
ether. 

Other advantages are that the loss of alcohol is entirely, and that 
of ether almost totally, avoided, the loss of the latter liquid occur- 
ring in the requisite spontaneous evaporation of the alkaloid solution. 
The author also draws attention to the probability of obtaining, by 
the same process, the alkaloids from the leaves of hyoscyamus, stra- 
monium and aconite. — Journ. de Pharm, et de OMm. y 1872, June, 
417-422. 



SULPH-HYDRATE OF CHLORAL. 
By M. H. Byasson * 

If anhydrous chloral be submitted to a current of dry sulphuretted 
hydrogen, at ordinary temperature, the gas is absorbed ; and if the 
current be sufficiently rapid, there is a sensible amount of heat pro- 
duced. In a short time the liquid anhydrous chloral becomes nearly 
solid ; and in order to complete the reaction it is necessary to raise 
the delivery tube so as to be level with the surface. At the end of 
about twenty-four hours the reaction is terminated. The substance 
formed is completely solid, white, but presenting on its surface some 
portions colored reddish-yellow. By purifying this substance, first 
by distillation, and afterwards by crystallization, from ether or abso- 
lute alcohol, pure sulph-hydrate of chloral is obtained, presenting the 
following characters: It is white, has a very disagreeable odor, and a 
peculiar taste, which recalls that of chloral hydrate. It crystallizes 
by slow evaporation of its solution in ether, anhydrous alcohol and 
chloroform, either in rhomboidai plates or in four-sided right prisms. 
It melts at about 77° C, and boils at 123° C, under a pressure of 
0-7385. It evaporates similarly to camphor, and its vapors will 
darken moistened paper impregnated with a soluble salt of lead at a 



* Comptes Rendus, vol. lxxiv, p. 1290. 



Sulph-hydrate of Chloral. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Aug. 1, 1872. 



great distance. It is soluble in all proportions in anhydrous alcohol, 
ether, and chloroform. In the presence of water it is slowly decom- 
posed, with a deposit of sulphur, the formation of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen, which is given off, hydrochloric acid and chloral hydrate, 
which are found in the water, and a small quantity of a liquid which 
is deposited and has the appearance of tetrachloride of carbon. It 
is certain that in the presence of water the reaction is very complex, 
because the sulphuretted hydrogen exercises its reducing action upon 
the compound C 4 HC1 3 2 ,* as is shown by the deposit of sulphur and 
the formation of hydrochloric acid and chloride of carbon. 

Under the influence of the hydrated alkalies or solution of ammo- 
nia, the reaction in the cold is rapid ; the liquid is colored yellowish- 
brown, and chloroform is deposited. The solution contains sulph-hy- 
drate of sulphide of the alkaline metal and formiate, and chloride of 
the same base. This reaction, analogous to that presented by chloral 
hydrate, and in which the formation of the chloride is secondary, may 
be represented by the following equation : 

C 4 HC1 3 2 ,2HS H- 2 (KO,HO = C 2 HC1 3 + 
C 2 HK0 4 + KS,HS + 2HO.* 

Submitted to the action of concentrated nitric acid, sulph-hydrate 
of chloral oxidizes rapidly, the disengagement of nitrous vapors is 
intense, and the reaction should be practiced upon small quantities at 
a time. Sulphuric acid is found in the liquid, and trichloracetic acid r 
the presence of which may be easily shown in the production of chlo- 
roform by the addition of potash, and which the author has isolated 
by distillation. This reaction may be expressed by the following 
equation : 

C 4 HC1 3 2 ,2HS + 4(N0 5 HO) = 

C 4 HC1 3 4 + 2(S0 4 H) + 3N0 2 + N0 4 + 4HO 

Concentrated sulphuric acid has no marked action in the cold ; with 
heat there is production of anhydrous chloral, disengagement of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen and sulphurous acid, and deposit of sulphur. 

By oxidizing this substance carefully w r ith nitric acid, adding chlo- 
rate of potash at the end of the reaction, and then estimating the sul- 
phuric acid produced as sulphate of baryta, it was found as the mean 
of three analyses that 0*50 grams gave 0*635 grams of sulphate of 



*C=6; 0=8; S=16. 



AM Aug U i; ml!"-} Use of Hydrate of Chloral, etc. 359 

baryta. This was thought sufficiently near to the calculated number, 
0*642, to justify, when taken with the preceding reactions, the formula 
C 4 HC1 3 2 ,2HS. It will be seen that the formula of the sulph-hydrate 
is that of the hydrate, with the water replaced by sulphuretted hy- 
drogen. 

This compound being decomposed by water or alcohol containing 
water, its administration is difficult. Quantities varying from 0*20 
gram to 0*60 gram, in solution in ether, were injected into guinea 
pigs. The effects noticed were a diminution of temperature of about 
one degree ; muscular relaxation with peaceable slumber for about two 
hours ; no notable diminution of sensibility, and a slight acceleration 
of the heart's action. After the slumber the animal returned rapidly 
to the normal state. — Pharm. Journ., Lond., June 29, 1872. 



USE OF HYDRATE OF CHLORAL IN THE MANUFACTURE OF 
TRICHLORACETIC ACID. 

Trichloracetic acid, C 4 C1 3 3 H0, was discovered, as all chemists 
know, by M. Dumas, who obtained it by exposing in the direct rays 
of the sun large flasks containing crystalline acetic acid and chlo- 
rine gas in the proportions of nine decigrammes of acid to each liter 
of chlorine. Afterward it was found that it could be made from 
chloral, by oxidizing it with a mixture of chlorate of potash and hy- 
drochloric acid. It has recently been found that it is sufficient to 
expose in the direct sunlight for three or four days a mixture of equal 
weights of hydrate of chloral and fuming nitric acid, allowing the ac- 
tion to go on until the red fumes cease to be given off. The mixture 
is then distilled with a thermometer. When the temperature reaches 
195° C. the heat is kept steady at this point. The liquid distilling 
at this point may be considered as pure trichloracetic acid. The for- 
mula for this reaction is as follows : 

2N0 5 + C 4 C1 3 2 H = 2N0 4 + C 4 C1 3 3 H0. 
^ Nitric acid— J ^—Chloral hydrate— ' ^— Red fumes— ' ^Trichloracetic acid—' 

This trichloracetic acid solidifies at 44° C, and fuses at 32° C. ; 
its specific gravity is V618 ; crystallizes in colorless rhombohedra, is 
deliquescent, has a feeble odor, and a sharp, acid taste. It whitens 
the tongue like oxygenated water ; volatilizes at 200° C, vapor den- 
sity 5-8. Instead of using sunlight, the chloral can be put in a re- 
tort with fuming nitric acid, and at first it gets warm and gives off 



360 



Influence of Salts upon Sugar. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug. 1, 1872. 



nitrous fumes ; then the action slackens little by little, and finally it 
is necessary to apply heat. After the excess of acid is gotten rid of, 
the residue is taken up with water and concentrated or allowed to 
crystallize. 

The liquid trichloracetic acid has a slight resemblance to acetic 
acid, and is used as a cautery in medicine for removing warts and 
other excrescences on the body. 

An interesting reaction of this compound is the formation of chlo- 
roform and carbonate of ammonia when boiled with an excess of am- 
monia. — Journal of Applied Chemistry, June, 1872. 



INFLUENCE OP CERTAIN SALTS, BOTH ORGANIC AND MIN- 
ERAL, ON THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF SUGAR. 
By M. Marschall. 
The formation of treacle in saccharine juices has been ascribed to 
the presence of certain salts, but nothing precise has been known on 
the subject. The author has prepared solutions of the various salts 
which may occur in the juices of beet-root. A volume of 10 cubic 
centimetres of each solution, of a known strength, was heated with 
35 grms. of sugar in sealed tubes in the water-bath. The sugar was 
then allowed 17 to 24 days' time to crystallize out, at a temperature 
of 16° to 17° Centigrade. The amount of sugar and of salt present 
in the mother liquor were first determined. As 10 cubic centimetres 
of water dissolve 20 grms. of sugar, there was sugar enough to satu- 
rate the solutions. If, when the experiment was finished, the mother 
liquor contained more sugar than the same volume of pure water 
could contain, it is a proof that the salt experimented upon had 
caused the formation of treacle. If, on the contrary, the mother 
liquor contains less sugar than a solution in pure water, it is a proof 
that the salt has favored the crystallization of sugar by diminishing 
its solubility. Results : 

1. Salts Favoring Crystallization. — Sulphate and nitrate of soda ; 
sulphate, nitrate, and hydrochlorate of magnesia ; nitrate and hydro- 
chlorate of lime ; aspartate of potash ; acetate, butyrate, valerate, 
and malate of soda. 

2. Indifferent Salts, without Influence. — Sulphate, nitrate, and 
hydrochlorate of potash ; carbonate of soda ; caustic lime ; valerate, 
malate, and oxalate of potash ; oxalate, citrate, and aspartate of soda. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. V 
Aug. 1, 1872. j 



Paraffine. 



361 



3. Salts Promoting the Formation of Treacle. — Carbonate, acetate, 
butyrate and citrate of potash. 

The latter are all salts very difficult of crystallization. The car- 
bonate is particularly active. This fact explains why the addition of 
sulphuric acid to the juice sometimes increases the yield of sugar, 
the pernicious carbonate being converted into the indifferent sulphate. 
Sulphate of magnesia promotes the crystallization of 10 times, and 
chloride of magnesium of 17 times its weight of sugar ; chloride of 

calcium 1\ times. Amer. Chemist, May, 1872, from Mechanics 

Magazine. 

PARAFFINE, ITS MANUFACTURE AND USES. 
By Prof. Charles A. Joy. 

In 1830, Baron von Reichenbach, who died in 1869, discovered a 
white, waxy substance in the products of the distillation of wood, to 
which, owing to its permanent character and chemically indifferent 
properties, he gave the name paraffine, from parum affinis. Since 
that time it has been observed that it is produced during the distilla- 
tion of many organic substances, such as resins, bituminous coal, lig- 
nite, brown coal, peat, fats, wax, bituminous shales, bog head coal, 
and that it occurs ready formed in petroleum, in the mineral ozokerite, 
in bitumen and earth wax. From being an article of insignificant 
chemical importance, it has risen to the front rank of valuable tech- 
nical products. I distinctly recollect seeing in a small case at the 
Paris Exhibition of 1855 a few candles and a white block resembling 
spermaceti, on which was inscribed the word "paraffine." Not one 
in ten thousand of the passers-by had the remotest knowledge of what 
it was. In the Paris Exhibition of 1867 this article made its appear- 
ance everywhere, and I dare say there were tons of it in the building. 
The applications of paraffine are now so numerous and important that 
it is difficult to trace them through all of their ramifications, and I 
can only aspire to a very imperfect attempt in this direction. The 
best source for the literature on the subject is Wagner's Annual Re- 
ports on Technology, and of that I shall make free use. 

The methods for the manufacture of paraffine are different, accord- 
ing to whether it is a direct or an incidental product. I shall men- 
tion some of the most important processes actually pursued in the 
arts. That paraffine was contained in petroleum was known as early 



362 



Paraffine. 



f Am. Jode. PhaeMo. 
1 Aug. 1, 1872. 



as 1820, and Buchner, who found it at that time in the Bavarian oil y 
is sometimes called its discoverer. The idea of employing petroleum 
as a source for paraffine was not fully cultivated until 1856, when the 
market became supplied with an oil unusually rich in this material. 
American petroleum contains very little, but the Indian, and espe- 
cially Rangoon and Java oil, affords from 10 to 40 per cent. The 
crude petroleum is distilled until 25 per cent, has gone over ; the re- 
maining portion is subjected to a higher temperature, and toward 
the last the paraffine goes over, which is condensed by surrounding 
the tanks with ice or artificial mixtures for the production of cold. 

Latterly the manufacture from ozokerite has been conducted on an 
immense scale. The introduction of this name into commerce af- 
fords a striking illustration of successful advertising. It is said that 
the originators of the word spent twenty thousand pounds sterling in 
posting it on to every available dead wall, conspicuous rock, high 
fence, and in advertising it in every language and every country, 
until the curiosity of the whole world was raised to a high pitch in 
anticipation of the coming wonder. After waiting a number of years,, 
public curiosity was gratified by the appearance on the market of 
some remarkably fine candles, which, on inspection, proved to be the 
well-known paraffine. The capital invested in the new enterprise is 
very large, and the production of pure paraffine somewhat startling. 
Ozokerite, as it is found in Austria, Moldavia, the Caucasus, and 
near the Caspian Sea, is a vegetable wax of a yellowish color, fibrous 
structure and light specific gravity. In its natural state it will melt 
readily, but requires to be wrapped around a wick before it will burn. 
About 300 pounds of the crude material are subjected at a time to 
fractional distillation in an iron still, provided with coolers and con- 
densers. The yield is 8 per cent, oil and 60 per cent, paraffine. 
The oil is reserved for illuminating purposes. A small portion of the 
light oil, which boils before 212° F., is subsequently used in refining 
the paraffine. The crude paraffine contains an oil which is removed 
under a hydraulic press, and distilled to save adhering paraffine, and 
for other purposes. 

The press cakes are melted and treated with sulphuric acid. The 
acid is neutralized with lime, and the paraffine distilled off. The pro- 
duct is again pressed, melted with the light oil mentioned above, and 
once more pressed. The final result is a perfectly white, transparent, 
hard substance, quite pure and inodorous, having a metallic ring, and 



Am. Jour. Phaem. ) 
Aug. 1, 1872. J 



Paraffine. 



363 



fusing at 63° C. (113° F.) Its chief use is in the manufacture of 
candles. The bitumen from Trinidad, Cuba, California, Nicaragua, 
Peru and Canada is also proposed as a source for paraffine. That 
from Trinidad yields nearly two per cent. The manufacture of par- 
affine by the dry distillation of peat and bog head coal is divided into 
two operations. 1. The production of tar. 2. The working up of the 
tar for illuminating oil and paraffine. Before the discovery of petro- 
leum, this industry was regarded as one of great importance, and it 
was anticipated that most of our burning oil would come from this 
source. The trade name of the oil was kerosene, a word which has 
since been applied to refined petroleum. After the introduction of 
petroleum, the bog head industry declined in the United States, but 
it is still important in Scotland, where great quantities of paraffine 
are yearly made, according to Mr. Young's patent. Mr. Young 
originally subjected the bog head coal to a downward distillation, but 
numerous modifications have been introduced according to the nature 
of the crude material. More attention has latterly been bestowed 
upon the coolers and condensers than formerly. The methods of 
compressed air, ether engines, and condensation of ammonia, have 
been applied to the cooling of paraffine on a large scale, and the yield 
has thus been appreciably increased. 

It is in this method of artificial refrigeration that the chief progress 
has been latterly made. Paraffine, in its pure condition, is a white, 
waxy, inodorous, tasteless substance, harder than tallow, softer than 
wax, with a specific gravity of 0*877. Its melting point is variable, 
depending somewhat upon its origin. It ranges between 43° C. and 
65° C. (109° F. and 151° F.) An ultimate analysis yields, on the 
average, carbon 85 per cent, and hydrogen 15 per cent. It is insolu- 
ble in water, and is indifferent to the most powerful acids, alkalies 
and chlorine, and can be distilled unchanged with strong oil of vitriol. 
Warm alcohol, ether, oil of turpentine, olive oil, benzole, chloroform 
and bisulphide of carbon dissolve it readily. It can be mixed in all 
proportions with wax, stearin, palmitine and resin. As stearin is less 
soluble in benzole than paraffine, Vogel proposes this reaction as a 
method for detecting the adulteration of paraffine with stearin. Fur- 
ther properties can be inferred from the uses to which it is applied. 
It burns with a wick, and gives much more light than stearin or wax, 
but as it melts at a low temperature, it cannot be advantageously em- 
ployed alone. When required for candles, it is melted with stearin 



364 



Paraffine. 



/am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Aug. 1, 1872. 



wax and spermaceti, to render it less liable to bend over in warm 
weather, or to run. There are single establishments in Germany 
capable of turning out 250,000 candles daily, and in England even 
these figures are exceeded. As the melting point of paraffine is low, 
it is proposed to employ it for the preservation of meat. Meat sev- 
eral times immersed in a bath of melted paraffine will keep for a long 
time, and when wanted, it is only necessary to melt off the adhering 
wax-like coating to prepare it for cooking. For stoppers to acid bot- 
tles, to coat paper for photographic and other uses, as a lubricator, 
for candles, as burning oil, to coat pills, in the refinery of alcohol and 
spirits, paraffine now finds ready use. It has also been employed for 
the adulteration of chocolate and candies ; for the preservation of 
railroad timber; to saturate filter paper for certain purposes ; to coat 
the sides of vessels in which hydrofluoric acid is to be kept ; to pre- 
serve fruit from decay ; for oil baths of constant temperature ; to pre- 
vent the oxidation of the protoxides ; to render fabrics waterproof; 
as a substitute for wax in the manufacture of matches ; as a disinfect- 
ing agent and as a varnish for leather. 

Franz Stolba, of Prague, suggests the use of paraffine as a coating 
to vessels of glass or porcelain when these are acted upon by certain 
liquids to be set aside for crystallization. The paraffine is put into 
the capsules, previously well dried and heated, till it commences to 
boil ; the vessels are then turned about so as to bring the paraffine in 
contact with the whole of the interior surface, and then empty out the 
surplus. After cooling, it is found to hold well, and the vessels are 
ready for use. Of course the solutions to be crystallized must not be 
heated, but left to spontaneous vacuum evaporation. 

Wine and beer casks are rendered tight by paraffine, and its intro- 
duction into the vacuum pans of the sugar industry is said to prevent 
frothing of the syrup. Plaster casts are coated with it ; drawing 
paper is rendered transparent ; parlor matches are tipped with it ; 
sponges are kept elastic ; cloth is rendered water-tight, and it is em- 
ployed to keep shoemakers' wax soft and pliable. A paraffine insu- 
lator is in use upon some of our telegraph lines, and as there are few 
substances that can attack or decompose paraffine, its value in many 
chemical processes is obvious. One of the most recent uses is in the 
manufacture of sulphuretted hydrogen gas. If sulphur and paraffine 
be boiled together in a flask, decomposition takes place, and a copious 
supply of sulphuretted hydrogen is given off. I have found this to 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Aug. 1, 1872. j 



Linirn ent of Aram onia . 



365 



be one of the most convenient methods for the preparation of this gas 
for class-room experiments. In medicine, the preservative and pro- 
tective properties of paraffine are brought into frequent requisition, 
and in candies it also plays a part. 

Such are some of the leading features in the manufacture and uses 
of paraffine. — Journal of Applied Chemistry, July, 1872. 



LINIMENT OF AMMONIA. 
By R. Rother. 

The officinal liniment of ammonia is prepared by mixing one fluid 
ounce of officinal 10 per cent, ammonia water with two troy ounces of 
pure olive oil. When these directions are strictly complied with, a 
result approaching the officinal requirements will most usually be 
obtained. The proportions of the two ingredients in this case are 
about one measure of the first to three measures of the second. Now 
if, however, as is often done, a pure article of oil be employed in a 
smaller proportion, together with a stronger ammonia, that is, about 
equal measures of each, then either no saponification will take place 
until after some time, or but very imperfectly, at the moment of mix- 
ing ; quite a similar action occurs if a stronger ammonia be used, even 
in the officinal proportion, with pure olive oil. It is therefore evident 
that in connection with pure olive oil the ammonia must not only be 
weak, but in an inferior proportion. But it is generally known that 
the common commercial oil produces a much superior liniment. Yet 
in this case a stronger ammonia must be applied than in the officinal 
process ; it is also necessary, in order to produce a sufficiently fluid 
preparation, to augment the quantity of this equal to the bulk of the 
oil. Commercial olive oil cannot be substituted for the pure oil in the 
officinal process. If one fluid ounce of 16 or 18 per cent, ammonia 
water be mixed with two troy ounces of commercial olive oil, a very 
thorough saponification is effected, but the resulting liniment is too 
thick to pour, acquiring a gelatinous nature similar to soft soap. 
With the use of officinal ammonia in this experiment, the oil is less 
perfectly changed, and the mixture assumes a curdy appearance ; con- 
sequently neither of these modifications of the officinal proportions 
in the employment of commercial oil is satisfactory. The writer, how- 
ever, observed that the gelatinous magma produced by the action of 
ammonia, on whatever oil of any kind, was instantly liquified by a 



366 



Materia Medica Notes. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm.. 
\ Aug. 1, 1872. 



small proportion of alcohol, forming a mixture which in every respect 
conforms with the true characteristics of ammonia liniment. There- 
fore, if in the preparation of this liniment a magma results that cannot 
be poured from a bottle, add to the jelly a quantity of strong alcohol 
equal to one-sixteenth of the whole volume. — The Pharmacist, June, 
1872. 



MATERIA MEDICA NOTES. 
By James Collins, F.B.S.E., 
Curator of the Pharmaceutical Society's Museum. 

Gum Euphorbium. — Dr. E. Cosson, in an interesting note on Eu- 
phorbia resinifera, Berg, read before the Royal Botanical Society of 
Belgium, verifies the statement of Berg, that the Gum Euphorbium 
of commerce belongs to the species to which Berg gave the name of 
E. resinifera. Dr. Cosson found in Yon Martius' collection at Brus- 
sels, a specimen of Gum Euphorbium with sufficient of the dried stems 
of the plant producing it to give a good idea of the plant. Probably 
Yon Martius received these specimens from his brother, Dr. 0. W. T. 
Martius. 

The history of this acrid gum is very interesting. E. canariensis, 
L., E. officinarurn, L., E. antiquorum, L., and E. tetragona, Haw., 
have each been accredited with its production ; but Dr. Pereira, who 
examined the question with his usual critical ability, stated that only 
E. canariensis, fulfilled all the requisite conditions of locality, etc. ; 
and that he felt little hesitation in ascribing the gum to this plant. 
He says (Elements Mat. Med. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 399, 1855) that the 
specific characters " apply to the branches found mixed with the Eu- 
phorbium of commerce. They agree with the description and figure 
of Tithymalus aizoides lactifluus, the Euphorbia canariensis of Plun- 
kenet." Miller also (Gard. Diet. vol. i, art. Euphorbium) states that 
in looking over some Euphorbium in a shop, he " found several spines 
amongst it, which exactly agreed with those of that plant." Pereira 
found in some specimens of the gum, spines resembling those of E. 
tetragona, Haw. 

But better materials led Berg to trace its origin to a new species, 
to which he gave the name of E. resinifera, and described from dried 
remains picked out of the gum. E. resinifera has a stem one-third 
the size of that of E. canariensis, and stalked umbels, whilst E. cana- 
riensis has almost sessile flowers. Berg gives figures in " Berg und 



A \u°g CR i,i8 H 72? M "} Poppy Culture in Australia. 367 

Schmidt, Darstellung und Beschreibung siimmtlicher in der Pharmaco- 
poeia Borussica officinellen Pflanzen." The gum contains 20 per cent, 
of an acrid principle Euphorbin (C 26 H 22 2 ), so acrid indeed that in 
the collection of the gum the fingers became excoriated if brought into 
contact with it, and it is the practice to cover the mouth and nostrils 
to avoid the excessive sneezing which would otherwise ensue. The 
best general account of the production of this gum is that of Jackson, 
in his "Account of Morocco." 

Dr. Cosson has also compared the various materials he has with a 
growing plant at Kew (which has not yet flowered), sent by Mr. F. 
Cartensen, the English Consul of Mogadore. If the history of this 
plant can be satisfactorily attested as being the species actually pro- 
ducing the gum, its flowering will be looked to with some degree of 
interest, as the question can then be set completely at rest. 

Cinchona Rosulenta. — Mr. Howard has recently cleared up an- 
other doubtful point in the cinchona question. He has described and 
figured in the "Bulletin de la Socie'te Botanique de France" a new 
species, named Cinchona rosulenta, a native of Ocana in New Gran- 
ada. The vernacular name appended to the specimens of this plant, 
which were collected by Purdie in October, 1845, is " Quina de la 
tierra fria." C. rosulenta is very close, both in appearance and chem- 
ical composition, to C. succirubra ; the bark, however, has a more 
roseate hue, and the leaves approach C. ovata, the nerves, however, 
being more rigid and prominent. Mr. Howard identifies this species 
with the Quinquina rose d' Ocana, of M. Delondre, a figure of which 
is given in that author's " Quinologie;" also with M. Rampon's Quin- 
quina ci quinidine, described in Dr. Planchon's " Des Quinquinas;" 
and also with Dr. Wittstein's " Pseudo-regia." 

This bark has long been known in French commerce under the name 
of " Quina rose"," and we are grateful to Mr. Howard for thus clearly 
settling its synonymy, and giving it a botanical position. — Pharm. 
Journ., Lond., June 29, 1872, from Journal of Botany. 



POPPY CULTURE IN AUSTRALIA. 
Some attention has recently been given to the cultivation of the 
poppy for commercial purposes in various parts of Australia. From 
a letter which recently appeared in a colonial paper, describing the 
results of an experiment in poppy culture in the Bendigo district, we 



368 Pbppy Culture in Australia. { Am a^iot2. m " 



gather the following interesting facts. About a drachm of the seed, 
which was that of the white variety, was sown in the early part of 
August along each of three drills, 86 feet long and two feet apart, 
and were lightly covered with small firewood, bark and sand. The 
land was rather heavy, and mixed with a good deal of quartz. It had 
been well manured and broken up ; grape vines had been grown on it 
for a succession of years. On the 18th day after sowing, the young 
shoots were visible, looking like fine blades of grass, and they contin- 
ued to grow pretty well. When between five and six inches high they 
were weeded out, and several were transplanted, but all the latter 
died, in consequence, probably, of insufficient watering and the heat 
of the weather. By the 20th November the others were flourishing 
" like great cabbages." These began to flower pretty freely by the first 
week in December, by the time the plants were about five feet or five 
feet eight inches high. The capsules produced varied in size from one 
inch to two and a half inches in diameter. After the petals had fallen 
off, and while the stamens were still clustering round the neck of the 
capsules, horizontal incisions half round the heads at the lower part 
were made. A creamy juice exuded from these cuts, which were made 
in the afternoon, and it soon became pinkish, and by the following 
morning brownish red, and of a tenacious consistence, when it was 
scraped off with a sharp straight knife, and collected on the edge of a 
small tin cover, which plan is recommended as being less troublesome 
and not so wasteful as the usual one of gathering the opium upon the 
poppy leaf. Each poppy head did not yield more than equal to the 
bulk of a small pea, and from all the plants raised from the drachm 
of seed 250 grains of opium were collected ; but it must be borne in 
mind that many plants were entirely lost, and others not matured. 
The opium collected was considered to be of very good quality. 

The conclusions arrived at from this experiment are that the poppy 
requires a certain amount of careful nursing and a pretty liberal sup- 
ply of water. The distance between the rows should be three feet, to 
allow of the full growth of the leaves and room to pass between the 
plants when collecting the juice. A sheltered aspect should be chosen, 
so as to protect the plants from strong w r inds. Finally, the writer 
says, — " The collection of the product is not, to say the least, very 
agreeable ; and, from the length of time occupied by it, the labor must 
be very cheap for the crop to pay. Perhaps the plant might be cul- 
tivated with profit near industrial schools. In conclusion, I think the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1872. J 



Sponge Fishing. 



369 



opium poppy can be successfully raised in this district if a plentiful 
supply of water be available when necessary. — Pharm. Journ. (Lon- 
don,) June 22, 1872. 



SPONGE FISHING. 

From the account given by Vice-Consul Green, of the Tunisian 
sponge fishery in his report to the Foreign Office, which has lately 
been issued, it would seem that to fish for sponges requires as much 
if not more skill than to fish for salmon. The sponge fishery is most 
actively carried on during the three months of December, January ? 
and February, for at other seasons the places where the sponges exist 
are overgrown with seaweeds. The storms during November and 
December destroy and sweep away the thick marine vegetation and 
leave the sponges exposed to view. The fishery is divided into two 
seasons, namely, summer and winter ; the former commencing in 
March and ending in November, and the latter as noted above. But 
the collection of sponges is not very productive in summer, as it is 
confined to the operations carried on with diving apparatus, which 
can only be used on rocky and firm bottomed places, or to the success 
of native fishermen, who wade along the shores and feel for sponges 
with their feet among the masses of seaweed. The sponges thus col- 
lected by the Arabs are also of an inferior quality, owing to the small 
depth of water in which they have grown. As, nevertheless, calm 
weather and a smooth sea are essential for the success of the fisher- 
men, the winter season, although lasting three months, does not gene- 
rally afford more than forty-five working days. The Arab inhabit- 
ants of the coast, Greeks, principally from Kranidi, near Nauplia 
(Napoli de Roumania), and Sicilians, are chiefly employed in the 
sponge fishery, the Greeks, however, being the most expert fishermen, 
while the Arabs are the least skillful. Sponges, says the " Pall Mall 
Gazette," are obtained by spearing with a trident, by diving with or 
without the assistance of an apparatus, or by dredging with a machine 
somewhat similar to an oyster dredge. The Arab fishermen, princi- 
pally natives of Markenah and Jerbah, employ boats called sandals, 
manned by from four to seven persons, one of whom is the harpooner, 
while the others manage the sails, etc. The spearman watches for 
the sponges from the bows of the sandal, and the boat is luffed round 
upon his perceiving one, so as to enable him to strike it. The depth 

24 



370 



Dugong Oil. 



( Am. Jour. Phakm 
t Aug. 1, 1872. 



of the sea in which the Arabs fish is from fifteen feet to thirty-five 
feet. Although the Greeks are most expert divers, the majority of 
them use the spear. They employ small and light boats, just suffi- 
cient to carry a spearman and an oarsman. The boat is rowed gently 
along, while the spearman searches the bottom of the sea by means 
of a tin tube of fourteen inches in diameter by nineteen inches in 
length, at one end of which is placed a thick sheet of glass. This 
tube is slightly immersed in the water, and enables the fisherman to 
view the bottom undisturbed by the oscillations of the surface. The 
spears used by the Greeks are shorter than those employed by the 
natives and Sicilians, but with wonderful adroitness they are enabled 
to reach sponges covered by sixty feet of water. They hold in their 
hands from three to four spears, and dart them so quickly and with 
such precision, one after the other, that before the first has time to 
disappear under the surface the second strikes its upper extremity, 
and thus gives it additional impetus to reach the sponge aimed at. 
The Sicilians, also, fish with a spear and in small rowing boats, but 
do not understand the employment of the tube, and have not acquired 
the knack of the Greeks in using three or four spears ; they conse- 
quently seldom secure an equal quantity of sponges, although they 
are always more successful than the Arabs. The produce of the fish- 
ery is, it is stated, susceptible of considerable augmentation by an 
increase in the number of fishermen, and a new sponge is reproduced 
within a year wherever one has been removed. — Scientific American,. 
July 13, 1872. 



DUGONG OIL. 

Among the many attractive portions of the International Exhibi- 
tion, none is perhaps more worthy of attention than the Queensland 
Annexe, which has, we believe, been erected at the cost of that young; 
but vigorous colony. The evidence of great material wealth in gold, 
copper, coal, wool, cotton, sugar and tobacco, to say nothing of 
arrowroot, tea, coffee, etc., are enough to show us that much may yet 
be expected of this portion of Australia. On one table are exhibited 
a large number of tins of preserved meat, and a case containing 
specimens of the bones, flesh, skin, meat and oil of the dugong. 

As we have received several letters recently, containing inquiries 
respecting this animal and the economical products obtained from it, 



Am. Jotir. Pharm. > 
Aug. 1, 1872. ) 



Dugong Oil, 



371 



we take this opportunity of laying before our readers such informa- 
tion as we have been able to obtain. 

Near the case in question is a specimen of a " Dugong sucking 
calf," lent, as a card attached to it informs us, by Professor Flower, 
of the Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Field. This "calf,'" 
which is between four and five feet long, has a very curious head, and 
flippers instead of fins. 

In the case are the skull and some of the rib bones of a full-grown 
dugong cow, a piece of the dried skin, nearly an inch in thickness, 
several teeth and tusks, a piece of dried meat, stated to be a piece of 
a calf, and which looks and, we were assured, tastes precisely like 
bacon, and a few bottles of a white substance not unlike lard or drip- 
ping, labelled "Dugong Oil," which is announced as "the great 
Queensland remedy for consumption. It appears to have been first 
prescribed for that disease by Dr. Hobbs, of Brisbane, who was led 
to use it in his practice through observing the wonderful effects the 
mere eating of the flesh of the animal had on the aboriginals when 
suffering from lung diseases. It is claimed for this oil that it is not 
only quite equal to cod-liver oil in the treatment of affections of the 
lungs, but that it is also a remedy for diseases of the stomach and 
bowels and general debility, indigestion and biliousness, as well as 
chronic coughs and wasting in children. But its chief peculiarity is 
reported to be that, far from partaking of the nauseousness of cod- 
liver oil, it is actually pleasant to eat as an article of food, and can 
thus be taken by people of a delicate appetite when the stomach en- 
tirely revolts from cod-liver oil. 

At a dinner given by Mr. Danetree, the Agent General of Queens- 
land, in the Annexe, on the 10th inst., dugong oil bore a very promi- 
nent part in the menu. Both pastry and biscuits were introduced, in 
which the oil took the place of butter or lard, and we are informed 
that the general opinion was that it was in every way a success. The 
London correspondent of the Newcastle Daily Express, in writing to 
that journal says, " Lighter or more delicious pastry than that in 
which this oil had taken the place of lard, I never tasted. The same 
thing may be said of the biscuits, which were everything that bis- 
cuits ought to be." 

The fish, or more properly speaking, the animal, from which this 
oil is procured, is a herbivorous cetacean, and would probably be 
ranked by naturalists midway between the whale and the seal. It is 



372 



Dugong Oil. 



{ Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ Aug. 1, 1872. 



found in very large numbers in the waters of Northern Queensland, 
and more infrequently in the southern portions as far as Moreton 
Bay, beyond which it does not appear to go. It is also said by vari- 
ous authorities to be found in the Indian Archipelago and Indian seas 
as well as at Mauritius. It grazes on the thick grass which in those 
warm latitudes grows on the shallows between the islands and along 
the coasts, where it usually feeds in from one to four fathoms of water, 
coming up to breathe at short intervals. It is not amphibious, but 
comes in and goes out with the tide, feeding only during high water. 
Like most other animals of this order, it is gregarious, and vast mobs 
of many hundreds and even thousands are frequently seen. 

The dugong varies in length from seven to twelve feet, and its 
weight may be averaged at from six to seven hundred weight. The 
head is not unlike that of an ox lacking the horns, while the skin 
more nearly resembles that of the pig. The dam or cow brings forth 
its young alive and suckles it at the breast, holding it there with her 
arm-like flipper. All authorities join in attesting the wonderful at- 
tachment the female dugong has for her young, so much so that if the 
calf be killed, the mother makes no attempt to escape, but falls an 
easy prey. The skin averages from one to two inches in thickness, 
and the bones are perfectly solid and very similar to ivory, being 
very heavy, probably to assist the animal in sinking easily to its pas- 
ture. The fat meat from which the oil is procured lies next to the 
skin, and is not unfrequently mixed with layers of lean, giving it a 
perfect resemblance to bacon, like which it also tastes. Some eaten 
at the dinner before alluded to in the exhibition was pronounced to be 
very fair ham. The lean meat is said to be very similar to tender 
lean beef, and is readily sold in its salt state as a breakfast relish in 
Queensland. 

It will be apparent that an article having the advantage claimed 
for dugong oil, that it is capable of being taken as an article of food, 
will command a large sale if only its medicinal properties are such as 
is asserted. As yet there has been no opportunity for testing the oil 
to any extent in England, but several very strong testimonials as to 
its value as a medicine, given by colonial medical men, are published 
by the firm interested in its sale. In the pamphlet are narrated cases 
of dyspepsia, debility, consumption, liver complaint, indigestion, etc., 
which are stated to have been cured by its use. The oil certainly de- 
serves a trial by the profession with a view to arriving at its actual 
alue. 



Am. ^oue. Pharm. 1 
Aug 1,1872. J 



Paraffin in Stearin Candles. 



373 



We believe we are correct in saying that at present there is not any 
attempt being made to introduce dugong oil to the English market. 
The gentleman who exhibits it at the International Exhibition has 
only imported a small quantity in order to bring it under the notice 
of the medical profession. At present the demand in the colony ig 
quite equal to the supply, and before that can be greatly increased a 
much larger capital will have to be invested in the fishery. With a 
view to fostering this enterprise, (which in Queensland is looked upon 
as likely to become of very great value,) the government proposes 
granting special rights for a few years if a certain amount of capital 
is invested, so that those who go to the expense attendant on creating 
a new industry and introducing this novel medicine to the world, may 
have a fair opportunity to repay themselves for their outlay. Ar- 
rangements are now in progress to take advantage of this concession. 
— Pharm. Jour, and Trans., June 6, 1872. 



DETECTION AND ESTIMATION OF PARAFFIN IN STEARIN 

CANDLES. 
By M. Hock * 

Makers of stearin candles mix paraffin with the fatty mass in quan- 
tities up to 20 per cent. Paraffin candle makers also mix stearic acid 
with their paraffin and attribute valuable properties to such a mixture, 
as far as candle-making is concerned. The attempt to determine if 
paraffin be present, and if so, to get some approximate idea of the 
quantity, in a sample of stearin and vice versd t by means of the com- 
parison of the melting point and specific gravity of such a mixture is 
shown to be useless, as these vary according to the source from which 
the paraffin is obtained, as also in the case of the stearic acid, 
since the pure commercial article is by no means a chemically pure 
article. 

A good method for detecting the presence of stearic acid in paraffin 
has been devised by R. Wagner,, viz. by treating a boiling solution of 
the paraffin in alcohol with an alcoholic solution of neutral lead ace- 
tate, when, if stearic acid be present, a dense floccular precipitate 
appears, but none if it be absent. The best method, and one which 
can be used quantitatively as well as qualitatively, is described as fol- 
lows : — Not less than five grams of the candle are taken and treated 
with warm solution of potassium hydrate, which must not be too con- 

*Dingl. Polyt. J., cciii, 313— 315. 



374 



Varieties. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug. 1, 1872. 



centrated. A soap is formed with the stearic acid, whilst the paraf- 
fin is left unaltered. Sodium chloride is thrown into the solution, 
whereby the soap is separated out as a soda soap, and in precipitating 
takes down the paraffin with it. The soap obtained is thrown on the 
filter and washed with cold water or very dilute spirits of wine. Thus, 
firstly, the sodium chloride is washed out, and finally, the soap is 
brought into solution and likewise washed through the filter, leaving 
the paraffin, which is then dried at a temperature below 35° C. so as 
not to fuse it. The paraffin is then treated on the filter with ether, 
and after repeated washing with this solvent, the ethereal solution is 
carefully evaporated in a weighed porcelain crucible, in the water-bath, 
at a low temperature. The residue consisting of the paraffin is then 
weighed, and the stearic acid is estimated by difference. — The Phar 
Jour, and Trans., July 6, 1872, from Journal of the Chemical 
Society. 

t)arutic0. 



Belgian Pharmacopoeia. — By a decree of the King of the Belgians, dated 
27th February, a commission has been instituted of professors of the medical 
sciences to revise the official code of that country, and the Drs. Crocq, Chan- 
delon, Depaise, Gille and Lesebre have been named as members of the com- 
mittee. — Med. Press and Ctrc, Lond., June 5. 1872. 



Paraffin. — Not long ago, the whole stock of paraffin wax in the world did 
not exceed four ounces, which was carefully preserved in the laboratory of 
Prof. Liebig as a chemical curiosity. There is now produced in Scotland alone 
a quantity of not less than 5.800 tons annually. — Journ. Applied Science, Lond., 
July 1, 1872. 

Conversion of Pyro-Phosphates into Phosphates. — M. Prinvault. — When 
boracic acid is fused along with pyro-phosphate of soda, and the fused mass 
taken up with water, there is formed ordinary phosphate of soda; the pyro- 
phosphate of soda has thus absorbed an equivalent of water of constitution by 
the action of the boracic acid. It is, the author thinks, probable that phospho- 
borate of soda is formed, which is decomposed by the water into boracic acid 
and ordinary phosphate of soda. The action of sulphuric acid, when convert- 
ing pyro phoshate of soda into ordinary phosphate of soda, is explained by the 
author as due to the formation of an alkaline phospho-sulphate. — Chem. Neivs, 
Lond., June 7, 1872, from Compt. rend., May 6. 



Preparation of Caustic Soda by means of iSulphuret of Sodium. — Tessie du 
Motay. — The author distinguishes between processes by the dry and the wet 



Am. Jour. Phakj». ) 
Aug. 1, 1872. J 



Varieties. 



375 



way. The former is described as follows : When one equivalent of sulphuret 
of sodium is mixed and fused with one equivalent each of caustic soda, hydrate 
of lime and metallic iron (either cast or malleable), and these substances heated 
to redness, the sulphuret of sodium is completely converted into caustic soda, 
while sulphuret of iron is simultaneously formed. This reaction is explained 
by the author as follows : The water of the hydrate of soda, or of the hydrate 
of lime, is decomposed by the iron which becomes oxidized, hydrogen is set 
free, oxide of sodium formed, and next sulphuret of iron ; the soda is separated 
from the last named substance by lixiviation with water. As regards the process 
by the wet way, the author converts the sulphuret of sodium into a basic 
phosphate of soda by means of a rather circuitous process (scientifically correct, 
but not well adapted for industrial application), and this basic phosphate of 
soda is next converted into caustic soda by means of caustic lime. — Ibid. , from 
Les Mondes, May 2. 

Influence of the Potassa and Soda Salts upon Alcoholic Fermentation. — C. 
Knapp. — After first referring, at some length, to the researches of physiolo- 
gists on the action of the potassa salts upon the animal organism, the author 
details at length a series of experiments made with the view to ascertain the 
difference of action — if any — upon the process of fermentation of sugar solu- 
tions to which yeast is added. While it is evident, from these researches, that 
potassa salts accelerate the fermentation, while soda salts are inactive, the 
mode of action of the first- named salts is not precisely clear. — Ibid., June 21, 
1872, from Ann. d. Chem. a. Pharm., 1872, N. 7. 

On Sexbasic Saccharate of Lime. — H. Deon. — When tribasic saccharate of 
lime is treated with alcohol the sexbasic saccharate is obtained by elimination 
of one half of the sugar, exactly in the same way as by treatment of the mono- 
basic saccharate with alcohol yields the bibasic saccharate ; while the mono- 
basic and tribasic saccharates contain water, the bibasic and sexbasic saccha- 
rates contain none. The reactions are thus analogous, and may be expressed 
by the following formulae : Oi2HnOn6CaO, derived from — 
2(0i2HiiOii3CaO4-HO)0i2HnOii20aO, 
derived from 2(Ci2HiiOuCaO + HO) ; when sexbasic saccharate is combined 
with two equivalents of sugar, bibasic saccharate is obtained, — and when two 
equivalents of sugar are added to tribasic saccharate, monobasic saccharate is 
formed.— Ibid., June 28, 1872. 

Digestion of Calomel — In his recent lecture on " Diet and Medicine/' Dr. 
Symes Thompson showed that some drugs undergo a process of solution within 
the body, analogous to that which food passes through under the influence of 
the digestive juices. With the assistance of Professor Heaton he demon- 
strated Tuson's experiment on calomel. In one vessel (a) calomel and hydro- 
chloric acid were placed, and in another (b) calomel, acid and pepsine. After 
digestion for two or three hours, at the temperature of the blood (care being 
taken that the heat should not rise above 140° Fahr.), the contents of both 
vessels were thrown on filters. The filtered liquid from the second (b) gave a 
black precipitate with sulphuretted hydrogen, showing that pepsine had ren- 



376 Varieties. {^AnTi^iT' 

dered the calomel soluble, while the liquid from the first (a) was unaffected by 
the gas. This experiment has served to remove much of the difficulty previ- 
ously felt of accounting for the effect of a salt insoluble in acid, and is of value 
as showing why calomel does not produce its characteristic effects in cholera 
and other conditions in which the digestive powers are in abeyance, or when 
the active ingredients of the gastric juice are wanting. — Nashville Journ. of 
Med. and Surg., July, 1872, from Medical Press and Circular. 



Celery as a Nervine. — A correspondent of the "Practical Farmer" says 
(Med. Bulletin, Cincinnati Med. Repertory), " I have known as many men, and 
women too, who, from various causes, had become so much affected with ner- 
vousness that when they stretched out their hands they shook like aspen leaves 
on windy days ; and by a daily moderate use of the blanched foot stalks of the 
celery leaves as a salad, they became as strong and steady in limbs as other 
people. I have known others so very nervous that the least annoyance put 
them in a state of agitation, and they were in almost constant perplexity and 
fear, who were effectually cured by a daily moderate use of blanched celery as 
a salad at meal times. I have known others cured by using celery for palpita- 
tion of the heart. — Georgia Medical Companion, June, 1872, from Med. Cos~ 
mos, Nov., 1871. 



Verbena Water. — A good article may be made in the following way : 

Take Rectified Spirit, . . . . .1 pint. 

Grass Oil (Verbena Oil), .... 3 drachms. 
Oil of Lemon-peel, . . . . .2 ounces. 

Oil of Orange-peel, £ ounce. 

Mix. Let it stand for a few hours, filter if necessary and fill in bottles. 

A very much superior article, also sold in commerce, under the name of £?a?- 
trait de Verbene, is made according to the following recipe : 

Take Rectified Spirit, . . . . .1 pint. 

Oil of Orange-peel, .... 1 ounce. 

Oil of Lemon-peel, . . . . .2 ounces. 

Oil of Lemon, ..... 1 drachm. 

Grass Oil (Yerbena Oil), . . . . 2£ drachms. 

Essence of Orange-flowers, ... 7 ounces. 

Essence of Tuberose, . . . . 7 " 

Essence of Rose, h pint. 

— Canad. Pharm. Journ., May, 1872. 



Improved Blow --pipe.— A. common wide-mouthed bottle is carefully fitted with 
a caoutchouc cork, bored with two holes, into each of which passes a piece of 
glass tube, bent at a right angle. On to one of these tubes is slipped the 
caoutchouc tube, coming from an ordinary caoutchouc bellows, whilst the other 
is put in communication with the blow-pipe nozzle by means of four pieces of 
caoutchouc tubing, joined by three pieces of glass tube, drawn to a fine point 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Aug. 1, 1872. J 



Varieties. 



377 



at each end. This forms the main peculiarity of the arrangement. When air 
is forced into the bottle by the blower in jerks, it finds a difficulty in escaping 
as fast as it comes in, on account of the six fine openings in the glass tubes 
that it has to pass through on its way from the bottle to the nozzle, and it thus 
acquires a certain pressure in the bottle and flows out toward the nozzle as a 
regular blast. The bottle may be about 6 inches high by 3^ inches wide, with 
a neck 1^ inch diameter ; but of course the dimensions are of no great impor- 
tance. On the whole, a somewhat large bottle is better than a small one. The 
pieces of glass tubing we use are 2 inches long by £ inch in diameter. The 
apparatus will be stronger if, instead of a glass bottle, a tin cylinder is used, 
about 4 inches high by 2 inches in diameter, with two tin tubes opening into its 
top. Small metal cylinders, with a fine hole at each end, may be used 
instead of the little glass tubes. A blowing apparatus constructed in this 
manner will deliver a perfectly regular blast, and will be of practical interest 
to those who are thinking of working in places where it is difficult or impos- 
sible to repair the ordinary instruments. — Scientific American, July 6, 1872. 

On the light emitted by the vapor of iodine. — Salet has found that the vapor 
of iodine may be heated to redness like a solid or liquid. It then emits the 
less refrangible luminous rays which furnish a continuous spectrum. The ex- 
periment is easily made by heating the iodine in a tube of Bohemian glass. A 
small crystal of iodine is placed in a tube of thick glass, which is then heated 
strongly at some distance from the crystal. When the glass is red for a con- 
siderable part of its length, it is to be allowed to cool until it is no longer visi- 
ble in the dark ; the iodine is then to be rapidly volatilized. The colored vapor 
reaching the heated part of the tube then glows with a distinct red light. This 
experiment shows that the iodine becomes luminous at a lower temperature 
than glass. Another method of exhibiting the incandescence of the vapor of 
iodine is the following : A spiral of fine platinum wire is sealed in the interior 
of a tube of glass eight millimetres in diameter. Pure iodine is then intro- 
duced into the tube, which after expulsion of the air is sealed. If the iodine 
be then volatilized and the wire ignited by a battery, the spiral appears sur- 
rounded by a flame of a very rich red color, which yields the well-known inter- 
rupted spectrum. — Am. Jour, of Science and Arts, July, 1871, from Compter 
Rendus, Tome lxxiv, p. 1249. 

Photo -engraving on Metals — Pi. recent process for producing engraved sur- 
faces in metal by photography is described as follows : A pure silver (or alloy) 
surface is first taken, and after finely polishing or frosting it is exposed to the 
action of iodine, and a film of iodide of silver thus obtained. The plate is then 
exposed to the action of light, in the camera or under a photographic nega- 
tive, until a faint image is obtained. It is then submitted to the action of an 
electrotype battery (copper solution) when a well defined image of the object 
is obtained in copper (the copper only attaches itself to those portions of the 
plate which have been rendered conductors of electricity by the action of the 
light). The plate is next dried and etching solution poured over it, composed 



378 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



/Am. Jour. Phaem 
| Aug. 1,1872. 



of sulphuric acid and nitrate of potash (or their equivalents). This immediately 
attacks the shadows, or exposed portious of the silver surface, while the copper 
parts from the electrotype bath are not affected. After etching to the required 
depth, the copper deposit may be removed by aqua regia, leaving a finely 
etched image on the silver plate. To engrave on steel, copper, etc., it is first 
necessary to coat the surface with pure silver, after which the process is sub- 
stantially the same as that above described, with some modifications of the 
acids or combinations used, according to the nature of the metal employed. — 
Journ. of the Franklin Institute, July, 1872, 



fljarmamtital Cfllkp anir ^mmtim. 



Maine Pharmaceutial Association. — The fifth annual meeting of the Maine 
Pharmaceutical Association convened at the Library Room of the Portland 
Army and Navy Union, Tuesday, July 16, 1872, at 3.45 P.M. The Secretary, 
Mr. C. Way, being absent, on account of indisposition, Herschell Boynton was 
chosen Secretary pro tern. The minutes of the last meeting were read and 
approved. After the election of new members, the election of officers was 
postponed until the next meeting. The report of the Treasurer was then read 
and accepted, after which the President read his annual address, which, on 
motion, was ordered to be published in full in the forthcoming book of Proceed- 
ings of the Association. Mr. Schlotterbeck then read a paper upon purified 
extract of liquorice, which was accompanied with specimens, and was referred 
to the Committee of Publication. The Treasurer was authorized to deposit 
funds lying unused in his hands, in the savings bank, according to the exercise 
of his best discretion. Portions of letters from the gentlemen appointed dele- 
gates to the Maine Pharmaceutical Association from the Vermont Pharma- 
ceutical Association, were then read, in which the writers expressed their 
regret at their inability to be present at the meeting, their sympathy and 
cordial co-operation in the object aimed at, and the salutations of the Green 
Mountains to the Pine Trees. The President was empowered to accredit 
delegates to attend the meeting at Montpelier. 

The subject of change of time for the annual meeting came up, and it was 
voted to test the matter experimentally, and to adjourn to the third Tuesday 
of October next ensuing. With a vote of thanks to the P. A. and N. U. for 
the use of their beautiful and quiet room, the Association adjourned. 



Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — The faculty of this College has been 
remodelled, and consists now of Messrs. Edward S. Wayne, Professor of Ma- 
teria Medica and Botany; J. F. Judge, Professor of Chemistry, and W. B. 
Chapman, Professor of Pharmacy. 

Louisville College of Pharmacy. — Dr. Thos. E. Jenkins has retired from 
the chair of Materia Medica and Botany. The vacancy has been filled by the 
election of Mr. Emil Schefler. 



A Aug°^'m2 ABM '} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 379 

California Pharmaceutical Society. — The 31st regular meeting was held 
on May 8th, President J. A. Bauer in the chair. After the transaction of the 
usual business of the Society, the Board of Directors reported a list of sixteen 
uames of persons eligible to be nominated for the election of a Board of Ex- 
aminers, as required under the act lately passed to regulate the practice of 
Pharmacy in the City and County of San Francisco. The election being held, 
the following gentlemen were elected to constitute the Board of Examiners : 
John Calvert, Wm. T. Wenzell, Jas. G. Steele, Wm. Simpson and J. W. 
Forbes. 

The Secretary called the attention of the meeting to the non-payment of 
dues on the part of some country members, and requested instruction; when, 
on motion, the Secretary was authorized to notify all delinquents of a year's 
duration that they would cease to continue as members if their dues were not 
paid prior to the next regular meeting. 

The 32d regular meeting was held on June the 12th, Mr. Frost, of Vallejo, 
in the absence of the President, in the chair. After the usual routine of busi- 
ness, and the report of the Board of Directors relative to some local matters 
of the Society, the Board of Examiners, through their Secretary, Mr. Steele, 
reported that the Board had qualified before the City Clerk, and were now 
constituted State officers ; that there had been 125 registrations in accordance 
with the provisions of the new law, and 23 applications not yet passed upon ; 
that, further, the Board had concluded to extend the time of registration for 
ten days, and that all moneys received, after the incidental expenses of the 
Board were defrayed, would go into the funds of the California Pharmaceuti- 
cal Society. The Board of Directors also gave notice that at the next regular 
meeting of the Society a resolution would be introduced creating a College 
Committee, with power to transact business pertaining to the establishment of 
a College of Pharmacy. 

Wm. T. Wenzell, Cor. Secretary. 



The Chemists and Druggists' Improvement Society, London, Ontario, was 
formed in September, 1871, and held its first examination, at the Mechanics' 
Institute, on May 6th. On May 8th a general meeting was held, at which the 
following officers were elected: Dr. F. H. Mitchell, President; H. Rosser. 
Vice-President ; F. J. Osborne, Treasurer, and J. Williams, Secretary. Dur- 
ing the summer semi-monthly meetings will be held for the study of botany, 
and from the first of October the meetings will be weekly for the study of 
materia medica and chemistry. 



The Pharmaceutical Association of the Province of Quebec held its 
second annual meeting on May 23d, in the Laval University, at Quebec, the 
President, Mr. Nathan Mercer, in the chair. In his opening address the 
President discussed the origin, growth, aims and future prospects of the 
Association ; springing from the Montreal Chemists' Association, a charter of 
incorporation by Parliament for the Provincial Association was granted ; but 
a transfer of the examining power from the College of Physicians, and Surgeons 



380 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug. 1,1872. 



to their Board had not been obtained ; endeavoring to elevate the profession and 
protect the public by a higher standard of education, the Association can 
increase its usefulness when invested with the necessary authority. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were read aud confirmed, which was 
followed by the reading of the annual report of the Council and of the Treas- 
urer's report. After the election of new members, and passing votes of thanks 
to the retiring officers and the Rector of the University, the following gentle- 
men were elected members of the Council for the ensuing year : John Kerry, 
H. R. Gray, Alex. Manson, Jas. Goulden, H. Lyman, J. D. L. Ambrosse, A. 
Picault, C. L. Covernton, N. Mercer, E. Muir, E. Giroux, W. E. Brunet. 



The British Pharmaceutical Conference will hold its annual meeting, at 
Brighton, on Tuesday, August 13th, at 10 o'clock A.M. 



German Apothecaries' Society. — The time of the meeting of the North and 
South German Societies has been fixed for September 3d, 4th and 5th. The 
meeting, at which the two societies will be merged into one national society*, 
will be held at Frankfort-on-the-Main, simultaneously with the meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, convening at Cleveland, Ohio. 



AMEEIOAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 



The Twentieth Annual Meeting of the " American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion" will be held in the city of Cleveland, on the first Tuesday (3d) of Sep- 
tember, 1872, commencing at 3 o'clock P.M. 

It is confidently expected that the hopes expressed at the last meeting will 
be fully verified, and a large number of applications for membership presented 
to the Association at this meeting. 

The Local Secretary, Henry C. Gaylord, of Cleveland, will receive the goods 
intended for exhibition during the session, and druggists as well as manufac- 
turers of chemicals and articles connected with pharmacy and its collateral 
branches are respectfully requested to send the goods to be exhibited free of 
charge, and accompanied by an invoice and a full description of the articles. 

Enno Sander, President, 

St. Louis, June 24th, 1872. 



<£iritorial Department 



The Next Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association. — Be- 
fore our next issue will reach most of our readers, the members of the above 
Association will be on their journey to Cleveland to attend the twentieth an- 
nual meeting, which, it is expected, will be equal in interest and importance to 
the preceding ones. Many of the members from the Atlantic States will prob- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1872. j 



Editorial. 



381 



ably go there by way of Niagara Falls, where it has been proposed to spe 
Sunday, September 1st. Full delegations are expected from the different col- 
leges and local societies, and several new organizations will most likely be rep- 
resented. 

The headquarters of the Association during the meeting will be at the Ken- 
nard House, where ample accommodations and a reduction from the regular 
charges have been provided. 

Blank forms of application for membership may be obtained from the perma- 
nent or local secretary, the officers of the Association and from the members 
of the Executive Committee ; all applications should, if possible, reach the 
proper officers previous to the meeting. 



Unreliable Elixirs. — Mr. Scheffer's interesting paper, published on page 
346 of the present number, shows conclusively how unreliable some of these 
preparations are. To use pepsin in a mixture is no proof that this delicate 
agent retains its virtues unaltered — an important lesson to the pharmacist, 
but of greater importance even to the physician. 

How reliable the numerous other elixirs are, with which the market is flood- 
ed by manufacturers in all parts of the couutry, we are unable to say ; but of 
some, at least, we entertain well founded doubts regarding their pretended 
composition and efficacy, which not unfrequently may be due to the stimulating 
effects of the aromatics and alcohol, of which they are made up. 

The subject, it appears to us, is receiving by far too little attention on the 
part of the medical and pharmaceutical professions. Physicians are apt to 
place their reliance — as Mr. Scheffer correctly remarks — in the firm by whom 
the preparation is made, and in the name by which it is designated, while phar- 
macists fre